1,000,000,000,000 YBN
1) We are a tiny part of a universe that is made of an infinite amount of
space, matter and time.

It is important to say that I reject the theory that the universe is expanding
and started with a single explosion or "big bang" because the main piece of
evidence for this, the "red-shift" of the position of spectral lines of other
galaxies which was explained first by Slipher as being due to a difference in
light source velocity (Doppler effect) is more accurately explained mostly as a
difference in light source distance by the Bragg equation for a reflection
(diffraction) grating.

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2) There is more space than matter.
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3) All matter is made of particles of light. Light particles are the base unit
of all matter from the tiniest particles to the largest galaxies. In this sense
light particles are the most basic atoms.

The basic order of matter from smaller to largest is light particles,
electrons, positrons, muons, protons, neutrons, atoms, molecules, living
objects, planets, stars, globular clusters, galaxies, galactic clusters.

It is important to state that, I argue that the definition of the term "photon"
perhaps should be changed to refer to an individual material light particle,
what Isaac Newton called a "corpuscle", as opposed to a quantum of photons
which represents the time-independent energy of a specific frequency of light.

970,000,000,000 YBN
11) The universe has no start or end. The same light particles that have always
been, continue to move in the space that has always been.

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5) Matter and motion can never be created or destroyed. Matter can never be
converted into motion, and motion can never be converted into matter.

Light particles are moved by gravity, which may be the result of particle
collision or an inherent action-at-a-distance force. Light particles may
collide with each other and become trapped in locations of high photon density.

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6) Light particles become trapped with each other and so form structures such
as protons, atoms, molecules, planets, stars, galaxies, and clusters of

This forming of light particles into atoms may be the result of particle
collision, gravitation (an attraction of matter with itself) or a combination
of both.

That light particles may become trapped or tangled with each other, because of
the limitation of movement in a densely filled space, may be the reason photons
form Hydrogen, Hydrogen forming nebulas, nebulas forming stars, and stars
forming galaxies.

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7) All of the billions of galaxies we see are only a tiny part of the universe.
We will never see most of the universe because no light particles from there
can ever reach us.

Most galaxies are too far away for even one particle of light they emit to be
going in the exact direction of our tiny location, and all the light particles
they emit are captured by atoms in between there and here.

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4) There is a pattern in the universe. Light particles move from highly dense
volumes of space to volumes of less density. In low density volumes, light
particles slowly accumulate to form atoms of Hydrogen and Helium which exist as
gas clouds (like the Magellanic Clouds or Orion nebula). These gas clouds,
called nebulae continue to accumulate trapped light particles. At points of
high density planets and stars form and the cloud is eventually dense enough to
become a galaxy of stars. The stars emit light particles back out to the rest
of the universe, where the light again becomes trapped and forms new clouds.
Around each star are many planets and pieces of matter. On many of the planets
rotating around stars, living objects evolve that can copy themselves by
converting matter around them into more of them. Living objects need matter to
replace matter lost from the constant emitting of light particles (decay). Like
bacteria, these living objects grow in number, with the most successful
organisms occupying and moving around many stars. These advanced organisms then
move the groups of stars they control, as a globular cluster, away from the
plane of the spiral galaxy. As time continues, all of the stars of a galaxy are
occupied by living objects who have organized their stars into globular
clusters, and these globular clusters together, form a globular galaxy. The
globular galaxy may then exist for a long time living off the matter emitting
from stars, in addition to the accumulation of light particles from external

So free light particles are trapped into volumes of space that grow in density
first forming atoms, then gas clouds, then stars, a spiral galaxy, and finally
a globular galaxy.

Stars at our scale may be light particles at a much larger scale, just as light
particles at our scale may be stars at a much smaller scale. This system may go
on infinitely in both larger and smaller scale.

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8) An expanding universe seems unlikely to me. The supposed red-shifted calcium
absorption lines may be a mistaken observation, for one reason because of the
different sizes of spectra as clearly seen in the 1936 Humason image, and
because distance of light source changes the position, but not the frequency of


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13) The Milky Way Galaxy starts to form.

Light particles get tangled and absorbed and the density of the volume of space
where the Milky Way forms increases until dense centers form atoms, and then
stars.The formation of a galaxy can be viewed as an empty volume of space that
starts with a single light particle and slowly gains more and more light
particles. As the number of light particles grows, protons and atoms are
formed. As the gain in light particles continues, the first stars are created.

If we imagine the growth of a galaxy from one light particle to a state of 500
billion stars as an exponential growth (for example the galaxy grows at 1%
every million years), 84% of that time will be a group of light particles too
small in number to even form a single star, the other 16% will be the galaxy
after its first star to 500 billion stars.

Perhaps a nebula can be called a galaxy if it contains at least one point of
density that emits light particles with visible frequency.

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6180) The first star in the Milky Way Galaxy forms.
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6181) Living objects in the Milky Way Galaxy reach another star using a ship. I
am presuming that this occurs perhaps 5 billion years after the first star in
the Milky Way Galaxy. Presumably the Milky Way Galaxy is mostly a nebula at
this stage.

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6182) The first globular cluster of 100,000 stars in the Milky Way Galaxy.

These estimates are very uncertain. If we imagine that matter accumulates at a
rate of 1% every billion years, then the first star forms in the Milky Way
Nebula after 138 billion years. Presuming 5 billion years is needed to evolve
living objects advanced enough to build ships to go to other stars puts this at
143 billion years after the first light particle of the Milky Way (and 22
billion years before now). If these living objects then colonize stars at 1%
growth every billion years, forming a 100,000 star globular cluster would take
1e5=1.000000001^y y=12 billion years. This puts this achievement at 155
billion years after the theoretical first light particle of the Milky Way, and
10 billion years before the Milky Way has 500 billion stars - similar to the
present state of the Milky Way.

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16) The star earth will eventually rotate forms as a center of high photon
density, perhaps from particles that accumulate in a nebula or in the remains
of an dead star.

It may take a very long time, perhaps even 5 billion years or more for the star
and planets to condense and sweep up most of the remaining matter. This process
increases the pressure inside stars and planets, while decreasing the average
temperature around and at the surface of stars and planets.

My opinion is that stars contain a solid center made of highly compressed
unmoving light particles, in the middle, where there is more free space, atoms
may form and there may be enough space for liquid to flow, as light particles
get nearer to the surface where there is much more open space, free light
particles, and atoms habe enough space to be viewed as being in a gas form as
they escape the inside of the star. I view large planets as having the same
basic structure as a star- but being composed of far fewer light particles.
{check with supernova remnants} The density of the star the earth rotates is
similar to that of a liquid. The most popular theory to explain how stars give
off so many photons is that these photons exit as a result of Hydrogen
atomically fusing into Helium, and I want to add my opinion that simply light
particles being trapped inside a planet or star is enough to explain why
photons are emitted from stars and planets. In addition, atoms like Hydrogen
and Helium may be separated into their source photons. Perhaps the reaction is
similar to the outer part (mantle) of the earth where red hot liquid iron emits
photons. We obviously do not explain that red hot molten metal as being the
result of nuclear fusion, and all those photons are clearly not the result of
oxygen combustion- but may be because of many particles moving into the newly
contacted empty space. Clearly there are many photons exiting stars every
second, and each star is losing large amounts of matter in the form of photons.
In addition, the most popular theory explains that most atoms heavier than
Hydrogen and no heavier than Iron are made in stars, and atoms larger than iron
can only be made in supernovae. But this seems obviously wrong when we see
clearly that larger atoms can easily be built up at relatively cold
temperatures by the simple bombardment of helium and carbon ions. These kinds
of reactions may even occur at the surface of a star.

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22) In a star system, because of gravitation, heavier masses move closer to the
center and lighter masses move farther out.

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17) Planets form around our star. Like the star, they are red hot with liquid
rock and metals on the surface. Lighter atoms move to the surface of the
planets. Larger planets are surrounded by gas.

As free moving matter is absorbed by the star and planets, the average
temperature of the star system is lowered. As the temperature of the planets
and moons decrease, water and other molecules condense and fall to the

(Probably the star and planets form at the same time.)

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30) Moon of Earth is formed by 1 of 3 ways:
1) spherical planet collides with earth,
moon forms from remaining matter in ring around earth.
2) spherical planet is caught
in earth orbit (perhaps after a collision).
3) moon of earth forms naturally from original
matter of star system in orbit around earth.

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50) Start of the "Precambrian". The Hadean {HA DEen} Eon.
4,571,000,000 YBN
31) Oldest meteorite yet found on earth 4,571 million years old.
4,530,000,000 YBN
33) Oldest Moon rock returned from Apollo missions (4.53 billions old).
4,450,000,000 YBN
21) Planet Earth cools. Molten liquid rock turns into a solid thin crust. Water
condenses and falls to the surface, filling the lowest parts of the land to
make the first Earth oceans, lakes, and rivers.

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34) Oldest "terrestrial" zircon; evidence that the crust and liquid water are
on the surface of earth. A terrestrial zircon is not from a meteorite.

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18) Larger molecules like amino acids, phosphates and sugars, the components of
living objects, form on Earth.

These molecules are made in the oceans, fresh water, and atmosphere of earth
(and other planets) by lightning, light particles with ultraviolet frequency
from the Sun, and from ocean floor volcanoes.

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19) Nucleic acids form on Earth. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) may be the first
nucleic acid to form. One of these RNA molecules may be the ancestor of all of
life on Earth.

The initial building blocks of living objects are easily formed, but assembling
them into longer-chain molecules, or polymers, is more difficult. Amino acids
link up to form polymers called proteins, simple fatty acids plus alcohols link
up to form lipids (oils and fats), simple sugars like glucose and sucrose link
together to form complex carbohydrates and starches, and finally, the
nucleotide bases (plus phosphates and sugars) link up to form nucleic acids,
the genetic code of organisms, known as RNA and DNA.

Possibly all proteins, carbohydrates and lipids are strictly the products of
living objects.

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25) An RNA molecule may copy other RNA molecules.

Perhaps RNA molecules, called "ribozymes" evolve which can make copies of RNA,
by connecting free floating nucleotides that match a nucleotide on the same or
a different RNA, without any proteins. But until such ribozyme RNA molecules
are found, the only molecule known to copy nucleic acids are proteins called

4,385,000,000 YBN
167) The first proteins on Earth. Transfer RNA molecules evolve (tRNA), and
link amimo acids into proteins using other RNA molecules (mRNA) as a template.

For the first time, a nucleic acid functions both as a template for building
other nucleic acid molecules, and also as a template for building proteins
(with the help of tRNA molecules).

This protein assembly system is the main system responsible for all the
proteins on Earth.

Part of each tRNA molecule bonds with a specific amino acid, and a 3 nucleotide
sequence from a different part of the tRNA molecule bonds with the opposite
matching 3 nucleotide sequence on an mRNA molecule.

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168) The ribosome evolves. First Ribosomal RNA (rRNA).

The ribosome may function as a protocell, providing a platform for more
efficient protein production. A single RNA may contain all the instructions
needed to make more ribosomes.

Ribosomes are the cellular organelles that carry out protein synthesis, through
a process called translation. They are found in both prokaryotes and
eukaryotes. These molecular machines are responsible for accurately translating
the linear genetic code on the messenger RNA (mRNA), into a linear sequence of
amino acids to produce a protein.

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40) A protein can copy RNA. This protein is called an RNA polymerase, and may
be more efficient than RNA itself, at copying other RNA molecules, or may be
the first molecule that can copy RNA.

Eventually an mRNA that codes for the necessary tRNA, and RNA polymerase may be
copied many times.

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166) The first Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule. A protein evolves that can
assemble DNA from RNA; a ribonucleotide reductase.

This protein changes ribonucleotides into deoxyribonucleotides, which allows
the first DNA molecule on Earth to be assembled.

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212) A protein can copy DNA molecules, a DNA polymerase.
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20) The first cell on Earth (a bacterium). DNA is surrounded by a membrane of
proteins made by ribosomes. The first cytoplasm.

This cell may form in either fresh or salt water, near the sunlit water surface
or near underwater volcanoes on the ocean floor.

Binary fission evolves. A protein duplicates DNA within the cell and then the
cell divides into two parts.

The DNA of this cell contains the template for itself: a copying molecule (DNA
polymerase), and the necessary mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA molecules needed to build
the cytoplasm. For the first time, ribosomes and DNA build cell structure. DNA
protected by cytoplasm is more likely to survive and be copied. Copies of this
cell also have cytoplasm.

This cell structure forms the basis of all future cells of every living object
on earth.

Molecules enter and exit the cytoplasm only because of a difference in
concentration (passive transport) and represent the beginnings of the first
digestive system.

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26) Perhaps DNA that is connected in a circle allows the DNA polymerase to make
continuous copies of the cell which may increase the speed of cell growth,
duplication and division.

In theory prokaryote cells do not deteriorate from the effect of aging, but
they do endure mutations (from photons with ultraviolet frequency, for
example), however, there are many other ways prokaryotes can be destroyed (loss
of water, physically damaged by nonliving objects, eaten by other organisms,
and other mechanisms).

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183) Cells make the first lipids on Earth; (fats, oils, waxes).
4,345,000,000 YBN
6340) Facilitated diffusion. Proteins in the cell membrane allow only certain
molecules to enter the cell.

"Passive transport" is diffusion of a substance across a membrane without the
cell doing any work. The diffusion is a result of a concentration and/or
electric gradient. "Facilitated diffusion" is passive transport aided by
proteins. There are two types of transport proteins: channel proteins and
carrier proteins. Channel proteins simply provide corridors that allow a
specific molecule or ion to cross the membrane. One group of channel proteins
are ion channels, which function as gated channels, they open or close in
response to a stimulus which may be chemical or electrical. Carrier protein
change shape so that the substance binding site moves across the membrane.

Glycerol is one of the few molecules known to be transported by facilitated
diffusion in bacteria.

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23) The first virus evolves.

The first viruses may be made from bacteria, or may be bacteria initially.
These cells depend on the DNA duplicating and protein producing systems of
other cells to reproduce themselves.

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28) Cellular respiration. Glycolysis evolves in the cytoplasm. Cells can make
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate.

ATP is the molecule that drives most cellular work.

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44) Fermentation evolves. Cells can make lactic acid.

Fermentation evolves in the cytoplasm. Cells (all anaerobic) can now make more
ATP and convert pyruvate (the final product of glycolysis) to lactate (an
ionized form of lactic acid).

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213) A second kind of fermentation evolves in the cytoplasm. Cells (all
anaerobic) can now convert pyruvate (the final product of glycolysis) to

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196) Active transport evolves. Proteins and ATP are used to transport molecules
into and out of the cytoplasm.

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64) Operons evolve which allow turning off the assembly of any protein.

Operons allow a bacterium to produce certain proteins only when necessary.
Bacteria before now can only build a constant stream of all proteins encoded in
their DNA.

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27) A cell wall evolves. The cell wall maintains the shape of the cell and
protects the cell from external molecules.

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77) Archaea (also called archaebacteria) evolve. Phylum Nanoarcheota.

Eubacteria and Archaea are the two major lines of Prokaryotes.

4,189,000,000 YBN
193) Eubacteria "Hyperthermophiles" evolve (Aquifex, Thermotoga) according to
genetic comparison.

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292) Prokaryote flagellum evolves in proteobacteria.

Perhaps pili evolved into flagella, flagella into pili, or the two systems are

This may be the beginning of motility. Now for the first time, cells are not
completely controlled by surrounding matter, but can make limited choices about
their location.

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78) Archaea Phylum: Korarchaeota.
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180) Archaea Phylum: Euryarchaeota {YRE-oR-KE-O-Tu} (methanogens,

Earliest cell response to light.

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181) Archaea Phylum: Crenarchaeota (Sulfolobus).
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58) The first autotrophic cells; cells that can produce some if not all of
their own food (amino acids, nucleotides, sugars, phophates, lipids, and
carbohydrates), but require phosphorus, nitrogen, CO2, water and light in the
form of heat.

Autotrophs produce their own sugars, lipids, and amino acids using carbon
dioxide as a source of carbon, and ammonia or nitrates as a source of

There are only 2 kinds of autotrophy: Lithotrophy and Photosynthesis.

Organisms that use light for the energy to synthesize organic compounds are
called photosynthetic autotrophs; organisms that oxidize such compounds as
hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to obtain energy are called chemosynthetic autotrophs,
or chemotrophs. Photosynthetic autotrophs include the green plants, certain
algae, and the pigmented sulfur bacteria (see photosynthesis). Chemotrophs
include the iron bacteria, the nitrifying bacteria, and the nonpigmented sulfur
bacteria (see chemosynthesis). Heterotrophs are organisms that must obtain
their energy from organic compounds.

Autotrophs require only simple inorganic substances to fulfil its nutritional
requirements and for which gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide is the sole
source of carbon for the synthesis of cellular constituents. The term often
includes any microorganism for which trace amounts of certain substances, e.g.
vitamins, must also be supplied.

These are lithotrophic cells that change inorganic (abiotic) molecules into
organic molecules. These cells are archaebacteria, called methanogens that
perform the reaction: 4H2 + CO2 -> CH4 + 2H2O. They convert CO2 into Methane.
Methane is better than CO2 for trapping heat, and could have contributed to
heating the earth.

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49) Photosynthesis Photosystem I (anoxygenic photosynthesis).

Bacteria use light to convert Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide into hydrocarbons.

This is anoxygenic photosynthesis which not liberate oxygen.

4,000,000,000 YBN
43) Photosynthesis Photosystem II evolves. Cells emit free Oxygen.
This is the main
system responsible for producing the Oxygen now in the air of earth.

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51) End of Hadean start of Archean Eon.
3,900,000,000 YBN
57) Aerobic cellular respiration. First aerobic (or "oxygenic") cell. These
cells use oxygen to convert glucose into carbon dioxide, water, and ATP.

Aerobic cellular respiration evolves as an alternative to fermentaton, by using
oxygen to break down the products of glycolysis, pyruvic acid, into carbon
dioxide and water, producing up to 38 ATP molecules in the process.

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36) Oldest physical evidence for life: ratio of carbon-13 to carbon-12 in
grains of ancient apetite {aPeTIT} (calcium phosphate) minerals.

Life uses the lighter Carbon-12 isotope and so the ratio of carbon-12 to
carbon-13 is different from a nonliving source (calcium carbonate or

Akilia Island, Western Greenland  
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45) Oldest sediment, the Banded Iron Formation begins.
Banded Iron Formation is
sedimentary rock that spans from 3.8 to 1.8 billion years ago, made of
iron-rich silicates (like silicon dioxide SiO2) with alternating layers of
black colored ferrous (reduced) iron and red colored ferric (oxidized) iron and
represents a seasonal cycle where the quantity of free oxygen in the ocean
rises and falls, possibly linked to photosynthetic organisms.

The atmosphere of earth still has only small amounts of oxygen at this time.

Akilia Island, Western Greenland  
3,800,000,000 YBN
185) Molecular fossil evidence of Archaea. Isoprene compounds.
Isua, Greenland  
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184) Molecular fossil evidence of oxygen photosynthesis, quantity of Uranium

Isua, Greenland  
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37) (Filamentous) multicellularity evolves in prokaryotes. Photosynthetic
bacteria grow in filaments.

Multicellularity appears to have evolved independently multiple times in the
history of life on Earth.

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39) The oldest fossil evidence of life yet found. Stromatolites made by
photosynthetic bacteria are found in both Warrawoona, Western Australia, and
Fig Tree Group, South Africa.

Warrawoona, Western Australia, and, Fig Tree Group, South Africa  
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287) Oldest fossils of an organism, similar to cyanobacteria, found in the
3,500 million year old Apex chert of the Warrawoona Group, northwestern Western
Australia and in the Onverwacht Group in Barberton Mountain Land, South

Two and a half billion years will pass before the first animal evolves.

Warrawoona, northwestern Western Australia and Onverwacht Group, Barberton
Mountain Land, South Africa  
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289) Some people think the origin of eukaryotes happened here at 3.5 bybn.
Possible eukaryote (acritarch) fossils have been found in 3.2 billion year old

3,470,000,000 YBN
182) Evidence of sulfate reduction by bacteria.
North Pole, Australia  
3,430,000,000 YBN
833) Stromatolites made by photosynthetic bacteria found in Pilbara Craton,

3,416,000,000 YBN
218) Fossil and molecular evidence of photosynthetic, probably anoxygenic
(anaerobic), bacteria that lived in mats in the ocean date to this time.

3,400,000,000 YBN
190) Earliest fossils of coccoid {KoKOED} (spherical) bacteria from the
Kromberg Formation, Swaziland System, South Africa.

Kromberg Formation, Swaziland System, South Africa  
3,260,000,000 YBN
71) Prokaryote reproduction by budding.
Swartkoppie, South Africa  
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68) Earliest Archaea fossil.

Thermophilic prokaryote fossils found in 3235 million year old deep-sea
volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits from the Pilbara Craton of Australia may
be oldest Archaea fossils.

The Pilbara Craton of Australia contains one of the most complete sections of
well preserved Archaean volcano-sedimentary rocks and is the site of several
previous fossil discoveries. This sediment was deposited in a deep marine
setting, with water depths probably exceeding 1 km.

(Sulphur Springs Deposit) Pilbara Craton of Australia  
3,200,000,000 YBN
66) Earliest acritarch fossils (unicellular microfossils with uncertain
affinity). These acritarchs are also the earliest possible eukaryote fossils.

(Moodies Group) South Africa  
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178) Eubacteria Firmicutes (FiRmiKYUTEZ) evolve (Gram positive bacteria: cause
of botulism, tetanus, anthrax).

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288) First endospores. The ability to form endospores evolve in firmicutes. An
endospore is a tough reduced dry form of a bacterium triggered by a lack of
nutrients that protects the bacterium, and allows it to be revived after long
periods of time.

2,800,000,000 YBN
76) Eubacteria Phylum Proteobacteria (Rickettsia {ancestor of all
mitochondria}, gonorrhoea, Salmonella, E coli) evolve according to genetic

2,800,000,000 YBN
177) Gender and sex (conjugation) evolve in Escherichia Coli {esRriKEo KOlE}
bacteria. Conjugation is the exchange of DNA (plasmids) by a donor {male}
bacterium through a pilus to a recipient {female} bacterium.

In addition to pili and conjugation, proteins that can cut DNA and other
proteins that can connect two strands of DNA together evolve.

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176) Eubacteria Phylum, Planctomycetes {PlaNK-TO-mI-SETS} (also known as
Planctobacteria) evolve.

Planctomycetes are a possible ancestor of all eukaryotes because the circle of
DNA can sometimes be enclosed in a double membrane.

Planctomycetes form a small phylum with only 4 Genera, which require oxygen for
growth (obligately aerobic), and are found in fresh and salt water.
Planctomycetes reproduce by budding. They have holdfast (stalk) at the
nonreproductive end that helps them to attach to each other during budding.

2,784,000,000 YBN
179) Eubacteria Phylum, Actinobacteria {aKTinO-BaK-TER-Eu} (high G+C {Guanine
and Cytosine count}, Gram positive, source of streptomycin) evolve.

The Actinobacteria or Actinomycetes are a group of Gram-positive bacteria. Most
are found in the soil.

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174) Eubacteria Phylum, Spirochaetes (SPIrOKETEZ) evolves (Syphilis, Lyme

Spirochaetes includes leptospirosis (leptospira), Lyme disease (Borrelia
burgdorferi), and Syphilis (Treponema pallidum).

2,775,000,000 YBN
175) Eubacteria Phylum Bacteroidetes {BaKTRrOEDiTEZ} evolve.
2,775,000,000 YBN
217) Eubacteria Phylum Chlamydiae {Klo-mi-DE-I or Klo-mi-DE-E} evolve.

Chlamydiae includes (clamydia, trachoma {Chlamydia trachomatis}, a form of
pneumonia {Chlamydophila pneumoniae}, psittacosis {Chlamydophila psittaci}.

The Chlamydiae are a group of bacteria, all of which are intracellular
parasites of eukaryotic cells.

2,775,000,000 YBN
6309) Eubacteria Phylum Chlorobi (green sulphur bacteria) evolve.
2,775,000,000 YBN
6310) Eubacteria Phylum Verrucomicrobia (VeR-rUKO-mI-KrO-BEo) evolve.
2,740,000,000 YBN
216) Histones, proteins which are packed in between nucleotides in each
chromosome evolve.

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80) Endo and exocytosis. Cells can now eat other cells.

Endocytosis is a process of cellular ingestion by which the plasma membrane
folds inward to bring substances into the cell.

Exocytosis is a process of cellular secretion or excretion in which substances
contained in vesicles are discharged from the cell by fusion of the vesicle
membrane with the outer cell membrane.

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299) Duplication of diploid DNA (after 2 haploid cells fuse) evolves.
2,700,000,000 YBN
60) Eukaryotic cell. The first cell with a nucleus. The first protist. The
nucleus may develop from the infolding of plasma membrane.

All cells have several basic features in common: They are all bounded by a
selective barrier, called the plasma membrane. Enclosed by the membrane is a
semifluid, jellylike substance called cytosol, in which organelles and other
components are found. All cells contain chromosomes, which carry genes in the
form of DNA. And all cells have ribosomes, tiny bodies that make proteins
according to instructions from the genes.

There are some difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells:
In prokaryotic
cells the DNA is concentrated in a region that is not membrane enclosed called
the "nucleoid" while in eukaryotic cells most of the DNA is contained in a
nucleus that is bounded by a double membrane. Eukaryotic cells are generally
much larger than prokaryotic cells. Typical bacteria are between 1-5 um in
diameter, while eukaryotic cells are typically 10-100 um in diameter. Unlike
prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells have a cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton
enables eukaryotic cells to change their shape and to surround and engulf other
cells. Eukaryotic cells also have internal structures that prokaryotic cells
lack such as mitochondria and plastids. DNA in prokaryotic cells is usually in
the form of a single cicular chromosome, while DNA in the nucleus of eukaryotes
contains linear chromosomes.

Like prokaryotes, this cell is probably haploid (a single unique DNA), most
eukaryotes are diploid (having two sets of DNA).

All protists, fungi, animals and plant cells descend from this common
eukaryotic cell.

2,700,000,000 YBN
62) Earliest molecular fossil evidence of eukaryotes (sterane molecules).
Steranes are formed from sterols, molecules made by mitochondria.

Northwestern Australia  
2,700,000,000 YBN
192) Early spherical fossil microorganisms from a stromatolite in Zimbabwe
thought to be cyanobacteria forming endospores.

(Bulawaya rock sequence) Zimbabwe  
2,700,000,000 YBN
214) Molecular fossil evidence of cyanobacteria, 2α-methylhopanes.
2,690,000,000 YBN
207) Cytoskeleton evolves in eukaryote cytoplasm.
2,690,000,000 YBN
208) The eukaryote flagellum and cilia evolve.

Unlike the prokaryote flagella that rotate, the flagella and cilia of
eukaryotic cells undulate in a wave-like motion to propel the cell. However,
the eukaryotic flagella and cilia differ in their beating pattern; a flagellum
has an undulating motion that produces force in the same direction as the
flagellum axis, while cilia are more like oars, producing force in a direction
perpendicular to the cilium axis with alternating power and recovery strokes.

Some cilia are nonmotile and serve a signal-receiving "antenna" for the cell.

Although different in length, number per cell, and beating pattern, motile
cilia and flagella are structurally the same. Each has a core of microtubules.
Nine doublets of microtubules, the members of each pair sharing part of their
walls, are arranged in a ring surrounded by a plasma membrane. In the center of
the ring are two single microtubules. This arrangement is called the "9 + 2"
pattern and is found in nearly all eukaryotic flagella and motile cilia.
(Non-motil primary cilia have a "9 + 0" pattern, lacking the central pair of

Many unicellular eukaryotes are propelled through water by cilia or flagella
and the sperm of animals, algae, and some plants have flagella. In humans,
cells in the windpipe have cilia to move mucas out of the lungs, and the cilia
lining in a woman's oviducts help move an egg toward the uterus.

Some people refer to the eukaryote flagellum as an "unduplipodium" to remove
confusion between the prokaryote and eukaryote flagella. There is also a theory
that the eukaryote flagella may evolve from a symbiotic Spirochaete bacterium.

2,680,000,000 YBN
65) Eukaryote cells with linear chromosomes (instead of a circular chromosome)

2,680,000,000 YBN
291) Eukaryote cell evolves two intermediate stages between cell division and
DNA synthesis.

In prokaryotes, DNA synthesis can take place uninterrupted between cell
divisions, but eukaryotes duplicate their DNA exactly once during a discrete
period between cell divisions. This period is called the S (for synthetic)
phase. It is preceded by a period called G1 (meaning "first gap") and followed
by a period called G2, during which nuclear DNA synthesis does not occur.

2,660,000,000 YBN
72) Mitosis evolves in Eukaryote cells.

Mitosis is the process in eukaryotic cell division in which the duplicated
chromosomes are separated and the nucleus divides resulting in two new nuclei,
each of which contains an identical copy of the parental chromosomes. Mitosis
is usually immediately followed by cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm.

All eukaryote cells divide using the same general plan. The cell division cycle
contains four stages, G1 ("first gap"), S ("synthesis"), G2 ("second gap"), and
M ("mitotic phase". The first three stages are called "interphase" which
alternates with the mitotic phase. Interphase is a much longer stage that often
accounts for 90% of the cycle. During interphase the cell grows and copies its
chromosomes in preparation for cell division. In the mitotic phase, mitosis,
division of the nucleus is followed by cytokinesis.

2,650,000,000 YBN
170) Bacteria live on land.
2,640,000,000 YBN
73) Eukaryote sex evolves. Two identical cells fuse (isogamy). First diploid
cell. First zygote. Increase in genetic variety. Haplontic life cycle.

Because of sex, two cells with different DNA can mix providing more genetic
variety. Having two chromosome sets also provides a backup copy of important

All sexual species alternate between haploid and diploid. There are three main
different types of sexual life cycles; haplontic, haplodiplontic, and

The earliest form of eukaryote sexual reproduction is probably isogamy, fusion
between two identical (genderless) cells.

This fusion of two haploid cells results in the first diploid single-celled
organism, which may then immediately divide back to two haploid cells.

Note that gender (anisogamy) probably evolves later, initially sex is probably
the fusion of two indistinguishable cells (isogamy).

2,640,000,000 YBN
206) Meiosis evolves (one-step meiosis: a single cell division of a diploid
cell into two haploid cells).

Meiosis, which looks similar to mitosis, is the process of cell division in
sexually reproducing organisms that reduces the number of chromosomes in
reproductive cells from diploid to haploid, leading to the production of
gametes in animals and spores in plants.

Without the reduction back to haploid, genomes would double in size with every

2,620,000,000 YBN
210) Mitosis of diploid cells evolves. This begins the "diplontic" life cycle
(with gametic meiosis), where diploid cells (a zygote) can copy asexually
through mitosis after merging. This organism, when haploid, cannot do mitosis,
and this is still true in all descendents (including humans) of this single
celled organism.

Mitosis of diploid cells evolves. This begins the "diplontic" life
cycle (with gametic meiosis), where diploid cells (a zygote) can copy asexually
through mitosis after merging. This organism, when haploid, cannot do mitosis
(presumably haploid gamete mitosis will evolve much later in brown algae), and
this is still true in all descendents (including humans) of this single celled

The proteins and mechanism of mitosis of diploid cells is probably very similar
to mitosis of haploid cells. The most primitive organisms still alive that are
diplontic are the metamonads (e.g. Oxymonads: Notila, Hypermastigotes:
Urinympha, Macrospironympha, Rhynchonympha).

2,610,000,000 YBN
296) Gender in eukaryotes evolves. Anisogamy {aNISoGomE}, sex (cell and nucleus
fusion) between two cells that are different in size or shape.

Possibly eukaryote cell fusion and gender is directly descended from prokaryote

2,590,000,000 YBN
298) Sex between a flagellated gamete and an unflagellated gamete evolves in
protists (oogamy {OoGomE}, a form of anisogamy).

2,570,000,000 YBN
295) Two-step meiosis (diploid DNA copies and then the cell divides twice into
four haploid cells).

Most protists divide by two-step meiosis, and one-step meiosis is rare.

2,558,000,000 YBN
171) Eubacteria phylum "Deinococcus-Thermus" (includes Thermus Aquaticus {used
in PCR}, Deinococcus radiodurans {can survive long exposure to radiation}).

2,558,000,000 YBN
172) Eubacteria phylum, Cyanobacteria {SIeNOBaKTEREu}. Cyanobacteria are the
ancestor of all eukaryote plastids (for example chloroplasts). There is a
conflict between the interpretation of the geological and the genetic evidence:
there is fossil evidence that suggests cyanobacteria existed as early as 3800
mybn but the genetic evidence places the origin of cyanobacteria here at 2500

2,558,000,000 YBN
315) Eubacteria Phylum Chloroflexi, (Green Non-Sulphur bacteria).
2,500,000,000 YBN
52) End of the Archean and start of the Proterozoic {PrOTReZOiK or ProTReZOiK}

The Proterozoic spans from 2,500 to 542 million years ago, and represents 42%
of Earth's history.

2,400,000,000 YBN
59) Start of 200 million year ice age.
2,400,000,000 YBN
316) Cell differentiation evolves in filamentous prokaryotes, creating
organisms with different kinds of cells.

2,400,000,000 YBN
322) Nitrogen fixation. Cells can make nitrogen compounds like ammonia from
Nitrogen gas in the air.

Unlike most other bacteria, some filamentous cyanobacteria evolved a degree of
cell differentiation, producing both specialized cells for nitrogen fixation
(heterocysts) and resting cells able to endure environmental stress

Without bacteria that convert N2 into nitrogen compounds, the supply of
nitrogen necessary for much of life would be seriously limited and would
drastically slow evolution on earth.

West Africa  
2,335,000,000 YBN
290) The nucleolus evolves. The nucleolus is a sphere in the nucleus that makes

2,330,000,000 YBN
198) The rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum evolve in a eukaryote cell. The
endoplasmic reticulum is a membrane system that extends from the nucleus,
important in the synthesis of proteins and lipids.

2,325,000,000 YBN
199) Eukaryote Golgi Apparatus evolves (packages proteins and lipids into
vesicles for delivery to targeted destinations).

A vesicle is a closed structure, found only in eukaryotic cells, that is
completely surrounded by a membrane but, unlike a vacuole, contains non-liquid

2,300,000,000 YBN
47) Evidence of free oxygen accumulating in the air of Earth, most recent
uraninite {YRANninIT}, a mineral that cannot exist for much time if exposed to

2,300,000,000 YBN
48) The oldest "Red Beds", iron oxide formed on land, begin here, and are also
evidence of more free oxygen in the air of Earth.

2,156,000,000 YBN
150) Amino acid sequence comparison shows the eubacteria and archaebacteria
line separating here at 2,156 mybn, first archaebacteria.

2,000,000,000 YBN
63) A parasitic bacterium, closely related to Rickettsia prowazekii, an aerobic
proteobacteria, is engulfed by an early eukaryote cell and over time a
symbiotic relationship evolves, where the Rickettsia forms the mitochondria.

Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles found in the cytoplasm of almost all
eukaryotic cells, where cellular respiration occurs and most of the ATP in a
eukaryote cell is produced.

In eukaryotes the mitochondria perform the Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative
phosphorylation using oxygen to breakdown pyruvagte from glycolysis into CO2
and H2O, and provide up 36 ATP molecules.

This presumes that all known living eukaryotes descend from a eukaryote that
had mitochondria, and that eukaryotes without mitochondria, like the
metamonada, lost their mitochondria secondarily.

1,982,000,000 YBN
99) First homeobox genes evolve. These genes regulate the building of major
body parts in algae, plants, fungi and animals.

In 1894 William Bateson coined the term "homeosis" for a mutation which causes
a part of a body to appear in some different part. "Homeo" comes from Bateson's
"homoeosis" and "box" refers to a "box" of 180 nucleotide code letters that all
genes known as homeobox genes have somewhere in their length. The name "Hox" is
not used for all homeobox genes but only for the linear arrays of genes that
determine position along the length of an animal's body and which are
homologous in nearly all animals.

In one experiment, when a hox gene responsible for growing a mouse eye is added
to the cell of a fruit-fly embryo that is destined to be a leg, an extra fruit
fly eye is built on the leg.

(Interesting how the gene array may equate linearly to different positions of
the animal body.)

1,874,000,000 YBN
61) Earliest large filamentous multicellular fossil (Grypania). spiralis is
about 10 cm long, and is thought to be a filamentous algae. If eukaryote,
Grypania would be the earliest filamentous multicellular eukaryote fossil.

Other Grypania fossils that are 1 billion years old have been found in India.
Grypania may be a eukaryote algae but may also be a gigantic cyanobacteria.

(Banded Iron Formation) Michigan, USA  
1,870,000,000 YBN
151) Amino acid sequence comparison shows the archaebacteria and eukaryote line
separating here at 1,870 mybn (first eukaryote, and first protist).

1,800,000,000 YBN
46) End of the Banded Iron Formation.
1,700,000,000 YBN
6279) Earliest possible brown algae (and Stramenopiles) fossils.

If eukaryote these would be the earliest eukaryote fossils with both
filamentous multicellularity and cell differentiation.

(Tuanshanzi Formation) Jixian Area, North China  
1,584,000,000 YBN
152) Amino acid sequence comparison shows Gram-negative and Gram-positive
eubacteria here at 1,584 mybn (first Gram-positive bacteria).

1,570,000,000 YBN
197) The ancestor of all living eukaryotes divides into bikont and unikont
descendants. Bikonts lead to all Chromalveolates, Excavates, Rhizaria, and
Plants. Unikonts lead to all Amoebozoa, Animals and Fungi.

Since members of both the unikont (animals, fungi) and bikont (metamonads,
plants) can reproduce sexually, sex had to evolve before this branching,
presuming sexual reproduction did not evolve twice.

1,520,000,000 YBN
202) Ribosomal RNA shows the Protist Phylum Amoebozoa (also called
Ramicristates) which includes amoeba and slime molds evolving now.

Feeding using pseudopods.

The Amoebozoa are a major group of amoeboid protozoa, including the majority
that move by means of internal cytoplasmic flow. Their pseudopodia are
characteristically blunt and finger-like, called lobopodia. Most are
unicellular, and are common in soils and aquatic habitats, with some found as
symbiotes of other organisms, including several pathogens. The Amoebozoa also
include the slime moulds, multinucleate or multicellular forms that produce
spores and are usually visible to the unaided eye.

1,400,000,000 YBN
173) Earliest probable fungi fossils. If true this would be the oldest
eukaryote fossil.

(Roper Group) Northern Australia  
1,380,000,000 YBN
220) Protists Opisthokonts (ancestor of Fungi, Choanoflagellates and Animals).
Mitochondria with flattened christae.

1,300,000,000 YBN
38) (Filamentous) multicellularity in Eukaryotes evolves.

The difference between this organism and single-celled organisms is the way the
cells stay fastened together after cell division. These multicellular organisms
have undifferentiated cells in the multicellular stage (all cells in the
haploid multicellular organism are made of one kind of cell).

Multicellularity seems to have arisen multiple times independently in
eukaryotes: in fungi, animals, slime molds, charophyte algae (and their
descendants, the land plants), and certain other green, red and brown algae.
With multicellularity comes the evolution of differentiation, the allocation of
cells to different functions during the development of an organism.

(earlest red alga fossils:) (Hunting Formation) Somerset Island, arctic
1,300,000,000 YBN
67) First "plastids". Cyanobacteria form plastids (chloroplasts) through
symbiosis, within a eukaryote cell (endosymbiosis). Like mitochondria, these
organelles copy themselves and are not made by the cell DNA.

Chloroplasts use their green pigment to trap light particles to synthesize
carbon compounds from carbon dioxide and water supplied by the host plant.

This is a primary plastid endosymbiosis, and genetic analysis supports the
theory that all green plants, which are eukaryotes with double membrane
plastids, are descended from a single common ancestor. The inner wall being
that of the bacterium, the outer wall that of the alga.

1,300,000,000 YBN
209) First plant (ancestor of all green and red algae and land plants).

This begins the plant kingdom. This first plant is a single cell, similar to

Note that brown algae is not viewed as a plant but as a protist (in the
Chromealveolate Stramenopiles).

1,300,000,000 YBN
219) Plant Red Algae (Rhodophyta) evolves according to genetic comparison.
1,300,000,000 YBN
323) Protists Excavates: includes Parabasalids {PaRu-BAS-a-liDS}, and
Diplomonads {DiP-lO-mO-naDZ} {like Giardia {JE-oR-DE-u}).

1,274,000,000 YBN
187) A captured red alga (rhodophyte), through endosymbiosis, becomes a plastid
in the ancestor of all chromalveolates.

This is a secondary plastid endosymbiosis, where an algae cell is captured
instead of a cyanobacterium. A secondary plastid symbiosis results in a plastid
with more than two membranes.

1,250,000,000 YBN
15) Differentiation in multicellular eukaryote. Gamete (or spore) cells and
somatic cells. Unlike gamete cells, somatic cells are asexual (non-fusing), and
are not omnipotent. Start of death by aging.

Cell differentiation is how cells in a multicellular organism become
specialized to perform specific functions in a variety of tissues and organs.

1,250,000,000 YBN
88) Protists "Chromalveolates" {KrOM-aL-VEO-leTS} (ancestor of Chromista
{Cryptophytes, Haptophytes, and Stramenopiles {STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ}} and
Alveolates {aL-VEO-leTS}).

1,250,000,000 YBN
201) Earliest certain eukaryote fossils and eukaryote filamentous
multicellularity: Rhodophyta (red algae) fossils named "Bangiomorpha

(Hunting Formation) Somerset Island, arctic Canada  
1,250,000,000 YBN
301) Haplodiplontic life cycle (mitosis occurs in both haploid and diploid life

1,230,000,000 YBN
153) Amino acid sequence comparison shows the protist and plant line separating
here at 1,230 mybn (first plant).

1,200,000,000 YBN
221) First fungi. This begins the Fungi Kingdom.
1,200,000,000 YBN
6295) Earliest possible fossil worm trails.

The trace-like fossils suggest the presence of vermiform (the long, thin,
cylindrical shape of a worm), mucus-producing, motile organisms.

(Stirling Range Formation) Southwestern Australia  
1,189,000,000 YBN
305) Chromista "Cryptophyta" {KriPTuFITu} (Cryptomonads {KRiPToMunaDZ}).
1,180,000,000 YBN
6280) Protists Alveolates {aL-VEO-leTS} (ancestor of all Ciliates,
Apicomplexans, and Dinoflagellates {DInOFlaJeleTS}).

Three protist phyla (ciliates, apicomplexans, and dinoflaggellates) have an
alveolar membrane system, which comprises flattened membrane-bound sacs
(alveoli) lying beneath the outer cell membrane. This system and molecular
sequence comparisons indicate that these three protist phyla are closely
related to each other.

1,150,000,000 YBN
86) Genetic comparison shows The plant Phylum Glaucophyta evolving now.
Some people
categorize Glaucophyta in the kingdom Plantae instead of Protists, and label
glaucophyta the most ancient living plants.

The glaucophytes, also referred to as glaucocystophytes or glaucocystids, are a
tiny group of freshwater algae. They are distinguished mainly by the presence
of cyanelles, primitive chloroplasts which closely resemble cyanobacteria.

1,150,000,000 YBN
188) Plant Green Algae evolves now according to genetic comparison. Green Algae
is composed of the two Phlya Chlorophyta (volvox, sea lettuce) and Charophyta

The first land plants most likely evolved from green algae.

Early possible Green Algae fossil cysts date back to 1.2 billion years ago.

1,100,000,000 YBN
75) Oldest extant fungi phylum "Microsporidia".

Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites of eukaryotes.

1,100,000,000 YBN
6284) Oldest molecular fossil evidence of Dinoflagellates.
1,080,000,000 YBN
87) Excavate Discicristates {DiSKIKriSTATS}, ancestor of protists which have
mitochondria with discoidal shaped cristae (includes euglenids, leishmanias
{lEsmaNEuZ}, trypanosomes {TriPaNiSOMZ}, kinetoplastids {KiNeTuPlaSTiDZ}, and
acrasid {oKrASiD} slime molds).

Some euglenids exhibit colonialism and have a cell covering ("pellicle").

1,080,000,000 YBN
97) A eukaryote eye evolves; the first three-dimensional response to light.

Eyes evolve at least eight times independently in eukaryotes.

The earliest eye probably evolves from a plastid. The first proto eye is a
light sensitive area in a unicellular eukaryote.

Eukaryotes are the first organisms to evolve the ability to follow light
direction in three dimensions in open water.

1,080,000,000 YBN
203) Colonialism (where cells form a colony) evolves for the first time in

Colonialism may evolve independently in more than once in protists.

1,050,000,000 YBN
169) Protists Stramenopiles {STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ} (also called Heterokonts)
(ancestor of all brown and golden algae, diatoms, and oomycota {Ou-mI-KO-Tu)).

The strameopiles consist of some 9,000 species including diatoms, brown and
golden algae (the Chrysophytes), some heterotrophic flagellates, labyrinthulids
(slime nets), and Oomycetes and Hyphochytridiomycetes (formerly classified as
fungi). A few stramenopiles form complex, rigid colonies and may reach
extremely large sizes. It may be difficult to imagine that diatoms and kelp are
closely related. There similarity is based on the fact that that almost all
have unique, complex, three-part tubular hairs on the flagella at some stage in
the life cycle. The name Stramenopiles (Latin stamen, "straw"; pilius "hair")
refers to the appearance of these hairs.

Stramenopiles are found in a variety of habitats. Freshwater and marine
plankton are rich in diatoms and chrysophytes, and they can also occur in moist
soils, sea ice, snow and glaciers. Stramenopiles have even been found living in
clouds in the atmosphere. Heterotrophic free-living stramenopiles are also
found in marine, estuarine, and freshwater habitats. A few are symbiotic on
algae in marine or stuarine environments. Many produce calcite or silicon
scales, shells, cysts, or test, which are preserved in the fossil record. The
oldest of these fossils are from the Cambrian/Precambrian boundary about 550
million years ago.

1,050,000,000 YBN
297) Diplontic life cycle; organism is predominantly diploid, mitosis in the
haploid phase does not occur.

1,050,000,000 YBN
304) Protist Phlyum "Haptophyta" Coccolithophores {KOK-o-lit-O-FORZ}.

Fossils of this group date back into the Jurassic (201-145 my), where they
first become abundant.

1,040,000,000 YBN
313) Protist Phylum "Dinoflagellata" (Dinoflagellates {DI-nO-Fla-Je-leTS}).

Dinoflagellates are single-celled, aquatic organisms that have two dissimilar
flagella. Most are microscopic and marine. The group is an important link in
the food chain. Dinoflagellates also "bloom" which results in the red tides and
can produce part of the luminescence sometimes seen in the sea.

Dinoflagellates are the only group currently known to have tertiary plastids
(when an alga containing a plastid of secondary endosymbiotic origin, for
example a chromist, is engulfed and reduced to a photosynthetic organelle).

1,005,000,000 YBN
306) Earliest certain Stramenopiles fossil a xanthophyte (or yellow-green
algae): "Palaeovaucheria".

(Lakhanda Group) Siberia  
1,000,000,000 YBN
154) Amino acid sequence comparison shows the plant and fungi line separating
here at 1,000 mybn (first fungi).

1,000,000,000 YBN
223) Fungi "Chytridiomycota" {KI-TriDEO-mI-KO-Tu) (includes all
Chytridiomycetes {KI-TriDEO-mI-SE-TEZ})).

The chytrids are primitive fungi and are mostly saprobic (feed on dead species,
degrading chitin and keratin). Many chytrids are aquatic (mostly found in

1,000,000,000 YBN
324) Protists (Mesomycetozoea {me-ZO-mI-SE-TO-ZO-u} (also called DRIPS).

Mesomycetozoea are in the protist Phylum Choanozoa (which includes
Choanoflagellates). This phylum contains the first protozoans
(Choanoflagellates), thought to be the ancestor of sponges.

985,000,000 YBN
309) Protist Oomycota {Ou-mI-KO-Tu} (includes Oomycetes, Water molds).
965,000,000 YBN
155) Amino acid sequence comparison shows the fungi and pseudocoeles lines
separating here at 965 mybn (first pseudocoel and first animal).

900,000,000 YBN
326) The Choanozoans "Choanoflagellates" and "Acanthoecida" evolve.
lates are the closest relatives to the animals and may be direct ancestors of

There are about 140 species of choanoflagellates. Some are
free-swimmingpropelling themselves with a flagellum. Others are attached by a
stalk, sometimes with several together in a colony.

900,000,000 YBN
6281) Protists Rhizaria {rI-ZaR-E-u} (ancestor of all Radiolaria, Foraminifera
and Cercozoa).

The Rhizaria are an assemblage, or supergroup, of eukaryotes comprising mostly
amoeboid protists, including ‘skeleton’-forming types such as the
foraminiferans and radiolarians(). Some authorities now include Rhizaria in a
broader grouping – the RAS (or SAR) group – with the alveolates and

855,000,000 YBN
286) Multicellularity evolves in a free moving Protist. This allows larger free
moving organisms to evolve.

This multicellularity is thought to be independently evolved, and not related
to the filamentous multicellularity of prokaryotes like cyanobacteria, and
eukaryotes like algae.

850,000,000 YBN
81) The first animal and first metazoan, sponges (Porifera). Metazoans are
multicellular and have differentiation (their cells perform different
functions). There are only three major kinds of metazoans: sponges, cnidarians,
and bilaterians (which include all insects and vertebrates).

Sponges have different cell types: cells that form a body wall, cells that
secrete the skeleton, contractile cells, cells that digest food, and other
kinds of cell types.

All sponge cells are totipotent and so are capable of regrowing a new sponge.

Some sponges can live for over 1000 years.

850,000,000 YBN
224) Fungi division "Zygomycota" (bread molds, pin molds).
850,000,000 YBN
517) Male gonad (testis {TeSTiS}/testicle) evolves in a sponge. In sponges
sperm are contained in spermatic cysts, which are choanocyte chambers
transformed by spermatogenesis, but ova are distributed throughout the

(It's interesting how similar the sponge emitting sperm looks like the animal
penis emitting sperm. One view is that the sperm and ovum of multicellular
animals are like protists that grew material around them. That metazoans,
including humans, evolved from the protist ovum and sperm out. So in this
sense, the center of evolution is really the gonad - all later appendages -
muscle, nervous, circular system are all accessories built around those ancient
protists, the animal gamete. So the early evolution of the gonad before most
other organs, may be like a first added barrier of protection for the gamete

804,000,000 YBN
319) Protists "Radiolaria" {rADEOlaREo} (ocean protists, many with silica

804,000,000 YBN
321) Protist Phylum "Foraminifera" {FOraMiniFRu}, (unicellular protists with
fine pseudopodia that extend from a cytoplasm body encased within a calcium
carbonate shell).

780,000,000 YBN
79) The metazoans "Placozoa" evolve.

Placozoans look like amoebas but are multicellular. The only known species in
this phylum is Trichoplax adhaerens. Trichoplax lives in the sea and feeds on
single celled organisms, mostly algae. Trichoplax has only 4 cell types
compared to the more than 200 cell types in humans. Trichoplax has two main
cell layers, like a cnidarian or ctenophore. Between these two layers are a few
contractile cells that are similar to muscle cells, however placozoans lack
muscle and nerve cells. Trichoplax has only 1 hox gene.

767,000,000 YBN
312) Protist Phylum "Ciliophora" ("Ciliates") (includes paramecium). Earliest
mitochondria with tubular christae.

The Ciliophora are protists characterized by having numerous cilia. Most
ciliophora are single celled. Cilia have a fixed shape and use their cilia to
move themselves. Cilia have two nuclei: a macronucleus and a micronucleus.
Ciliates reproduce asexually by binary fission and sexually by conjugation.
Ciliates eat a variety of food including bacteria and other protists using
their "cytostome" ("cell mouth").

767,000,000 YBN
314) Protist "Apicomplexa" {a-Pi-KoM-PleK-Su} (Malaria, Toxoplasmosis).
750,000,000 YBN
41) Cells that group as tissues that are arranged in layers evolve in

750,000,000 YBN
83) First nerve cell (neuron), and nervous system evolves in the ancestor of
the Ctenophores and Cnidarians. This leads to the first ganglion and brain.
Earliest touch and sound detection.

The most primitive extant organisms that contain a neuron cell are the

Simple and sessile cnidarians have no sense organs, but they do have sensory
cells in both tissues that respond to light, chemical or mechanical stimuli.
These sensory cells are often structurally similar to those of vertebrates.
Each has a cilium that protrudes into the water. The sensory cells synapse (are
closely spaced to) with nerve cells, allowing the animal to generally respond
to stimuli at a distance instead of responding at the site of the stimulus.

Some Cnidarians have ganglia, aggregations of nerve cells.

750,000,000 YBN
96) Muscle cells evolve in metazoans. According to genetic comparison, both the
earliest known muscle and nerve cells are found in Ctenophora.

Ctenophores move by cilia, but Cnidarians move by muscle contraction. However,
Cnidaria lack true muscle cells; their muscle fibers are always extensions of
an epithelial cell. Ctenophores have true muscle cells.

750,000,000 YBN
204) Earliest known fossil protozoan (single celled nonphotosynthesizing
eukaryotes) and earliest fossil of a testate amoeba.

( black shales of Chuar Group) Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA  
750,000,000 YBN
225) Closeable mouth evolves in metazoans.
750,000,000 YBN
414) Animals Radiata: Ctenophores {TeNOFORZ} evolve (comb jellies). Cells are
grouped as tissues. Ctenophora are the extant metazoan to have nerve and muscle

Like jellyfish, the bodies of Ctenophora are built from only two layers of
tissue, their main body cavity is also the digestive chamber, and they have a
simple nerve net. Hair-like cilia propel the ctenophora instead of the
pulsating muscles which propel jellyfish.

750,000,000 YBN
458) Fungi Phylum "Glomeromycota" (Arbuscular {oRBuSKYUlR} mycorrhizal
{MIKerIZL} fungi).

Glomeromycota {GlO-mi-rO-mI-KO-Tu} are also know by their class name
Glomeromycetes {GlO-mi-rO-mI-SETS}

713,000,000 YBN
6320) Earliest chemical biomarker evidence of animals (metazoans), steranes
associated with demosponges.

(Huqf Supergroup) South Oman Salt Basin, Oman  
700,000,000 YBN
82) Radiata Phylum Cnidarians {NIDAREeNS} evolve (sea anemones, corals,
jellyfish). Earliest animal eye.

Cnidaria {NIDAREeo} are a phylum of invertebrate animals composed of the sea
anemones, corals, jellyfish, and hydroids. Cnidarians are radially symmetrical.
Cnidarians have a body wall composed of three layers. Tentacles encircle the
mouth and are used in part for food capture.

Cnidarians have two alternate body plans, the polyp and the medusa. A sea
anemone or Hydra is a typical polyp: non-moving, mouth on top, bottom end fixed
to the ground like a plant. A jellyfish is a typical medusa, swimming through
the open sea. Many cnidarians have both polyp and medusa forms in a single life
cycle. Polyps often reproduce by budding which results in an individual clone
of the parent. In some polyps the clone doesn't break off but stays attached
and polyps on the same polyp tree may be specialized for different roles, such
as feeding, defense, or reproduction.

Cnidarians have a nervous system which is a network, not centralized into a
ganglia. They also have muscles which are contracted to propel them. Their
digestive organ is a single cavity with only one opening which is both mouth
and anus. They have no circulatory system. All cnidarians have cells called
cnidocytes, each with its own cell-sized harpoon called a cnida. All cnidarians
have cnidae, and only cnidarians have them. Once triggered the harpoon cell
cannot be used again, but are constantly replaced.

Cnidarians have sensory cells that respond to light, chemical or mechanical
stimuli. Each has a cilium that protrudes into the water. The sensory cells and
nerve cells are separated by a small space (synapse), allowing the animal to
generally respond to stimuli at a distance instead of responding at the site of
the stimulus.

Porifera (sponges have no obvious symmetry), while Cnidarians are radially
symmetrical and Ctenophores are biradially symmetrical.

To reproduce sexually Cnidaria sperm are released into the water and
fertilization is usually external.

700,000,000 YBN
226) Fungi "Basidiomycota" {Bo-SiDEO-mI-KO-Tu} (most mushrooms, rusts, club

700,000,000 YBN
227) Fungi "Ascomycota" {aS-KO-mI-KO-Tu} (yeasts, truffles, Penicillium,
morels, sac fungi) .

700,000,000 YBN
523) In Cnidaria, gonads develop in the body wall or mesentaries by
differentiation of interstitial cells. Cnidaria have no complex reproductive

675,000,000 YBN
156) Amino acid sequence comparison shows the pseudocoel and schizocoel lines
separating here at 675 mybn (first schizocoel).

650,000,000 YBN
69) Start of 60 million year (Varanger) Ice Age (650-590 mybn).
630,000,000 YBN
107) Bilateral species evolve (two sided symmetry).
Earliest animal brain (ganglion,
memory). First triploblastic species (third embryonic layer: the mesoderm).

In bilaterians food enters in one end (the mouth) and waste exists at the
opposite end (the anus). There is an advantage for sense organs: light, sound,
touch, smell, and taste detection to be located on the head near the mouth to
help with catching food.

The earliest brain (ganglion, memory) develop in a bilaterian worm.

This begins the Animal Subkingdom "Bilateria".

630,000,000 YBN
403) Earliest extant bilaterian: Acoelomorpha (acoela flat worms and

Acoelomorpha lack a digestive track, anus and coelom.

Flatworms have no lungs or gills and breathe through their skin, with no
circulating blood, their branched gut presumably transports nutrients to all
parts of the body.

630,000,000 YBN
459) An intestine evolves in a bilaterian. Since the gut of this organism has
no anus, undigested food must be regurgitated through the mouth. This
restriction limits the possibility of development of regions specialized for
particular functions in the intestine. The intestine is lined with a monolayer
of endodermal cells (gastrodermis) which carry out some or all of the processes
of digestion and absorption. Partial extracellular digestion may occur, with
enzymes being secreted in the pharynx or by the gastrodermal cells. The
semi-digested material is phagocytosed (engulfed) by the intestinal cells, in
which final digestion occurs.

630,000,000 YBN
532) Cylindrical gut, anus, and through-put of food evolves in a bilaterian;
found in all bilaterians except flatworms.

630,000,000 YBN
593) The genital pore, vagina, and uterus evolve in a bilaterian.
630,000,000 YBN
660) The penis evolves in a bilaterian.
625,000,000 YBN
6328) Protists "Cercozoa".
610,000,000 YBN
95) Fluid filled cavity, the coelom (SEleM) evolves in an early bilaterian. In
most bilaterally symmetrical invertebrates an internal cavity exists between
the body wall and the gut wall.

600,000,000 YBN
91) Start of Ediacaran {EDEoKRiN} soft-bodied invertebrate fossils.

The sudden appearance of Ediacaran fossils may relate to the accumulation of
free oxygen in the atmosphere and sea, which may permit oxidative metabolism in

Some of the earliest Ediacaran fossils date to at least 600 million years ago
in Sonora, Mexico, and there are discoidal (circular or elliptical) fossils in
Kazakhstan that are possibly cnidarian that date all the way to 770 mya.
However, some people claim that these discoidal fossils are actually microbial
mats made by cyanobacteria which flourish on the sea floor in the absence of
grazing and burrowing organisms, but the development of efficient grazing
greatly reduces their development in all but extreme environments.

Sonora, Mexico|Adelaide, Australia| Lesser Karatau Microcontinent,
600,000,000 YBN
98) Red blood cells and blood channels evolve in a bilaterian. Nemerteans,
cylindrical worms, have a network of blood channels in the mesenchyme
(undifferentiated tissue between organs) but have no heart or pumping vessel.
First blood vessels.

590,000,000 YBN
590,000,000 YBN
93) Bilaterians Protostomes evolve. Protostomes are divided into two major
groups: the Ecdysozoa {eK-DiS-u-ZOu} and the Lophotrochozoa {LuFoTroKoZOu}. The
Lophotrochozoa, is subdivided into the Platyzoa {PlaTiZOu} and the Trochozoa.

580,000,000 YBN
131) The first shell (or skeleton) evolves. The first known shell belongs to a
group of ciliates called tintinnids. Skeletons evolve independently in
different groups.

These are also the earliest known ciliate fossils.

(Doushantuo Formation) Beidoushan, Guizhou Province, South China  
580,000,000 YBN
165) Earliest animal and earliest bilaterian fossil, Vernanimalcula, 178 um in
length. First fossil of organism with bilateral symmetry, mouth, digestive
track, gut and anus.

(Doushantuo Formation) China  
580,000,000 YBN
318) Protostomes Ecdysozoa {eK-DiS-u-ZOu} evolve. Ecdysozoa are animals that
molt (lose their outer skin) as they grow. This is the ancestor of round worms,
and arthropods (which includes insects and crustaceans {also known as

580,000,000 YBN
331) Protosomes Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u} evolve. Ancestor of all
brachiopods {BrA-KE-O-PoDZ}, bryozoans {BrI-u-ZO-iNZ}, and molluscs.

580,000,000 YBN
6293) Earliest cnidarian fossil.
(Doushantuo Formation) Beidoushan, Guizhou Province, South China  
578,000,000 YBN
92) First nematocyst (stinging cells) evolve on Jellyfish(?).

575,000,000 YBN
139) Earliest sea pen fossils ("Charnia"). A member of the Cnidarnian
Anthozoans (sea pens, corals, anemones).

(Drook Formation) Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland  
570,000,000 YBN
89) Protostome Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u} subgroup Trochozoa evolve.
Ancestor of all Bryozoans, Nemerteans, Phoronids, Brachiopods {BrA-KE-O-PoDZ},
Molluscs and Annelids.

570,000,000 YBN
94) Fossil animal embryo.
(Doushantuo formation) China  
570,000,000 YBN
105) Bilaterians Deuterostomes evolve. Ancestor of all Echinoderms (iKIniDRMS
}, Hemichordates, and Chordates.

570,000,000 YBN
311) Bilaterians Chaetognatha {KE-ToG-nutu} evolve (Arrow Worms).

Earliest teeth. Animals start to eat other animals.

The evolution of teeth and animal predation starts an "arms race" that rapidly
transforms ecosystems around the Earth. Teeth and shells evolve as advantages
to survival.

570,000,000 YBN
327) Protostome Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u} subgroup Platyzoa
{PlaT-i-ZO-u} evolves. Ancestor of rotifers, gastrotrichs and Platyhelminthes

570,000,000 YBN
345) Deuterostome Phylum Hemichordonia ("Hemichordates") evolve (pterobranchs
{TARuBrANKS}, acorn worms).

Adult Pterobranchs are sessile, fastening to solid structures, but the younger
(or larval) form is free swimming, and is thought to have retained this form
before evolving into tunicates and then the first fish.

570,000,000 YBN
346) Deuterostome Phylum Echinodermata ("Echinoderms" (iKIniDRMS }) (sea
cucumbers, sea urchins, sand dollars, star fish).

565,000,000 YBN
347) Deuterostome Phylum Chordata evolves. Chordates are a very large group
that include all tunicates {TUNiKiTS}, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals,
and birds. The most primitive living chordate is the tunicate. Chordates get
their name from the notochord, the cartilage rod that runs along the back of
the animal, in the embryo if not in the adult.

565,000,000 YBN
348) Earliest extant chordate: Tunicates {TUNiKiTS} evolve (sea squirts).
565,000,000 YBN
6294) Earliest coral fossil (corals are cnidarian anthozoans).
(Doushantuo Formation) Beidoushan, Guizhou Province, South China  
560,000,000 YBN
117) Earliest chordate fossil.
(Flinders Ranges, 490 km north of Adelaide) Australia  
560,000,000 YBN
349) First fish.
560,000,000 YBN
6290) Earliest extant fish, Lancelets {laNSleTS} (also called amphioxus
{aMFEoKSeS}). First liver and kidney.

Lancelets are the most primitive chordates to have a liver and a kidney, which
are not found in hemichordates or tunicates.

560,000,000 YBN
6292) Oldest mollusc fossil.
560,000,000 YBN
6318) Earliest animal shell (or skeleton).
Earliest evidence of animals eating other
animals (predation).
Appearance of the small shelly fossils and deep burrows correlated with
a decline in stromatolites possibly from feeding.

The earliest animal shells are made by tiny organisms with simple tubelike
skeletons, such as Cloudina and Sinotubulites in addition to sponge skeleton

The shell of Cloudina is made of Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), possibly made by
some kind of worm.

Predatory bore holes have been found in Cloudina shells. This is the oldest
evidence of predation known.

(Ara Formation) Oman|Lijiagou, Ningqiang County, Shaanxi Province  
559,000,000 YBN
103) First gastrotrichs evolve.

550,000,000 YBN
157) Amino acid sequence comparison shows the chordate line separating from
echinoderm line here at 550 mybn (first chordates).

550,000,000 YBN
328) Ecdysozoa Aschelminthes {aSKHeLmiNtEZ} (worms: nematodes and priapulids).
550,000,000 YBN
329) Platyzoa Rotifers.
550,000,000 YBN
6339) These fossils are a sponge skeletal cone and spicules that date to
560-550 million years old.

This sponge is named Coronacollina acula, and is similar to the Cambrian Choia,
a low conical demosponge with a corona of long spicules. This Ediacaran
organism represents the oldest multicellular organism with structural support
through either biomineralization or chitin.

(Rawnsley Quartzite -same as White Sea Assemblage) Nilpena, South
547,000,000 YBN
333) Trochozoa Phoronids {FerOniDZ}.
547,000,000 YBN
334) Trochozoa Phylum Brachiopoda (brachiopods {BrAKEOPoDZ}).

Brachiopods are marine invertebrates that have bivalve dorsal and ventral
shells enclosing a pair of tentacled, armlike structures that are used to sweep
minute food particles into the mouth. Also called lampshells.

547,000,000 YBN
335) Trochozoa Entoprocts {eNtoProKTS}.
544,000,000 YBN
310) Early sponge fossils.
southwestern Mongolia  
543,000,000 YBN
101) Segmentation evolves (body parts are repeated serially, for example

Some think that segmentation evolved independently in arthropods, annelid
worms, vertebrates. The universality of Hox genes, evolved over 350 million
years earlier, implies that segmentation may have occurred earlier and that all
segmented species may share a common segmented ancestor.

(Note that both animals and plants display segmentation - developing a series
of repetitive segments.)

(Determine time and supporting evidence, give more details about segmentation.)

543,000,000 YBN
336) Trochozoa Bryozoans (or moss animals).
542,000,000 YBN
53) End of the "Precambrian". End of the Proterozoic and start of the
Phanerozoic {FaNReZOiK} Eon, and the start of the Cambrian Period.

542,000,000 YBN
114) Earliest arthropod fossils (Parvancorina and Spriggina).
Ediacara, Australia  
542,000,000 YBN
6297) The Cambrian radiation, (or "Cambrian explosion"), the rapid
diversification of multicellular animals between 542 and 530 million years ago
that results in the appearance of many (between 20 and 35) of the major phyla
of animals. An increase of animals with shells.

It was once thought that the Cambrian rocks contained the first and oldest
fossil animals, but these are now to be found in the earlier Ediacaran (or
Vendian) strata. Ediacaran animals are soft-bodied and so are infrequently
preserved. When animals begin to develop hard parts, their probability of
preservation greatly improves.

Two fossil locations preserve this period on Earth, the Burgess Shale in
British Columbia Canada, and the Chengjiang in the Yunnan Province of China.
The Burgess Shale fossils were discovered in 1909 by Charles D. Wolcott (CE
1850-1927), and are shiny black impressions on the shale bedding planes. Many
are the remains of animals that lacked hard parts. Altogether there are four
major groups of arthropods (trilobites, crustaceans, and the groups that
include scorpions and insects), in addition to sponges, onycophorans, crinoids,
mollusks, three phyla of worms, corals, chordates, and many species that cannot
be placed in any known phylum. The Chengjiang Fauna resemble that of the
Burgess Shale, but the Chengjiang fossils are older and better preserved. The
fossils include many soft-bodied animals that are not usually not preserved.
For example jellyfish show the detailed structure of tentacles, radial canals,
and muscles, and on soft-bodies worms, eyes, segmentation, digestive organs,
and patterns on the outer skin can be recognized. The Chengjiang fossils
include the earliest fossil of a fish.

One theory is that the Cambrian metazoan radiation is the result of a major
increase in atmospheric oxygen after the retreat of the Varangian glaciers.
Another theory is that the Cambrian radiation is triggered by predation, since
the oldest traces of feeding within the mud occur around this time in addition
to the various ways to protect the body by secretion of a mineral skeleton or
building tubes by collected mineral grains that are developed by animals around
this time.

541,000,000 YBN
132) Archaeocyatha {oRKEOSIatu} (early sponges).
540,000,000 YBN
104) Platyzoa Platyhelminthes {PlaTEheLmiNtEZ} evolve (flatworms).
540,000,000 YBN
6287) Platyzoa Gastrotrichs {GaSTreTriKS}.
539,000,000 YBN
461) The first circulatory system (blood cells actively moved by muscle
contraction) evolves in bilaterians.

Circulatory systems can be divided into two kinds, "open" and "closed". In an
open circulatory system, the blood and body cavity fluid are one and the same;
the blood empties from vessels into the body cavity (hemocoel) and directly
bathes organs. In a closed circulatory system blood is kept separate from the
coelomic {SElomiK} fluid.

539,000,000 YBN
506) The first heart evolves in bilaterians.

Nemerteans, cylindrical worms evolved from an earlier ancestor, have a network
of blood channels in the mesenchyme (undifferentiated tissue between organs)
but have no heart or pumping vessel. Some surviving coelomates have a series of
channels or blood spaces outside the coelom tissue, that form a circulatory
system, often with muscle cell contractible walls connected to the larger
vessels that act as pumps to move the blood cells through the channels. (verify
muscle cells) This organism, a mollusc, has a heart. (state organism with
earliest known heart- gastropods?)

537,000,000 YBN
341) Trochozoa Nemertea {ne-mR-TEu} (ribbon worms).
533,000,000 YBN
342) Trochozoa Mollusks evolve.

The phylum Mollusca is the second largest animal phylum after the arthropods,
and is divided into seven classes, three of which (Gastropoda {GaSTroPeDu}
(snails), Bivalvia (clams and muscles), and Cephalopoda {SeFeloPeDu} (squids
and octupuses)) are of major significance.

530,000,000 YBN
338) The Ecdysozoa Phylum Arthropoda "Arthropods" evolve (includes crustaceans
and insects).

Arthropods can be compared to a segmented worm encased in a rigid exoskeleton.

The phylum Arthropoda is the largest phylum in the animal kingdom. Arthropods
include the insects, the Chelicerata (arachnids and horseshoe crabs), the
crustaceans and the trilobites. All arthropods have a segmented body covered by
an exoskeleton containing chitin, which serves as both armor and as a surface
for muscle attachment.

530,000,000 YBN
339) Ecdysozoa Onychophorans (onychophorans) evolve. Onychophorans are a
transition between worms and arthropods: they have segmented worm-like bodies
but they also have jointed appendages, antennae, and shed their cuticle like
arthropods do.

530,000,000 YBN
340) Ecdysozoa Tardigrades {ToRDiGRADZ}.
530,000,000 YBN
343) Trochozoa annelids (segmented worms).
530,000,000 YBN
350) Chordata Vertebrates evolve. This Subphylum contains most fishes, and all
amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds.

The characteristic features of the Vertebrata are a vertebral column, or
backbone, and a cranium, which protects the central nervous system (brain and
spinal cord) and major sense organs.

Vertebrates evolved from a lower chordate similar to the present-day
Cephalochordata (lancelets). Vertebrates originate in fresh water and develop a
kidney as their organ of water balance. The main line of evolution in the
vertebrates which leads to the tetrapods remains in fresh waters, however,
several vertebrate lines invade the oceans.

530,000,000 YBN
351) Vetebrates Jawless fish (agnatha) evolve.
530,000,000 YBN
386) Earliest vertebrate and fish fossil.

Haikouichthys ercaicunensis: About 25 mm in length.

(Chengjiang) Kunming, Yunnan Province, China  
525,000,000 YBN
6329) Earliest hemichordate fossil: a Pterobranch "graptolite".
(Chengjiang Konservat-Lagerstätte) Yunnan Province, China  
520,000,000 YBN
133) Earliest trilobite fossils.

Trilobites are numerous extinct marine arthropods of the Paleozoic Era.
Trilobites have a segmented body divided by grooves into three vertical lobes
and are found as fossils throughout the world.

There is a transition, after the soft-bodied (unshelled) organisms of the
Ediacaran are the earliest small cylindrical shells of Cloudina and
Sinotubulites, later in the Proterozoic, to the clam-like shells of the
brachiopods in the Tommotian (Early Cambrian) to the segmented calcite and
chitin shells of the trilobites in the Atdabianian.

520,000,000 YBN
148) Hexactinellid sponge from the Hetang Formation, Southern China.

520,000,000 YBN
6296) Earliest worm fossil, a Chaetognath {KETOnat} (arrow worm).

The fossil is a member of the phylum Chaetognatha (also called arrow worm),
with only about 100 living species, is found in oceans throughout the world and
plays an important role in the food web as primary predators

(Maotianshan Shale ) near Haikou, Kunming, China  
517,000,000 YBN
115) Earliest certain Echinoderm fossils, Helicoplacus.

Helicoplacoids are stem group echinoderms with spiral plating and three
ambulacra arranged radially around a lateral mouth. They are the most primitive
echinoderms and the first to show a radial arrangement of the water vascular
and ambulacral systems.

(Poleta Formation) Bishop, California, USA  
513,000,000 YBN
6351) Ancestor of all Arthropod Crustaceans (shrimps, crabs, lobsters,

(earliest fossils) Shropshire, England  
507,000,000 YBN
140) Aysheaia (onychophoran, also described as lobopod) fossil, from Burgess

507,000,000 YBN
142) Hallucigenia fossil, from Burgess shale.

507,000,000 YBN
145) Priapulid worm fossils of Burgess Shale.
507,000,000 YBN
146) Opabinia fossils of Burgess Shale.
507,000,000 YBN
147) Anomalocaris fossils of Burgess Shale.
505,000,000 YBN
74) Oldest fossil of an arthropod in the process of moulting (ecdysis), the
soft-bodied arthropod Marrella splendens.

(Burgess Shale) British Columbia, Canada.  
505,000,000 YBN
6291) Early Chordata fossil "Pikaia".
(Burgess Shale) Mount Wapta, British Columbia  
501,000,000 YBN
6348) Arthropod Myriapoda {mEREaPeDu} (centipedes and millipedes).
(earliest possible fossils Marine deposits)(Wheeler Formation) Utah, USA and
(Ust-Majan formation) East Siberia|(earliest fossils) Shropshire, England  
488,300,000 YBN
121) End of the Cambrian (542-488.3 mybn), and start of the Ordovician
{ORDiVisiN} (488.3-443.7 mybn) Period.

488,000,000 YBN
6314) The Ordovician (ORDeVisiN} radiation.
During the Ordovician (488-444 million years
ago), the number of genera will quadruple.

488,000,000 YBN
6349) Ancestor of arthropods Chelicerata (KeliSuroTo) (horseshoe crabs, mites,
spiders, scorpions).

(sea spider fossils, Orsten) Sweden  
475,000,000 YBN
244) Non-vascular plants evolve, Bryophyta, (Liverworts, Hornworts, Mosses).

The Bryophytes are the simplest land plants, and reproduce with spores.

475,000,000 YBN
398) Plants live on land. Earliest fossil spores belonging to land plants.
These spores look like the spores of living liverworts and Cooksonia.

Plants conquer land before animals do, and like animals may move to land not by
sea but by freshwater.

Caradoc, Libya  
472,000,000 YBN
402) The first animals live on land, arthropods Myriapoda (centipedes and

(earliest arthropod tracks) Kingston, Ontario, Canada  
460,000,000 YBN
84) Earliest fungi fossil.
Fossilized fungal hyphae and spores strongly resemble modern
arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomales, Zygomycetes).

Wisconsin, USA  
460,000,000 YBN
353) Jawed vertebrates evolve, Gnathostomata {no toST omoTo}. This large group
includes all jawed fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds. First
vertebrate teeth.

The jaw evolves from parts of the gill skeleton. The earliest jawed
vertebrates, have no bone; there skeleton is made of cartilage. The human
skeleton starts as cartilage in the embyro, and then most becomes ossified when
mineral crystals become integrated into the skeleton.

460,000,000 YBN
404) Jawed fishes Chondrichthyes {KoN-DriK-tE-EZ} (Cartilaginous fishes:
ancestor of all sharks, rays, skates, and sawfishes).

The fossil record of Chondrichthyans dates to around 455 million years ago, but
the earliest Chondrichthyan fossil dates to 409 million years ago.

450,000,000 YBN
158) Amino acid sequence comparison shows the gnathostome (vertebrates with a
jaw bone) line separating from lamprey line here at 450 mybn (first

443,700,000 YBN
122) End of the Ordovician (488.3-443.7 mybn), and start of the Silurian
(443.7-416) Period.

443,000,000 YBN
90) End-Ordovician mass extinction. 60% of all genera are observed extinct.
440,000,000 YBN
236) Vascular plants evolve.

Vascular plants are any plant that has a specialized conducting system
consisting mostly of phloem (food-conducting tissue) and xylem
(water-conducting tissue), collectively called vascular tissue.

Earliest spores of vascular plants.

440,000,000 YBN
360) Jawed fishes, Ray-finned fishes evolve. This is the fist bony fish
(Osteichthyes) which includes the ray-finned, lobefin, and lung fishes.
Bony-fish have a skeleton at least partly composed of true bone.

Ocean and fresh water  
440,000,000 YBN
6172) The first lung evolves, in ray-finned fishes, from the swim bladder. Some
surviving teleosts, such as bowfins, gars, and bichirs still use their swim
bladder for breathing. Fish that breathe air through their gill chamber evolved
breathing through a completely different route than those fish that breathe
with a lung.

Ocean (presumably)  
425,000,000 YBN
377) Jawed fishes, Lobefin fishes evolve. Coelacanths. Lobefin fish have a
fleshy lobe at the base of each fin. The Coelacanths are the earliest known
lobefin fish. There are 2 living species of coelacanths known.

420,000,000 YBN
6350) Arthropods Hexapods (arthropods with six legs {3 pairs}, includes all

(Rhynie chert) Scotland  
417,000,000 YBN
378) Lobefin fishes, Lungfishes.
416,000,000 YBN
123) End of the Silurian (443.7-416 mybn), and start of the Devonian {DiVONEiN}
(416-359.2 mybn) Period.

415,000,000 YBN
401) Earliest fossil of land plant, Cooksonia. This is also the oldest fossil
of a vascular land plant.

Cooksonia is only a few centimeters tall. It has slender, leafless branches
with Y shaped forks, topped by capsules that relase microscopic spores. Some
fossils have a dark stripe in their stems which may be the remains of vascular
tissue, used by plants to move water.

(Wenlock strata) Devilsbit Mountain district of County Tipperary, Ireland  
410,000,000 YBN
6352) Hexapods: insects.
The most primitive living insects are the order Archaeognatha,
the Bristletails.

410,000,000 YBN
6354) Early arachnid fossils: trigonotarbids, spider-like arthropods with
lung-books, the typical breathing organs of most of the larger recent living
Unlike true spiders, Pleophrynus lacks poison and silk glands.

(Rhynie chert) Scotland  
400,000,000 YBN
159) Amino acid sequence comparison shows the tetrapod (4 leg) line separating
from the fish line here at 400 mybn (first tetrapod).

400,000,000 YBN
399) Earliest fossil of an insect; thought to be a winged insect.
Rhynie Chert , Scotland (and Gaspé Peninsula of Québec, Canada)  
390,000,000 YBN
411) The first flying animal, an arthropod insect. Ancestor of all winged
insects (Pterygota {TARiGOTu}) (Mayflies, Dragonflies, Damselflies).

The most primitive living pterygotes are the Ephemeroptera (Mayflies) and the
Odonata (Dragonflies and damselflies). Unlike most other flying insects both
the Ephemeroptera and Odonata have freshwater aquatic larvae, presumed to be an
ancestral habit.

Insect wings evolved only once, and all winged insects descend from the first
winged insect.

How flight evolved in insects is still debated. A terrestrial origin of
pterygotes is supported by the fact that the most basal insects (apterygotes),
the Zygentoma and Archeognatha are fully terrestrial. One theory suggests that
wings provide early insects with the ability to glide, and eventually to
control the aerial descent of the insect from perches of tall plants. Another
theory has the wing evolving like movable abdominal gills. The development of
wings may have helped early insects to escape predators.

(Wamsutta Formation) southeastern Massachusetts and Upper Silesian Basin, Czech
386,000,000 YBN
406) Oldest fossil spider.
(Givetian of) Gilboa, New York  
385,000,000 YBN
405) The first forests. Earliest large trees fossils.

First progymnosperms (treelike plants).

Gilboa, New York, USA  
380,000,000 YBN
6330) The fish "Tiktaalik" {TiK ToLiK}, an important transition between fish
and amphibian.

(Fram Formation) Nunavut Territory, Canada  
375,000,000 YBN
380) The first tetrapods (organisms with four feet), the amphibians evolve in
fresh water. The first vertebrate limbs (arms and legs) and fingers. Ancestor
of caecillians, frogs, toads, and salamanders.

Almost no amphibians live in sea water.

The earliest fossil amphibian is Elginerpeton, found in Scotland, and dates
back 368 million years.

Fresh water, Greenland (on the equator)  
368,000,000 YBN
407) Oldest amphibian (and tetrapod) fossil.
Tetrapods are four-limbed, vertebrate
animals (all vertebrates except fish).

Elgin, Morayshire, Scotland  
367,000,000 YBN
408) Late Devonian mass extinction caused by ice age. 57% of all genera are
observed extinct.

365,000,000 YBN
160) Amino acid sequence comparison shows the amniote () line separating from
the amphibian line here at 365 mybn (first amniote).

363,000,000 YBN
379) The first vertebrates live on land (amphibians).
Fresh water, Greenland (on the equator)  
360,000,000 YBN
237) Vascular plants ferns evolve.

Ferns are are flowerless, seedless vascular plants having roots, stems, and
fronds (the leaf-like part of a fern or leaf of a palm) and reproducing by

360,000,000 YBN
6353) The Neoptera, folding wing insects.

Ephemeroptera and Odonata, the most primitive living pterygota, do not live on
the ground. It seems likely that selective pressures on the first winged
insects heavily favor the development of some mechanism for folding the wings
against the body after landing, making them less conspicuous, less awkward, and
less susceptible to breakage.

One of the earliest folded wing fossils is "Archimylacris eggintoni", a
Carboniferous stem-group dictyopteran ("roachoid"), from the United Kingdom,
around 311 million years old.

(Fossil: Archimylacris eggintoni, Coseley Lagerstätte) Staffordshire, UK  
359,200,000 YBN
124) End of the Devonian (416-359.2 mybn), and start of the Carboniferous
(359.2-299 mybn) Period.

359,000,000 YBN
243) The first plant seed evolves.
The earliest fossil seed is from a seed fern
(Pteridosperm {TARiDOSPRM}).

Discoveries of Lower Carboniferous fossils in Scotland indicate that the
integument (cover) and the cupule wall (cup-shaped wall) of the pteridosperms
(seed ferns) evolved from an enclosing ring of vegetative lobes that fused

Pteridosperms are a group of extinct seed plants characterized by fernlike
leaves that produce naked seeds.

350,000,000 YBN
361) Ray-finned fishes, Sturgeons and Paddlefish.
350,000,000 YBN
362) Ray finned fishes: Bichirs evolve.
350,000,000 YBN
6355) The Neoptera: Dictyoptera {DiKTEoPTRu} (Cockroaches, Termites, and

340,000,000 YBN
384) The hard-shell egg evolves. The Amniota {aMnEOtu} (ancestor of reptiles,
mammals and birds). The hard-shell egg is waterproof. This is the start of
vertebrate internal fertilization, because on land the egg cannot be fertilized
as most fishes and amphibians do, by a male swimming near the eggs and spraying
them with sperm. Amniote males and females must copulate so that the sperm can
reach the eggs inside the female.

Amniotes (reptiles, mammals, and birds) are distinguished from non-amniote
tetrapods (amphibians) by the presence of complex embryonic membranes. One of
these, the amnion, gives its name to the group.

All living amniotes (reptiles, birds, and mammals) lay hard-shelled eggs,
except in most mammals and some snakes and lizards, where egg laying has been
replaced by live birth.

The earliest known amniotes, Westlothiana (~338 MY) and Hylonomus (~300 MY),
are also the earliest known reptiles.

Bathgate, West Lothian, Scotland  
338,000,000 YBN
410) Earliest amniote fossil.
Bathgate, West Lothian, Scotland  
335,000,000 YBN
6331) The tetrapod Amniota divide into the Sauropsida {SOR-roP-SiDu} (which
includes reptiles and birds) and the Synapsida {Si-naP-Si-Du} (which includes

The Sauropsids have two major lineages: the Parareptilia (turtles) and the
Eureptilia (dinosaurs, crocodiles and birds). The Synapsids also have two major
lineages: pelycosaurs (sail-backed) and therapsids (mammal-like).

(earliest possible Synapsid fossil: Cumberland group, Joggins formation.)
Joggins, Nova Scotia, Canada  
330,000,000 YBN
409) Oldest fossil conifer.

330,000,000 YBN
6307) The Synapsids Pelycosauria {PeLiKuSOREu} evolve (includes Edaphosaurus
{eDaFoSORuS}, Dimetrodon).

325,000,000 YBN
381) The Amphibians: Caecilians evolve.
320,000,000 YBN
238) Gymnosperms evolve. Gymnosperm is Greek for "Naked Seed". Gymnosperms are
the earliest surviving seed plants, Spermatophyta, and ancestor of all Cycads,
Ginkos and Conifers) evolve.

The most primitive extant Gymnosperms, the Cycads evolve now.

320,000,000 YBN
6356) The Neoptera: Orthoptera evolve (Crickets, Grasshoppers, Locusts, Walking

320,000,000 YBN
6364) Neoptera: Plectopterida (Stoneflies, webspinners).
317,000,000 YBN
385) Sauropsids Reptiles evolve (ancestor of all turtles, crocodiles,
pterosaurs, dinosaurs and birds).

Reptiles are a group of air-breathing vertebrates that have internal
fertilization, and with the exception of the birds, have a scaly body, and are
cold-blooded. Most species have short legs (or none), long tails, and lay eggs.
Living reptiles include the scaly reptiles (snakes and lizards: Squamata), the
crocodiles (Crocodylia), the turtles (Testudines), and the unique tuatara
(Sphenodontida). Being cold-blooded, reptiles are not found in very cold
regions. Extinct reptiles include the dinosaurs, the pterosaurs, and the
dolphin-like ichthyosaurs.

(Joggins Formation) Nova Scotia, Canada  
310,000,000 YBN
6357) The Neoptera: Paraneoptera (bark lice, true lice, thrips, and the
Hemiptera {HemiPTRu} who have mouthparts adapted for piercing and sucking:
Cicadas, Aphids, and "true bugs": such as Bed bugs, and Stink bugs).

310,000,000 YBN
6359) Ancestor of all Neoptera Holometabola: Holometabolous insects (beetles,
bees, true flies, and butterflies). Complete metamorphosis.

The Neoptera Holometabola (also called Endopterygota) are insects that have
complete metamorphosis (holometabolous development). Unlike hemimetabolous
insects in which the immature structures (legs, eyes, antennae, etc.) must also
serve the adults, holometabolous insects have a larval stage and acquire a
completely new body during the pupal stage. Start of larvae.

310,000,000 YBN
6366) Holometabolous Insects: Panorpida {PaNORPidu}, ancestor of all Mecoptera
(scorpionflies), Siphonaptera (fleas), Diptera (true flies), Trichoptera
{TriKoPTRu} (caddis flies), and Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies).

305,000,000 YBN
242) Earliest frog fossils.
305,000,000 YBN
382) Amphibians: Anura {unRu} (Frogs and Toads) evolve.
305,000,000 YBN
383) Amphibians: Salamanders evolve.
300,000,000 YBN
162) Amino acid sequence comparison shows that the common ancestor of all
mammals, birds, and reptiles dates to here at 300 mybn.

300,000,000 YBN
387) Reptiles Testudines {TeSTUDinEZ}: Turtles, Tortoises and Terrapins.
300,000,000 YBN
1310) Stramenopiles Golden algae (Chrysophyta {KriSoFiTu}).
299,000,000 YBN
125) End of the Carboniferous (359.2-299 mybn), and start of the Permian
(299-251 mybn) Period.

299,000,000 YBN
6360) Holometabola: Coleoptera {KOlEoPTRu} (Beetles).

The earliest fossil beetle.

(Pennsylvanian deposit) Mazon Creek, Illinois, USA  
290,000,000 YBN
239) Gymnosperms: Ginkgos.
290,000,000 YBN
6358) Holometabola: Hymenoptera (ancestor of all bees, ants, and wasps).
287,000,000 YBN
6308) Synapsid Therapsids evolve (Cynodonts).

Therapsids evolve from Pelycosaurs and largely replace them for a time as the
dominant terrestrial vertebrates. Therapsids appear in the late Permian and
prosper during the early Triassic. The Therapsids are quadruperal and their
feet have five digits, but their legs are more directly positioned under the
weight of their body. This reflects a more efficient and active mode of

One particularly successful group of therapsids are the cynodonts. By the
Triassic, only one group of cynodonts, the mammals, will remain and eventually
prosper after the great dinosaur extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous.

280,000,000 YBN
6365) Ancestor of Holometablous insects Neuropterida (lacewings, snakeflies).
274,000,000 YBN
307) Ancestor of all Protists: Phaeophyta {FEoFiTu} (Brown Algae).

Many of the Earth's familiar seaweeds are members of Phaeophyta, like the giant
kelps. Brown algae derive their color from the presence, in the cell
chloroplasts, of several brownish carotenoid pigments. With only a few
exceptions, brown algae are marine.

270,000,000 YBN
240) Gymnosperms: Pinophyta {PInoFiTu} (Conifers: includes Pine, Fir, Spruce,
Redwood, Cedar, Juniper, Hemlock, Larch, and Cypress).

The gymnosperms, are a division of seed plants characterized as vascular plants
with roots, stems, and leaves, and with seeds that are not enclosed in an ovary
but are borne on cone scales or exposed at the end of a stalk.

266,000,000 YBN
308) Protists: Diatoms.

Diatoms are microscopic one-celled or colonial algae, having cell walls of
silica consisting of two interlocking symmetrical valves.

260,000,000 YBN
232) Earliest warm-blooded and hair growing animal.

Both birds and mammals are endothermic (also called "warm blooded") as opposed
to other vertebrates which are ectothermic (or "cold blooded) and cannot
internally generate heat.
Endothermy is the physiological maintenance, by a body, of
a constant temperature independent of the external environmental temperature.
Hair for insulation is correlated to endothermy. Endothermy allows birds and
mammals to maintain a high and relatively constant body temperature, even at
rest, during a wide range of external environmental conditions.

260,000,000 YBN
364) Ray-finned fishes: Gars.
256,000,000 YBN
6362) Holometabola: Diptera {DiPTRe} true flies, single pair of wings:
mosquito, gnat, fruit fly, house fly).

255,000,000 YBN
389) Reptiles: Tuataras {TUeToRoZ} evolve.
(Islands of) New Zealand  
251,400,000 YBN
102) End-Permian mass extinction. 82% of all genera are observed extinct.

The are 5 known major mass extinctions.

251,000,000 YBN
54) End of the Paleozoic and start of the Mesozoic Era, and the end of the
Permian (299-251 mybn) and start of the Triassic (251-201.6 mybn) period.

251,000,000 YBN
452) The supercontinent Pangea (PaNJEe) forms.
251,000,000 YBN
6306) Oldest fossil amniote egg.
Texas (verify)  
250,000,000 YBN
368) Ray-finned fishes: Bowfin fishes.
245,000,000 YBN
392) Reptiles: Crocodilia {KroKoDiLEu} (Crocodiles, allegators, and caimans
{KAmeNS}) evolve.

228,000,000 YBN
412) Reptiles: Dinosaurs evolve.
(Ischigualasto Formation) Valley of the Moon, Ischigualasto Provinvial Park,
northwestern Argestina  
228,000,000 YBN
611) Dinosaurs divide into two major lines: Ornithischians {ORnitiSKEiNZ}
(Bird-hipped dinosaurs) and Saurischians {SoriSKEiNZ} (Lizard-hipped
dinosaurs). The Ornithischians will evolve into both bipedal and quadrupedal
plant-eaters, and the Saurischians will evolve into bipedal meat-eaters and
quadrupedal plant-eaters.

228,000,000 YBN
6282) Saurischian {SoriSKEiN} Dinosaurs split into two major lines: The
Sauropodomorpha (SoroPiDimORFu} and the Therapoda {tiRoPiDu}.

Sauropodomorphs are divided into prosauropods and sauropods, are mostly
plant-eating, and include the large, long-necked dinosaurs like Apatosaurus.

Theropod {tERePoD} dinosaurs are bipedal and carnivorous and include
Allosaurus, Tyrannosaurus, and Velociraptor. All birds descend from a Therapod

(Ischigualasto Formation) Valley of the Moon, Ischigualasto Provinvial Park,
northwestern Argestina  
228,000,000 YBN
6283) Earliest dinosaur fossil, the Theropod Eoraptor.
This dinosaur is a cat-sized meat

(Ischigualasto Formation) Valley of the Moon, Ischigualasto Provinvial Park,
northwestern Argestina  
225,000,000 YBN
126) Mammals evolve. First nipple, mammary gland, and breast.

The earliest evidence for mammals is the fossil Adelobasileus, a 15mm skull
found in Texas.

Adelobasileus belongs to a monophyletic group that includes Morganucodon,
multituberculates, monotremes, and therians.

(Describe oldest hair fossil.)
(Describe issue of endothermic anatomy evolving in common
ancestor of birds and mammals, or independently evolved twice?)

(Dockum Formation) Kalgary, Crosby County, Texas, USA  
220,000,000 YBN
400) Earliest mammal fossil (Adelobasileus).
(Dockum Formation) Kalgary, Crosby County, Texas, USA  
220,000,000 YBN
428) The first flying vertebrate (Pterosaur).
Oldest Pterosaur fossils.

Pterosaurs have hair, and some argue have endothermy (are warm-blooded) and
actively fly (contracting their wing muscles to flap, as opposed to only

210,000,000 YBN
317) Reptiles: Squamata (ancestor of lizards and snakes).
210,000,000 YBN
369) Ancestor of all (Ray-Finned) teleost (TeLEoST) fishes evolves.

Teleosts (Subdivision Teleostei) are a large group of fishes with bony
skeletons, including most common fishes, different from cartilaginous fishes
such as sharks and rays.

210,000,000 YBN
390) Reptiles Iguania evolves: (iguanas, chameleons, and spiny lizards).
210,000,000 YBN
391) Reptiles: Scleroglossa evolve (snakes, skinks, and geckos).
210,000,000 YBN
413) Oldest turtle fossil, Proganochelys.
210,000,000 YBN
6313) Teleosts: Bonytongues.
209,500,000 YBN
489) Triconodonta (extinct mammals) evolve.
201,600,000 YBN
127) End of the Triassic (251-201.6 mybn), and start of the Jurassic
(201.6-145.5 mybn) Period.

201,400,000 YBN
228) End-Triassic mass extinction. 53% of all genera are observed extinct.

Both thecodonts and synapsids go extinct.

Large outpourings of lava from break-up of Pangea may have caused climate

200,000,000 YBN
370) Teleosts: eels and tarpons evolve.
200,000,000 YBN
6285) Earliest certain dinoflagellate fossil.
200,000,000 YBN
6372) Ornithischians Thyreophora {tIrEoFeru} evolve; ancestor of the armored
ankylosaurs {ANKilOSORZ} and the plated stegosaurs {STeGeSORZ}.

One of the most primitive Thyreophorans is Scutellosaurus which has rows of
armored plates along its body and tail.

(Kayenta Formation) Arizona, USA  
195,000,000 YBN
246) Sauropods {SoRuPoDZ} evolve; ancestor of the large, long-necked dinosaurs
like Apatosaurus {uPaTuSORuS}, Brachiosaurus {BrAKEuSORuS}, and Diplodocus

western USA  
195,000,000 YBN
6373) Ornithischians ornithopoda {ORnitoPiDu} evolve; the duck-billed
dinosaurs, ancestor of the Hadrosaurs.

One of the most primitive Ornithopods is Heterodontosaurus.

190,000,000 YBN
358) Cartilaginous fishes: squalea {SKWAlEo} evolve, ancestor of all rays,
skates, and sawfishes.

190,000,000 YBN
359) Cartilaginous fishes: "Galea" {GAlEu} evolve, (ancestor of all sharks:
includes great white, hammerhead, mako, tiger and nurse sharks).

190,000,000 YBN
371) Teleosts: herrings and anchovies.
190,000,000 YBN
6289) Supercontinent Pangea splits into Laurasia and Gondwana. The northern
part, Laurasia will form North America and Europe. The southern part, Gondwana
will form South America and Africa.

190,000,000 YBN
6347) Holometabola Lepidoptera {lePiDoPTRu} evolve (moths, butterflies,

The earliest fossil of Lepidoptera is from the early Jurassic in England and is
190 MYO.

Dorset, England  
185,000,000 YBN
194) Earliest diatom fossils.
180,000,000 YBN
456) Earliest extant mammals, Monotremes {moNeTrEMZ} evolve.

Monotremes are an order of primitive egg-laying mammals restricted to
Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea and consisting of only the platypus and the

Monotremes are the earliest surviving warm blooded and hair growing species.
(verify- perhaps the earliest bird is)

Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea  
170,000,000 YBN
372) Teleosts: carp, minnows, piranhas.
170,000,000 YBN
373) Teleosts: salmon, trout, pike.
165,000,000 YBN
457) Ancestor of all Marsupials.
161,000,000 YBN
6369) Holometabola Siphonaptera: fleas.
(Jiulongshan Formation) Daohugou, Ningcheng County, Inner Mongolia  
160,000,000 YBN
163) Amino acid sequence comparison shows the eutheria (placental mammals) line
separating from the marsupial line here at 130 mybn (first placental mammals).

The oldest known eutherian species is Juramaia sinensis, dated at 160 million
years ago from the Jurassic in China.

(Daxigou) Jianchang County, Liaoning Province, China  
150,000,000 YBN
330) Stegosaurus, an armored, plant-eating Thyreophoran {tIRrEoFereN} dinosaur
lives around this time.

western USA  
150,000,000 YBN
374) Teleosts: Lightfish and Dragonfish.
150,000,000 YBN
393) Birds evolve. The first feather.

The oldest fossil bird is named Archaeoptyrx, is 150 million years old, and is
from the Solnhofen Limestone of Germany.

Fossils of therapod dinosaurs from China (~120 MYBN) indicate that feathers may
have originally evolved on non-flying reptiles for insulation (or courting) and
not flight. (Note that the fossil is not older than Archeoptyrx ~150MYBN but
the species is.)

Microraptor gui, a 120 million year old four-winged feathered dinosaur that
could probably glide, may represent an intermediate stage towards the active,
flapping-flight stage. This suggests that these feathered dinosaurs are
arboreal (tree) animals, and that the ancestor of birds first learns to glide
by taking advantage of gravity before flapping flight is acquired in birds.

The earliest bird with a beak is Confuciusornis, which also dates to around 120
million years old.

Birds have highly developed color vision. Both birds and reptiles have
nucleated red blood cells but the mammal red blood cell has no nucleus.
(There are many
unsolved questions about birds. Did birds evolve flight from trees or from the
ground? From what part of the body did feathers evolve? What colors were the
first birds? Was Archaeopteryx warm blooded?)

(All living birds are endothermic (warm-blooded), so determine if the first
warm-blooded animal is bird instead of a mammal.)

(Describe anatomy, various systems {sense organs, diet}. Describe what the
thought and eye images might look like, and what the thought-sounds might sound
like on these species.)

150,000,000 YBN
394) Oldest bird (and feather) fossil, Archaeopteryx.
Solnhofen, Germany  
150,000,000 YBN
6374) Sauropods {SoRuPoDZ} are common; large, long-necked dinosaurs like
Apatosaurus {uPaTuSORuS}, Brachiosaurus {BrAKEuSORuS}, and Diplodocus

western USA  
146,000,000 YBN
490) Multituberculata (extinct major branch of mammals) evolve.
145,000,000 YBN
245) The first flowering plant (angiosperm).

Almost all grains, beans, nuts, fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices come from
plants with flowers. Much of our clothing comes from flowering plants too:
cotton, linen, rope and burlap are made from "fibers" of flowering plants, as
are rope and burlap, and many commercial dyes and drugs come from flowering

Angiosperms represent approximately 80 percent of all the known green plants
now living. The angiosperms are vascular seed plants in which the ovule (egg)
is fertilized and develops into a seed in an enclosed hollow ovary. The ovary
is usually enclosed in a flower, the part of the angiosperm that contains the
male or female reproductive organs or both. The fruit is the ovary of a plant
which encloses seeds.

Israel, Morocco, Libya, and possibly China  
145,000,000 YBN
415) Oldest flower fossil, Archaefructus, in China, a submerged wetland plant.
(Yixian Formation) Liaoning Province, northeastern China  
144,000,000 YBN
128) End of the Jurassic (201.6-145.5 mybn), and start of the Cretaceous
(145.5-65.5 mybn) Period.

143,000,000 YBN
6288) Earliest extant flower "Amborella".
140,000,000 YBN
247) The second most primitive living Angiosperms, ("Nymphaeales")
{niM-FE-o-lAZ}, the Water Lilies.

136,000,000 YBN
460) Enantiornithes {iNaNTEORNitEZ} evolve (early birds).
134,000,000 YBN
250) Ancestor of all flowers: "Magnoliids" {maGnOlEiDZ} (nutmeg, avocado,
sassafras, cinnamon, black and white pepper, camphor, bay (or laurel) leaves,

133,000,000 YBN
253) Flowers Eudicots {YUDIKoTS} evolve (the largest lineage of flowers).

The two main groups of the Eudicots are the "rosids" and the "asterids".

Eudicots are also called "tricolpates" which refers to the structure of the

132,000,000 YBN
462) Hesperornithiformes (early birds) evolve.

130,000,000 YBN
375) Teleosts: Perch, seahorses, flying fish, pufferfish, barracuda.
130,000,000 YBN
376) Teleosts: cod, anglerfish.
130,000,000 YBN
6338) Feathered dinosaur microraptors fossils.
Northeastern China  
125,000,000 YBN
395) Earliest fossil of a bird with a beak, Confuciusornis.

Unlike Archaeopteryx, Confuciusornis had no teeth, and has the earliest beak.

(Yixian Formation) Liaoning Province, northeastern China  
120,000,000 YBN
463) Neornithes {nEORnitEZ} evolve (modern birds: the most recent common
ancestor of all living birds).

112,000,000 YBN
252) Flowers Monocotyledons (or "Monocots") evolve: Flowering plants that have
a single cotyledon (or seed leaf) in the embryo.

Monocots are the second largest lineage of flowers after the Eudicots, and
include lilies, palms, orchids, and grasses.

The two main orders of Monocots are "Base Monocots" and "Commelinids".

112,000,000 YBN
481) Earliest Monotreme fossil.
Lightning Ridge in north central New South Wales, Australia  
110,000,000 YBN
416) Sauroposeidon, a long-neck brachiosaur (sauropod) lives.
Oklahoma, USA  
108,000,000 YBN
254) Flowers: "Basal Eudicots" (buttercup, clematis, poppy {source of opium and
morphine}, macadamia, lotus, sycamore).

106,000,000 YBN
267) Flowers "Core Eudicots" (carnation, cactus, caper, buckwheat, rhubarb,
sundew, venus flytrap, old world pitcher plants, beet, quinoa, spinach,
currant, sweet gum, peony, witch-hazel, mistletoe, grape plants.).

105,000,000 YBN
417) Sauropod Argentinosaurus {oRJeNTiNuSORuS}, possibly the longest animal of
all time.

105,000,000 YBN
491) Ancestor of all placental mammal Afrotheres evolves (elephants, manatees,

Afrotheres originate in Africa and are the earliest extant placental mammals.

100,000,000 YBN
164) Amino acid sequence comparison shows the mammal line separating from the
primate line here at 100 mybn (first primates).

100,000,000 YBN
418) Carnotaurus fossil, a horned, meat-eating (theropod) dinosaur from South

South America  
100,000,000 YBN
464) Birds "Tinamiformes" evolve (Tinamous).

The tinamous, an order of South and Central American birds which are
superficially fowl-like but have fully developed wings and are weak fliers.

100,000,000 YBN
465) Birds "Ratites" evolve (ostrich, emu, cassowary {KaSOwaRE}, kiwis).
95,000,000 YBN
419) The Therapod {tERePoD} Spinosaurus {SPINuSORuS}, perhaps the largest
meat-eating dinosaur.

95,000,000 YBN
498) Mammals "Xenarthrans" {ZeNoRtreNZ} evolve (Sloths, Anteaters, Armadillos).
93,000,000 YBN
256) Flowers: "Rosids" evolve (Basal Rosids include: geranium, pomegranate,
myrtle, clove, guava, allspice, and eucalyptus).

93,000,000 YBN
261) Rosids "Fabales" {FoBAlEZ}.

Fabales include many beans (green, lima, kidney, pinto, navy, black, mung,
fava, cow (or black-eyed), popping), pea, peanut, soy {used in tofu, miso,
tempeh, and milk}, lentil, chick pea (or garbonzo) {used in falafel}, lupin,
clover, alfalfa {used as sprouts}, cassia {Kasu}, jicama, Judas tree, tamarind
{TaMuriND}, acacia {uKAsYu}, mesquite.

93,000,000 YBN
265) Flowers "Base Monocots" evolve (vanilla, orchid, asparagus, onion, garlic,
agave, aloe, lily).

93,000,000 YBN
266) Monocots "Commelinids" {KomelIniDZ} evolve (palms, coconut, corn, rice,
barley, oat, wheat, rye, sugarcane, bamboo, grass, pineapple, papyrus, turmeric
{TRmRiK}, banana, ginger).

93,000,000 YBN
274) "Basal Asterids" evolve. "Cornales" (dogwoods, tupelos, dove tree).
93,000,000 YBN
275) Basal Asterids "Ericales" {AReKAlEZ} (kiwi, ebony, persimmon, blueberry,
cranberry, brazil nut, new world pitcher plants, tea).

93,000,000 YBN
283) Asterids "Apiales" {APEAlEZ} evolve.
Apiales includes dill, angelica, chervil
{CRViL}, celery, caraway, cumin, sea holly, poison hemlock, coriander (or
cilantro), carrot, lovage {LuViJ}, parsnip, anise {aNiS}, fennel, cicely
{SiSelE}, parsley, ivy, ginseng.

93,000,000 YBN
285) Asterids "Asterales" {aSTRAlEZ} evolve.

Asterales includes burdock, tarragon, daisy, marigold, safflower, chrysanthemum
(mums), chickory, endive, artichoke, sunflower, sunroot (Jerusalem artichoke),
lettuce, chamomile, black-eyed susan, salsify {SoLSiFE}, dandelion, and zinnia.

91,000,000 YBN
259) Rosids: "Malpighiales" {maLPiGEAlEZ} evolve (includes gamboge {GaM BOJ},
mangosteen {mANGuSTEN}, coca {used in cocaine and drinks}, rubber tree, cassava
(or manioc {maNEoK}) {used like a potato, and in tapioca}, castor oil,
poinsettia, flax, acerola {aSorOlu} (barbados cherry), willow, poplar, aspen,
and violet (or pansy).

90,000,000 YBN
270) Rosids "Brassicales" {BraSiKAlEZ} evolve.

Brassicales includes horseradish, rapeseed, mustard, rutabaga, kale, Chinese
broccoli (kai-lan {KI laN}), cauliflower, collard greens, cabbage (used in
coleslaw and sauerkraut), Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi {KOLroBE}, broccoli,
watercress, radish, wasabi, mignonette {miNYuNeT}, and papaya.

89,000,000 YBN
262) Rosids "Rosales" {ROZAlEZ} evolves (includes hemp, hop, breadfruit,
jackfruit, fig, strawberry, rose, raspberry, blackberry, apple, crabapple,
pear, plum, cherry, peach, apricot, almond, and elm).

89,000,000 YBN
279) Asterids "Gentianales" {JeNsinAlEZ} evolve.
Gentianales includes gentian,
dogbane, carissa (Natal plum), oleander, logania, and coffee.

86,000,000 YBN
278) Asterids "Solanales" {SOlanAlEZ} evolve (includes bell pepper, paprika,
Jalapeño, cayenne pepper {KI YeN}, tomato, tobacco, petunia, tomatillo,
potato, eggplant, and sweet potato).

85,000,000 YBN
263) Rosids "Cucurbitales" (KYUKRBiTAlEZ} evolve.
Cucurbitales includes watermelon,
musk, cantaloupe, honeydew, casaba, cucumbers, gourds, pumpkins, squashes
(acorn, buttercup, butternut, cushaw {Kuso}, hubbard, pattypan, spaghetti),
zucchini, and begonia.

85,000,000 YBN
264) Rosids "Fagales" {FaGAlEZ} evolve.
Fagales includes many flowers that produce
edible nuts: Birch, Hazel {nut}, Filbert {nut}, Chestnut, Beech {nut}, Oak
{used for wood, and cork}, Walnut, Pecan, Hickory, and Bayberry.

85,000,000 YBN
466) Birds "Galliformes" {GaLliFORmEZ} evolve (Chicken, Turkey, Pheasant,
Peacock, Quail).

85,000,000 YBN
467) Birds "Anseriformes" {aNSRiFORmEZ} evolve (waterfowl: ducks, geese,

85,000,000 YBN
499) Ancestor of all placental mammal "Laurasiatheres" evolves.

Laurasiatheres originate in the old northern continent Laurasia.

84,000,000 YBN
454) The Rocky mountains start to form.
82,000,000 YBN
271) Rosids "Malvales" {moLVAlEZ} evolve.
Malvales includes okra, marsh mallow {malO},
kola nut, cotton, hibiscus, balsa, and cacao {KoKoU} (used in chocolate).

82,000,000 YBN
272) Rosids "Sapindales" {SaPiNDAlEZ} evolve (includes maple, horse chestnut,
lychee, mahogany, cashew, mango, pistachio, poison-ivy, and the citrus trees:
orange, lemon, and grapefruit).

82,000,000 YBN
420) Hadrosaurs, Ornithopod {ORniTePoD} (duck-billed) dinosaurs.
82,000,000 YBN
500) Laurasiatheres "Insectivora" evolves (shrews, moles, hedgehogs).
80,000,000 YBN
421) The Ornithiscian Ceratopsian dinosaurs evolve. Protoceratops.
Mongolia, China  
80,000,000 YBN
422) Therapods {tERePoD} Dromaeosaurs {DrOmEoSORZ}: Raptors.

Raptors are Cretaceous dinosaurs, which have large, hook claws on their feet.
Velociraptor is one example.

80,000,000 YBN
482) Marsupials: New World Opossums.
80,000,000 YBN
501) Laurasiatheres "Chiroptera" {KIroPTRu} (fruit bats, echolocating bats).
78,000,000 YBN
502) Laurasiatheres "Cetartiodactyla" {SiToRTEODaKTilu} evolve (ancestor of all
Artiodactyla {oRTEODaKTiLu} also called "even-toed ungulates": camels, pigs,
ruminants {includes deer, giraffe, cattle, sheep, and antelope}, hippos, and
all Cetacea {SiTASEu or SiTAsEu}: Whales, and Dolphins).

The artiodactyla are an order comprising the even-toed ungulates {uNGYUlATS or
uNGYUliTS} (hoofed mammals).

Cetacea is an order or marine mammals that includes the whales, dolphins, and

77,000,000 YBN
483) Marsupials "Paucituberculata" evolve (Shrew opossums).
Andes Mountains, South America  
76,000,000 YBN
503) Laurasiatheres "Perissodactyla" {PeriSODaKTilu} evolve (also called
"odd-toed ungulates") {uNGYUlATS or uNGYUliTS} (Horses, Tapirs {TAPRZ },

75,000,000 YBN
423) Ceratopsian dinosaurs are common (Monoclonius, Styrakosaurus,

75,000,000 YBN
492) Afrotheres: Aardvark.
75,000,000 YBN
504) Laurasiatheres order "Carnivora" (Cats, Dogs, Bears, Weasels, Hyenas,
Seals, Walruses).

75,000,000 YBN
505) Laurasuatheres mammal order "Pholidota" evolves (Pangolin).

Kingdom: Animalia
Class: Mammalia
Subclass: Eutheria
Superorder Laurasiatheria

74,000,000 YBN
280) Asterid order "Lamiales" {lAmEAlEZ} evolve (includes many spices: mint,
basil, marjoram {moRJ uruM}, oregano, rosemary, sage, savory, thyme, teak,
sesame, snapdragon, olive, ash, lilac, and jasmine).

73,000,000 YBN
484) Marsupials: Bandicoots and Bilbies {BiLBEZ}.
70,000,000 YBN
424) Two of the largest meat-eating dinosaurs known are common (both Therapods
{tERePoD}): Tyrannosaurus rex is the top predator in North America and
Giganotosaurus is in South America.

70,000,000 YBN
425) The Thyreophoran {tIRrEoFereNZ} ankylosaurs evolve (shield back and/or
clubbed tail dinosaurs) and are the most heavily armored land-animals known.

70,000,000 YBN
426) Mosasaurs {mOSeSORZ}, marine reptiles evolve.
70,000,000 YBN
469) Birds "Podicipediformes" {PoDiSiPeDeFORmEZ} (grebes {GreBS}).
70,000,000 YBN
507) Placental Mammals: Rabbits, Hares, and Pikas {PIKuZ}.
70,000,000 YBN
516) Placental Mammals: Tree Shrews and Colugos {KolUGOZ}.
70,000,000 YBN
1383) Giant bird-like Theropod dinosaur Gigantoraptor.
66,000,000 YBN
120) Largest Pterosaur and largest flying animal ever known, Quetzalcoatlus

65,500,000 YBN
129) End of the Mesozoic and start of the Cenozoic Era, and the end of the
Cretaceous (145.5-65.5 mybn), and start of the Tertiary (65.5-1.8 mybn) Period.

65,500,000 YBN
397) End-Cretaceous mass extinction. 47% of all genera are observed extinct.
65,000,000 YBN
429) Start of rapid diversification of mammals.

There is a rapid increase in new species of fossil mammals after the extinction
of the dinosaurs.

Most early Cenozoic mammal fossils are small.

65,000,000 YBN
468) Birds "Gruiformes" {GrUiFORmEZ} evolve (cranes, rails, bustards).
65,000,000 YBN
470) Birds "Strigiformes" {STriJiFORmEZ} evolve (owls).
65,000,000 YBN
485) Marsupial moles.
65,000,000 YBN
486) Marsupials: Tasmanian Devil, Numbat {nuMBaT}.
65,000,000 YBN
488) Marsupials "Diprotodontia" {DIPrOTODoNsEu} evolve (Wombats, Kangeroos,
Possums, Koalas).

65,000,000 YBN
508) Rodents evolve "Rodentia".
Rodents: "Myomorpha" {MIemORFu} (rats, mice, gerbils, voles
{VOLZ}, lemmings, hamsters).

Rodents are an order of mammals characterized by a single pair of ever-growing
upper and lower incisors.

65,000,000 YBN
509) Rodents: Beavers.
64,000,000 YBN
585) Birds Psittaciformes {SiTaS-iFORmEZ} (Parrots).
63,000,000 YBN
587) Primates evolve. Opposable thumb.

The order primates contains more than 300 species, including monkeys, apes, and

Africa or India  
62,000,000 YBN
495) Afrotheres: Elephants.
60,000,000 YBN
430) The Andes mountains start to form.
60,000,000 YBN
431) Earliest fossil rodent.
60,000,000 YBN
432) The cat-like Laurasiatheres Creodonts {KrEuDoNTS} are common.
60,000,000 YBN
586) Earliest primate fossils.
Morocco, Africa, (Willwood Formation) Clarks Fork Basin, Wyoming, USA), and
Montana, USA  
60,000,000 YBN
796) Largest terrestrial carnivorous mammal yet found, Andrewsarchus skull
dates from now {verify}.

59,000,000 YBN
496) Afrotheres: Hyraxes.
59,000,000 YBN
497) Afrotheres: Manatee and Dugong.
58,000,000 YBN
511) Rodents: Dormice, Mountain Beaver, Squirrels and Marmots {moRmuTS}.
58,000,000 YBN
524) Primates: Tarsiers {ToRSERZ}.
55,800,000 YBN
588) Widespread appearance of primates.
55,000,000 YBN
435) Rhinoceros-like Placental mammals Uintatherium {YUiNTutEREuM} are the
largest land animals at this time.

55,000,000 YBN
436) Horses.
55,000,000 YBN
512) Gundis (rodents) evolves.

Kingdom: Animalia
Class: Mammalia
Subclass: Theriiformes
Order: Rodentia

54,970,000 YBN
434) Earliest primate skull.
Hunan Province, China  
54,000,000 YBN
810) Last common ancestor between hippos with dolphins and whales.
53,500,000 YBN
812) Earliest fossils of marine mammal "Pakicetus".
52,500,000 YBN
6179) Bats.
(Green River Formation) Wyoming  
51,000,000 YBN
513) Rodents: Old World Porcupines.
50,000,000 YBN
437) Elephants.
Algeria, Africa  
50,000,000 YBN
438) Himalayan mountains start to form.
Himalyia Mountains, India  
50,000,000 YBN
518) Primates: Lorises {LORiSEZ}, Bushbabies, Pottos {PoTTOZ}.
50,000,000 YBN
816) Ambulocetus (an early whale).
49,000,000 YBN
439) The largest meat-eating land animals are flightless birds.
49,000,000 YBN
474) Birds "Falconiformes" {FaLKoNiFORmEZ} (falcons, hawks, eagles, Old World

49,000,000 YBN
514) African mole rats, cane rats, dassie rats (rodents) evolve.

Kingdom: Animalia
Class: Mammalia
Subclass: Theriiformes
Order: Rodentia

49,000,000 YBN
515) Rodents: New World porcupines, guinea pigs, agoutis {uGUTEZ}, capybaras

45,000,000 YBN
519) Primate: Aye-aye {I-I}.
40,000,000 YBN
440) The Alpine mountains start to form.
Alpine mountains  
40,000,000 YBN
441) Oldest fossil of Miacis, a weasel-like ancestor of bears and dogs.

40,000,000 YBN
525) Ancestor of all Primates "New World Monkeys" (Sakis, Spider, Howler and
Squirrel monkeys, Capuchins {KaP YU CiNZ}, Tamarins).

The ancestor of all currently living New World monkeys may have reached the
Americas from Africa by crossing the early Atlantic Ocean, perhaps on fallen
trees over a chain of islands.

37,000,000 YBN
442) Dogs.
37,000,000 YBN
471) Birds "Apodiformes" {oPoD-i-FORmEZ} (hummingbirds, swifts).
37,000,000 YBN
473) Birds "Coliiformes" (mouse birds) evolve.

37,000,000 YBN
475) Birds: Cuculiformes {KUKUliFORmEZ} evolve (cuckoos, roadrunners).
37,000,000 YBN
476) Birds "Piciformes" {PESiFORmEZ} (woodpeckers, toucans).
35,000,000 YBN
811) Last common ancestor of dolphins and whales.
34,000,000 YBN
813) Toothed whales (dolphin, sperm whale, killer whale) and Baleen whales
(blue, humpback, gray whale) lines split.

34,000,000 YBN
814) Baleen {BulEN} whales.
30,000,000 YBN
443) The largest land mammal ever known, the hornless Rhinoceros,
Paraceratherium lives at this time.

30,000,000 YBN
520) Primates: True Lemurs.
28,000,000 YBN
477) Birds "Passeriformes" {PaSRiFORmEZ} (perching songbirds) evolve. This
order includes many common birds: crows, jays, sparrows, warblers,
mockingbirds, robins, orioles, bluebirds, vireos {VEREOZ}, larks, finches.

More than half of all species of bird are passerines.

27,000,000 YBN
521) Wooly and Leaping Lemurs (Primates) evolve.

Kingdom: Animalia
Class: Mammalia
Subclass: Eutheria
Order: Primates
Family: Indridae

25,000,000 YBN
444) Cats.
25,000,000 YBN
522) Sportive, Mouse, and Dwarf Lemurs (primates) evolve.

Kingdom: Animalia
Class: Mammalia
Subclass: Eutheria
Order: Primates

25,000,000 YBN
531) Ancestor of all Primates "Old World Monkeys" (Macaques, Baboons,
Mandrills, Proboscis and Colobus {KoLiBeS} monkeys).

(perhaps around Lake Victoria) Africa  
24,000,000 YBN
662) The ancestor of all Hominoids (Gibbons and Hominids) loses its tail.
23,000,000 YBN
478) Monotreme: Echidna.
Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea  
23,000,000 YBN
479) Monotreme: Duck-Billed Platypus.
Australia and Tasmania  
22,000,000 YBN
559) Hominoid Proconsul.
18,000,000 YBN
537) Primates: Gibbons.
South-East Asia  
14,000,000 YBN
542) Earliest extant Hominid: Orangutans.
South-East Asia  
10,000,000 YBN
543) Hominids: Gorillas evolve in Africa.
6,000,000 YBN
544) Chimpanzees evolve. Last common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans.
6,000,000 YBN
1490) Argentavis magnificens ("Magnificent Argentine Bird") the largest flying
bird ever known lives in Argentina.

5,000,000 YBN
554) Hominid Gigantopithecus {JIGaNTOPitiKuS}.
4,400,000 YBN
546) Hominid: Ardipithecus. Earliest bipedal primate.
Lukeino Formation, Tugen Hills, Kenya, Africa  
4,000,000 YBN
547) Hominid: Australopithecus (x-STrA-lO-PitiKuS}.
Sterkfontein, South Africa  
3,700,000 YBN
570) Hominid footprints in Laetoli {lITOlE}.
Laetoli, Tanzania  

3,390,000 YBN
269) Hominids use stones as tools.
Dikika, Ethiopia  
3,000,000 YBN
446) North and South America connect.
2,700,000 YBN
564) Hominid: Paranthropus {Pa raN tru PuS}, a line of extinct early bipedal

2,500,000 YBN
455) Oldest formed stone tools.
Gona, Ethiopia  
2,400,000 YBN
827) End of Pleistocene (PlISTOSEN) epoch, start of Holocene epoch. This is
the start of the Mesolithic part of the Stone Age.

2,200,000 YBN
447) Hominid: Homo Habilis evolve (earliest member of the genus "Homo").

This is when the human brain begins to get bigger.

(Kenya and Tanzania) Africa  
2,000,000 YBN
545) Hominids: Bonobos {BunOBOZ}.
1,800,000 YBN
130) End of the Tertiary {TRsEARE} (65-1.8 mybn), and start of the Quaternary
{KWoTRnARE or KWoTRNRE} (1.8 mybn-now) Period.

1,800,000 YBN
563) Homo erectus {hOmO ireKTuS} evolves in Africa.
Lake Turkana, East Africa  
1,700,000 YBN
449) Homo erectus moves into Eurasia from Africa.
1,500,000 YBN
583) Controlled use of fire.

Earliest evidence of use of fire, burned bones from Swartkrans cave in South

(Swartkrans cave) Swartkrans, South Africa  
1,000,000 YBN
589) Homo erectus evolves far less body hair, except head hair, facial hair,
airpit, chest and groin areas.

1,000,000 YBN
1479) Earliest Homo genus bone (a tooth) in Western Europe.
Madrid, Spain  
970,000 YBN
200) Hominids wear clothing.
Happisburgh, Norfolk, UK  
790,000 YBN
584) Second most early evidence of controlled use of fire.
Gesher Benot Ya`aqov, Israel  
400,000 YBN
615) Spear.
Schöningen, Germany.  
200,000 YBN
548) Humans (Homo sapiens) evolve in Africa.
Ethiopia, Africa  
200,000 YBN
590) Human language of thirty short sounds begins to develop. All words are
single syllable. Vowel sounds (U, o, E) may be in use.

This is the beginning of the transition from the verbal language of chimps and
monkeys, that will result in the "staccato" (short sound duration) language
humans use now.

The majority of the 30 plus basic sounds in human language (U, o, K, S, etc.)
were probably learned before humans leave Africa.

190,000 YBN
601) The "Stop" family of sounds, B, D, G, K, P and T are in use.
170,000 YBN
600) The "Fricative" sound family is in use (the sounds S, Z, s, H, F, V).
150,000 YBN
592) The sounds M, N, L, and R are in use.
130,000 YBN
450) Homo Neanderthalensis evolves in Europe and Western Asia.

The oldest Neanderthal fossil is from Croatia.

Europe and Western Asia  
120,000 YBN
572) Start of Wurm glaciation (120,000-20,000 YBN), which connects a land
bridge between Asia and America.

100,000 YBN
[98000 BC]
257) Theory of Gods.

The explanation that many phenomena in the universe are controlled by objects
with human and animal bodies that have supernatural powers is one of the
earliest theories that tries to explain how the universe works.

100,000 YBN
[98000 BC]
6333) Earliest human burial. Burial of Neaderthals. Human skeletal remains
stained with red ochre (verify) were discovered in the Skhul cave at Qafzeh,
Israel. A variety of grave goods were present at the site, including the
mandible of a wild boar in the arms of one of the skeletons.

(es-Skhul cave) Mount Carmel, Israel  
95,000 YBN
[93000 BC]
594) Homo sapiens move out of Africa into Eurasia. This is the beginning of
differences in race within the human species.

It is not clear if this is the primary dispersal. Some people think the main
sapiens dispersal did not happen until 45,000 ybn..

This is also the last common ancestor of native African and non-African humans
and the beginning of racial differences.

92,000 YBN
[90000 BC]
597) Oldest Homo sapiens skull outside Africa, in Israel.
(Skhul Cave) Mount Carmel, Israel  
53,300 YBN
[51300 BC]
557) Homo Erectus extinct. Most recent Homo Erectus fossil in Southeast Asia
This shows that Homo erectus lived at the same time as Homo sapiens.

Ngandong, Indonesia  
46,000 YBN
[44000 BC]
577) Earliest evidence of water ship. Sapiens from Southeast Asia reach
Australia by water ship.

Earliest sapians fossils Australia, "Mungo man".

43,000 YBN
[41000 BC]
1187) Earliest known mine: "Lion Cave" in Swaziland, Africa.
Swaziland, Africa  
40,800 YBN
[01/01/38800 BC]
1262) Painting.
(The Panel de las Manos,) El Castillo Cave, Spain|Southern France  
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
598) Earliest sapiens fossils in Europe.
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
604) Oil lamp.
Southwest France  
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
5871) Earliest musical instrument, a flute, made from the wing bone of a

Hohle Fels Cave, Germany  
39,000 YBN
[37000 BC]
599) Sapiens reach China.
(Tianyuan Cave) Zhoukoudian, China  
38,000 YBN
[36000 BC]
574) Second oldest evidence of humans in Americas, from Orogrande cave, in New

32,000 YBN
[30000 BC]
602) Weaving and textiles.
Dzudzuana Cave, Georgia  
31,700 YBN
[29700 BC]
42) Humans raise dogs.
Goyet cave, Belgium  
29,000 YBN
[27000 BC]
6215) Earliest ceramic object, the Venus figurines.
Dolni Věstonice, Czechoslovakia  
28,000 YBN
[26000 BC]
451) Neanderthals extinct.
Gorham's Cave, Gibraltar, Spain  
26,000 YBN
[24000 BC]
6224) "Fired" clay (clay dried and hardened by fire).
Dolní Věstonice, Pavlov, Czech Republic  
23,000 YBN
[21000 BC]
6231) Earliest human-made structure. A stone wall.
(Theopetra Cave) Kalambaka, Greece  
20,000 YBN
[18000 BC]
576) Y Chromosome DNA shows a sapiens migration to the Americas now.
20,000 YBN
[18000 BC]
1291) Frankhthi cave, (Greek Σπήλαιον
Φράγχθη) in the Peloponnese, is occupied by
paleolithic people. This cave will be occupied until 3000 BCE.

in the Peloponnese, in the southeastern Argolid, is a cave overlooking the
Argolic Gulf opposite the Greek village of Koilada.  
19,000 YBN
[17000 BC]
6184) Cereal gathering.
Near East (Southwest Asia Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi
18,000 YBN
[16000 BC]
603) Pottery.
(Yuchanyan cave), Daoxian County, Hunan Province, China  
17,000 YBN
[15000 BC]
6225) Rope.
Lascaux, France  
14,000 YBN
[12000 BC]
6227) Earliest map.
Mezhirich, Ukraine  
13,000 YBN
[11000 BC]
578) Humans enter America. Oldest human bones in America.
Mexico City and Arlington Canyon on Santa Rosa Island, California, USA  
13,000 YBN
[11000 BC]
579) "Spirit Caveman", skull found in Nevada, dates to now.
11,500 YBN
[9500 BC]
719) Rice grown in China.
Yangtze (in Hubei and Hunan provinces), China  
11,130 YBN
[9130 BC]
1292) Göbekli Tepe is formed by Neolithic people in Southwestern Turkey. The
oldest stone buildings are located in Göbekli Tepe, and are evidence that
hunter gatherer people built structures before learning agriculture.

11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
606) Oldest city, Jericho.
Jericho, (modern West Bank) Palestine  
11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
608) Saddle quern {KWRN} (a flat stone and rounded stone used to grind grain
into flour).

Abu Hureyra, Syria  
11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
617) Goats kept, fed, milked, and killed for food.
Euphrates river valley at Nevali Çori, Turkey (11,000 bp), and the Zagros
Mountains of Iran at Ganj Dareh (10,000).  
11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
1290) Spirit Cave (Thai:
ถ้ำผีแมน) is occupied by
Hoabinhian hunter gatherer people.
This cave is occupied by the Hoabinhian people from
about 9000 until 5500 BCE.

Pangmapha district, Mae Hong Son Province, northwest Thailand  
10,700 YBN
[8700 BC]
829) Humans shape metal objects.
Oldest copper (and metal) artifact.
This starts the "Copper Age"

Northern Iraq  
10,500 YBN
[8500 BC]
6315) Sheep raised for wool, skins, meat and dung (for fuel).
Northern Zagros to southeastern Anatolia|(Middle East) Eastern
10,350 YBN
[8350 BC]
828) Cities described as Neolithic ("New Stone Age") start to appear.

10,000 YBN
[8000 BC]
205) Pigs raised and killed for food.
(Near East) Eastern Mediterranean and Island South East Asia|southeastern
10,000 YBN
[8000 BC]
614) Bow and arrows.
Stellmoor (near Hamburg), Germany  
10,000 YBN
[8000 BC]
1259) Clay tokens of various geometrical shapes are used for counting in Sumer.
eastern Iran, southern Turkey, Israel, Sumer (modern Iraq)|Babylonia|Syria,
Sumer and Highland Iran  
10,000 YBN
[8000 BC]
6233) Stone wall constructed in Jericho.
Jericho (modern West Bank)  
10,000 YBN
[8000 BC]
6316) Cows raised.
upper Euphrates Valley  
9,300 YBN
[7300 BC]
6185) Wheat grown.
southeastern Turkey and northern Syria (Nevali Cori, Turkey)  
9,240 YBN
[7240 BC]
1478) Squash grown in Peru.
Paiján, Peru  
9,000 YBN
[7000 BC]
273) Woven cloth.
Çayönü, Turkey  
9,000 YBN
[7000 BC]
1288) Mehrgarh, Indus Valley neolithic city.
9,000 YBN
[7000 BC]
1289) Jarmo, a Neolithic settlement in Iraq is founded.

8,600 YBN
[6600 BC]
848) Symbols carved on tortoise shell in China.
Jiahu, in central China's Henan Province  
8,410 YBN
[6410 BC]
580) "Kennewick Man", a skull and other bones found in Washington State, dates
to now.

8,200 YBN
[6200 BC]
1295) One of the oldest known maps is painted on a wall of the Catal Huyuk
settlement in south-central Anatolia (now Turkey).

Catal Huyuk  
8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
605) Oldest known boat, a dug-out boat.
8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
607) Flint sickle.

A sickle has a semicircular blade and is used for cutting grain or tall grass.

8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
610) Flax grown.
8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
612) Barley grown.
8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
613) Millet grown.
8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
616) City "Catal Hüyük" {CaTL HvEK or KeToL HoYqK} in modern Turkey.
Çatal Hüyük, (modern:) Turkey  
8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
6220) Earliest drum. Drums appear with wide geographic distribution in
archaeological excavations from Neolithic times onward; one excavated in
Moravia is dated to 6000 bce.

Moravia, Czeck Republic  
7,300 YBN
[5300 BC]
626) Eridu (Ubaid) a settlement in southern Iraq is founded.

south Iraq, shore of Persian Gulf  
7,000 YBN
[5000 BC]
618) City of Sumer (in Mesopotamia).
Sumer. (Mesopotamia, modern southern Iraq)  
7,000 YBN
[5000 BC]
620) City of Akkad.

7,000 YBN
[5000 BC]
627) Metal melting and casting (copper).
Belovode, Eastern Serbia  
7,000 YBN
[5000 BC]
7,000 YBN
[5000 BC]
727) Earliest Reed boats.
7,000 YBN
[5000 BC]
1296) The city of Uruk.
Uruk, southern Babylonia  
6,900 YBN
[4900 BC]
648) Sail boat.
6,500 YBN
[01/01/4500 BC]
1263) Symbols on clay pottery, known as the Old European script, or Vinča
script, may represent a written language.

Vinča, a suburb of Belgrade (Serbia)  
6,500 YBN
[4500 BC]
1293) The earliest known astronomical monument, an assembly of huge stones in
Nabta, Egypt.

Nabta, Egypt  
6,250 YBN
[4250 BC]
720) Corn grown in Mexico.
Oaxaca, Mexico  
6,000 YBN
[4000 BC]
6,000 YBN
[4000 BC]
1061) Humans ride horses.

6,000 YBN
[4000 BC]
6232) Sun-dried mud brick and mud-brick house.
Ur, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq)  
5,800 YBN
[3800 BC]
6235) Early map of Northern Mesopotamia.

This map, found near the town of Harran, which dates to c. 3800 BCE, clearly
shows the northern part of Mesopotamia, with the Euphrates and its tributary
the Wadi-Harran, the Zagros Mountains in the east, and the Lebanon or
Anti-Lebanon in the west. The mountains and rivers are clearly marked, and
circles stand for the cities.

Harran, Mesopotamia  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
621) Earliest plow (used to break up ground).
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
622) Irrigation (supplying water to crops).
Middle east (eastern part of Mediterranean)  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
625) Donkeys raised and used for transport.
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
634) The Egyptian calendar (12 months of 30 days, plus 5 extra days).
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
646) The earliest known wheel, a pottery wheel.
Mesopotamia (and a similar pottery wheel from Choga Mish, Iran)  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
1260) Writing (on clay tablets). First numbers. First stamp (or seal).

The first writing begins as numbers on clay tablets.

Sumer (Syria, Sumer, Highland Iran)  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
6223) Sundial, earliest timekeeping device.
China and Chaldea  
5,490 YBN
[3490 BC]
702) Cotton grown.
Northwestern Peru|Indus valley  
5,400 YBN
[3400 BC]
913) Archives of clay tablets in Uruk.

5,310 YBN
[3310 BC]
704) Ox pulled vehicles with wheels.
(TRB - Funnel Beaker culture) Bronocice, Krakow, Poland  
5,300 YBN
[3300 BC]
1261) Symbols of the Alphabet.

Now along with numbers on clay tablets are symbols that represent the commodity
(such as cows, sheep, and cereals). These symbols represent the earliest record
of what will become the modern alphabet.

Training of scribes is an early school.

These tablets contain a record of objects owned or traded, and contain no

The symbol for ox ("aleph") will become the letter "A", the symbol for house,
(/bitum/) will become "B".

5,200 YBN
[3200 BC]
650) Cuneiform writing.
5,100 YBN
[3100 BC]
638) One theory of how writing spread from Mesopotamia to Egypt is that, around
this time an Armenoid or Giza race of humans enter Egypt and bring writing to
Egypt. Skeletal remains show larger than average bones and skulls than the
native humans around this time.

5,100 YBN
[3100 BC]
640) There is a Mesopotamia influence in pictures drawn in egypt, which include
winged griffins, serpent necked felines, and pairs of entwined species. A knife
found at Gebel el Arak has a handle with one side Mesopotamian style ships, and
the other side a human standing over two lions dressed in Mesopotamian clothes.

5,100 YBN
[3100 BC]
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
628) Oldest evidence of bronze (copper mixed with tin) melted, and casted.
Tell Judaidah, Turkey|Egypt  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
645) Oldest evidence of irrigation in Egypt.

5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
647) Boats made of reed used on the Nile.

5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
649) Wooden ships used in the Medeterranean.
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
653) Oldest stone buildings yet found, in Egypt.

5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
664) Oldest evidence of soldering and welding.

5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
665) Oldest evidence of wine making in Egpyt.

5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
670) Cheops funeral ship dates to now.

5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
672) Masonry (plaster?) dam over Wadi Gerrawi.

5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
673) Oldest evidence for use of adze and bow drill in Egypt.

5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
675) Earliest silver objects.
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
676) Melting wax in clay (cire-perdu) metal casting.
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
1265) Written symbols combined to form words.

Evidence of this is the sign /ti/, for "arrow" that is now also defined as the
Sumarian word for "life" /til/ which starts with the same sound.

The vast majority of Sumerian language is made of one-syllable words. This
suggests that all earlier spoken languages contained only single-syllable

Jemdet Nasr  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
6219) Stringed musical instrument (lyre and harp).
Sumer (modern Iraq)  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
6222) Inclined plane (ramp).

The inclined plane is thought to be older than any of the other basic machines,
and is based on the concept that moving an object is easier when pushed up a
flatter slope.

5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
6226) Abacus.

The abacus is a bead and wire analog counting and calculating computer which
appears around 3000 BC in Mesopotamia as a sand-covered board in which marks
are made by finger or stick. The name "abacus" derives from the (Sumerian?)
word for "dust". The traditional wire and bead form occurs in Egypt around 500

4,980 YBN
[2980 BC]
654) Imhotep (flourished 2980-2950 BCE), the first scientist of history, is
credited with being the designer of the "step pyramid", the earliest of the
Egyptian pyramids.

Sakkara, Egypt  
4,800 YBN
[2800 BC]
629) The Akkadian language, which is the earliest recorded semitic language is
first seen in proper names recorded on clay tablets in Sumer. This language
will eventually replace the non-semitic Sumerian language but Sumerian will
last for another 1000 years before going extinct in 1800 BCE. Bilingual lexical
lists with both Akkadian and Sumerian are created around this time and are the
first dictionaries ever created on earth. These will help later people to
understand Sumerian. The Akkadian language has no written form and so Akkadian
speaking people adopt the Sumerian script for their own language and this
accelerates the process of phonetic abstraction. This phonetic abstraction of
Sumerian will allow the development of cuneiform which uses phonetic symbols,
which are direct ancestors of the modern letters of the alphabet.
Akkadian words sound
different from Sumerian words and so Akkadian speaking people may apply the
Sumerian phonetic symbols to represent Akkadian words (or Akkadian speaking
people may have been the first to make Sumerian symbols as phonetic letters).
Akkadian has two different forms for verbs depending on tense and mode, and so
verbs cannot be expressed with a single symbol as they can in Sumerian.

4,800 YBN
[2800 BC]
1276) The first recorded political assembly occurs in Sumer. Gilgamesh, the
king of Erech (Uruk), Gilgamesh, goes before an assembly of elders to ask for
permission to fight against the city of Kish instead of being ruled by Agga,
the king of Kish. Gilgamesh supports the idea of fighting against Kish, and he
goes before an assembly of elders, who vote not to fight but instead to submit
to Kish in the interest of peace, however a second assembly, which consists of
men with weapons votes to fight against Kish. Agga attacks Erech, and the text
is not yet fully understood, but somehow Gilgamesh gains the friendship of Agga
and has the siege stopped without a fight.

Sumer, Uruk, Kish,   
4,750 YBN
[2750 BC]
320) Earliest metal saw.
4,613 YBN
[2613 BC]
652) Sneferu is the founder of the Fourth dynasty of Egypt. Sneferu, Cheops,
Chephren, and Mycerinus.

4,600 YBN
[01/01/2600 BC]
1258) In Sumer, several centuries after their invention of cuneiform, the
practice of writing expands beyond debt/payment certificates and inventory
lists and is applied for the first time to written messages, mail delivery,
history, legend, mathematics, astronomical records and other pursuits.
Following this, the first formal schools are established, usually under the
guidance of a city-state's primary temple.

4,600 YBN
[2600 BC]
1271) Oldest written story, the Sumerian flood story, which tells about the
creation of humans, animals and the first cities, how the Gods send a flood to
destroy humanity, the God Enki warns the hero, Ziusudra {ZEUSUDru}, to build a
large boat, which he does and survives the flood.

There are many similarities between the stories of Ziusudra, Atrahasis,
Utnapishtim and Noah.

4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
689) Coloring Dyes.
4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
691) Skis.
4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
692) Oldest evidence of silver sheet metal objects.

4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
1052) First arch is built in the Indus valley.

4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
6230) Earliest dice and boardgame.
Ur, Mesopotamia  
4,450 YBN
[2450 BC]
708) Animal skin used for writing (parchment).
4,400 YBN
[2400 BC]
915) Thousands of clay tablets with text in Syria, at Elba, near Aleppo, from
palace libraries and archives.

4,400 YBN
[2400 BC]
1277) The oldest recorded history is written on a clay tablet in Lagash. This
document is created by an archivist of Entemena, the fifth in a dynasty of
rulers of Lagash. The purpose of the document is to record the boundary between
Lagash and Umma, but to set the context, describes the history of the border
and the struggle for power between Lagash and Umma as far back as the
archivist's records reach, which is to the time of Mesilim, the suzerain of
Sumer around 2600 BCE. This text is somewhat abstract because of the many
references to gods.

Sumer, Lagash, Umma   
4,345 YBN
[2345 BC]
4,345 YBN
[2345 BC]
800) Writing on Papyrus.
4,300 YBN
[2300 BC]
667) Glass making. Glass beads.
4,300 YBN
[2300 BC]
4,234 YBN
[2234 BC]
4,200 YBN
[2200 BC]
1294) The earliest astronomical observatory in the Americas is near Lima, Peru.
Structures at the site, discovered near Lima, Peru, align with the directions
of sunrise and sunset at critical points in the agricultural calendar,
including December 21, the start of the Southern Hemisphere's growing season,
and June 21, the end of harvest.

Lima, Peru  
4,181 YBN
[2181 BC]
4,160 YBN
[2160 BC]
4,134 YBN
[2134 BC]
4,134 YBN
[2134 BC]
4,130 YBN
[2130 BC]
6234) Musical horn.
Lagash, Mesopotamia  
4,100 YBN
[2100 BC]
1279) Health science text.
4,100 YBN
[2100 BC]
6376) The first place value number system, a sexagesimal (base 60) number
system. Fractional values such as 1/60 and 1/3600 are also in use.

4,050 YBN
[2050 BC]
1278) Recorded laws.
4,040 YBN
[2040 BC]
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
703) Earliest kaolin clays used in China.

4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
706) Horse riding.
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
711) Spoked wheel. Spokes make the wheel lighter in weight.
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
733) Lock and key.
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
1283) The earliest library catalog is a clay tablet from the library in the
tablet house in Nippur. This tablet lists the titles of numerous tablets with
stories recognized by modern people from other tablets.

4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
1286) Story of Gilgamesh.
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
5860) Written musical composition.
Nippur, Babylonia (now Iraq) (verify)  
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
6236) Metal traded as money.
3,842 YBN
[1842 BC]
712) The first all phonetic language and alphabet, a proto-semitic alphabet
made by Canaanites in the Egyptian turquoise mines of Serabit in southern
Sinai. This alphabet is thought to have replaced cuneiform, and may be root of
all other alphabets.

(Caanan modern:) Palestine|(turquoise mines ) Serabit el-Khadem, Sinai
3,800 YBN
[1800 BC]
713) Earliest version of Canaanite alphabet thought to be developed at this

3,800 YBN
[1800 BC]
802) "Story of Sinuhe" Papyrus, in Egypt.

3,800 YBN
[1800 BC]
803) Ipuwer Papyrus, in Egypt.

3,786 YBN
[1786 BC]
3,700 YBN
[1700 BC]
715) Wooden spoked wheel reaches egypt from asia in the form of the two wheeled
chariot (as seen in image of tutankhamun).

3,700 YBN
[1700 BC]
1280) The earliest agricultural science text, found in Nippur. This is a 3 by
4.5 inch Sumerian clay tablet. This text include instructions describing how
far apart to plow, how far apart to space barley seeds, to change the direction
of furrows each year, when to water the plants, and to harvest the barley "in
the day of its strength" before the barley bends under its own weight. This
text shows that 3 people work together as a team to harvest barley, a reaper
(cutter), a binder and a third whose job is not clear. Threshing of the barley
is done by a sledge (sled) moved back and forth over the heaped up grain stalks
for 5 days. The barley is then "opened" with an "opener" which is drawn by
oxen. The grain is then winnowed with pitch forks to free it from dust and laid
on sticks.

3,700 YBN
[1700 BC]
1281) The earliest text describing horse back riding, is on a clay tablet that
tells a Sumerian fable.

Nippur and Ur, Sumer  
3,650 YBN
[1650 BC]
716) "Rhind Mathematical Papyrus", early mathematical writing.
3,600 YBN
[1600 BC]
804) Westcar Papyrus, in Egypt.

3,551 YBN
[1551 BC]
3,550 YBN
[1550 BC]
1282) The earliest animal fable is written on a clay tablet in Sumerian. Some
of these fables will be ancestors of Aesop's fables 1000 years later around
550BCE. The Sumerian fables include stories about talking animals such as dogs,
cattle, donkeys, foxes, pigs, sheep, lions, wild oxen (the now extinct Bos
primigenius), goats and wolves.

3,531 YBN
[1531 BC]
639) First planet recognized, Venus.
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
624) Oven-baked mud brick ("burned brick").
Ur, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq)  
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
721) Li cooking pot in China.

3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
722) Beehive tomb at Mynae.

3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
723) Pulley.
Nimroud, Assyria  
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
725) iron worked by Chalybes.

3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
1516) The "Vedas" (Sanskrit: वेद) (English: "knowledge"),
four ancient Indian collections of hymns and ritual formulas are started around
this time. The 4 "Vedas" form the oldest scriptural texts of the religion of
Hinduism. The four Vedas are: the "Rig-Veda", the "Yajur-Veda", the
"Sama-Veda", and the "Atharva-Veda".

3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
6228) Water clock (Clepsydra {KlePSiDru}).
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
6229) A map of the city of Nippur in Mesopotamia, is the oldest surviving map
of a city.(verify)

Nippur, Mesopotamia  
3,358 YBN
[1358 BC]
2727) Amenhotep IV (also Akhenaton) (BCE c1385-c1350), Pharaoh of Egypt,
introduces the concept of monotheism.

Some people claim that Zoroastrianism, Judaism and therefore all monotheistic
religions descend from Amenhotep's Sun God Aton.

Akhenaton may be the first person of recorded history to question or doubt the
ancient "gods rule the universe" theory, although Akhenaton clearly believes in
the existence of a god.

Amarna, Egypt  
3,310 YBN
[1310 BC]
3,300 YBN
[1300 BC]
3,300 YBN
[1300 BC]
914) Thousands of clay tablets in Syria, at Ugarit (Ras-Shamra) near Latakia,
from palace libraries and archives.

3,200 YBN
[1200 BC]
3,200 YBN
[1200 BC]
3,200 YBN
[1200 BC]
734) Greek penteconter, a type of Greek galley with fifty oars.

3,200 YBN
[1200 BC]
735) Assyrian-Median wall.

3,200 YBN
[1200 BC]
736) Oldest evidence of two piece mould casting.

3,200 YBN
[1200 BC]
3,198 YBN
[1198 BC]
3,180 YBN
[1180 BC]
805) "Harris I" Papyrus, in Egypt.

3,087 YBN
[1087 BC]
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
742) Phoenician bireme (galley, any ship propelled by humans).

3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
743) Greek trireme (ship).

3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
746) Complex pulleys.
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
747) Earliest evidence of tin mining, in Cornwall.

3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
806) "Story of Wenamun" Papyrus, in Egypt.

3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
6237) Lens.
Nimrud, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq)  
2,945 YBN
[945 BC]
2,922 YBN
[922 BC]
2,910 YBN
[910 BC]
635) Iron melted and casted.

Start of the Iron Age.

Tell Hammeh (az-Zarqa), Jordan  
2,900 YBN
[900 BC]
2,850 YBN
[850 BC]
751) Greek humans copy phonetic alphabet language from phoenician humans.
Phoenician humans are using a variation of letters used at this time by Semite
humans in Syria-Palestine, Canaanite writing. "Alef" (ox), "beth" (house),
"gimel" (camel), "daleth" (door), etc. are changed to "alpha", "beta", "gamma",
"delta", etc. The semitic alphabets Hebrew and Arabic are descended from the
Canaanite language.

2,848 YBN
[848 BC]
2,819 YBN
[819 BC]
2,800 YBN
[800 BC]
718) Possible origin of "u" sound (as in "cup", "run").
2,800 YBN
[800 BC]
818) Theta sound {t} sound invented.
2,800 YBN
[800 BC]
1036) The Latin language is brought to the Italian peninsula by people who
migrate from the north, and settled in the Latium region, around the River
Tiber, where the Roman civilization will first develop.

2,800 YBN
[800 BC]
5862) Earliest evidence of recorded musical notation.
2,785 YBN
[785 BC]
771) Eclipses predicted.
2,728 YBN
[728 BC]
2,722 YBN
[722 BC]
2,716 YBN
[716 BC]
2,715 YBN
[715 BC]
2,700 YBN
[700 BC]
1075) Consonant letters can represent more than one sound. Letter "C" sounded
as "K" in addition to traditional "G" sound.

2,688 YBN
[688 BC]
916) From 688-681 BCE, Senncherib (Asurbanipal's predecessor) has a library in
the southwest palace, or 'palace without rival', at Nineveh.

2,669 YBN
[669 BC]
1287) The "standard" version of the story of Gilgamesh: a wild-man Enkidu is
tamed by having sex with a woman, Enkidu and Gilgamesh destroy Humbaba, the
beast-like guardian of the forest, and a bull sent from Heaven, Enkidu is
killed as a punishment by the Gods, and Gilgamesh visits him in the Underworld.

2,668 YBN
[668 BC]
917) 668-627 BCE Assyrian King Asurbanipal assembles library. This library at
Nineveh contains thousands of tablets, many brought from other sites.

2,668 YBN
[668 BC]
1284) Clay tablet library of Ashurbanipal.
Nineveh (Assyria)  
2,664 YBN
[664 BC]
759) Also known as the Saite kings. This dynasty lasts from 664 to 525 BCE.
2,651 YBN
[651 BC]
6337) All planets visible to the naked eye clearly distinguished from stars
(Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn).

2,650 YBN
[650 BC]
1066) Aquaduct, a channel to move water from one place to another.
2,640 YBN
[640 BC]
760) Josiah is king of Judea.

2,624 YBN
[624 BC]
761) Thales (624 BC Miletus - 546 BC Miletus) born in Miletus.

2,622 YBN
[622 BC]
2,622 YBN
[622 BC]
826) Old Testament (The Torah, Hebrew Bible, The Ten Commandments, The Story of

2,621 YBN
[621 BC]
1519) Draco (Greek Δράκων) (flourishes 600s BCE),
creates an early law code in Athens. This law code is very harsh, punishing
both trivial and serious crimes with death.

Athens, Greece  
2,609 YBN
[609 BC]
767) Josiah, king of Judea dies.

2,609 YBN
[609 BC]
2,605 YBN
[605 BC]
918) 605-562 BCE, Babylonia has a great library under Nebuchadnezzar.

2,600 YBN
[600 BC]
630) Metal coin money.
Lydia, Anatolia  
2,600 YBN
[600 BC]
762) Universe explained without Theory of Gods.
Miletus, Greece  
2,600 YBN
[600 BC]
2,590 YBN
[590 BC]
1518) Solon (Greek: Σολων) (BCE c630-c560), Athenian
Statesman, introduces democratic reform to the government of Athens by changing
rule by people determined by birth to people determined by wealth and
implements a more humane law code.

Athens, Greece  
2,587 YBN
[587 BC]
2,585 YBN
[05/08/585 BC]
770) Thales predicts eclipse of sun by moon on this day (according to

2,580 YBN
[580 BC]
764) Earth-centered Universe theory. Theory that humans evolved from fish.
2,575 YBN
[575 BC]
773) Jeremiah (or some other human) adds changes to Deuteronomy to reflect fall
of Jerusalem while in Egypt.

2,550 YBN
[550 BC]
1035) Oldest latin texts the "Duenos" and "Forum" inscriptions.
2,545 YBN
[545 BC]
919) Peisistratus
(Πεισίστρατος), the
tyrant of Athens founds a library in Athens. This is the first library in
Greece. Xerxes will take this library to Persia, and Seleucus Nicanor will
return it to Greece.

2,545 YBN
[545 BC]
920) Greek historian Herodotus.
2,540 YBN
[540 BC]
783) Planets clearly distinguished from stars in Greece.
2,538 YBN
[538 BC]
2,529 YBN
[529 BC]
772) Pythagoras describes the earth as a sphere. "Pythagorean Theorem" (in a
right triangle: the square of the lengths of the hypotenuse always equals the
sum of the square of the length of the two other sides).

Croton, Italy  
2,525 YBN
[525 BC]
820) This domination will last from 525 until 404 BCE.
2,520 YBN
[520 BC]
785) Historian Hecataeus writes the first account of history that does not
accept Gods and myths.

Miletus, Greece  
2,515 YBN
[03/12/515 BC]
821) The second temple is completed in Jerusalem.
2,515 YBN
[515 BC]
1264) The Behistun Inscription (also Bisitun or Bisutun,
بیستون in modern Persian; in Old Persian is
Bagastana the meaning is "the god's place or land") includes three versions of
the same text, written in three different cuneiform script languages: Old
Persian, Elamite, and Babylonian.
Like the Rosetta Stone is to translating Egyptian
hieroglyphs, so this inscription is the most important inscription to
translating cuneiform writing.

Persia (Kermanshah Province of Iran)  
2,508 YBN
[508 BC]
1517) Kleisthenes (Greek: Κλεισθένης) (BCE c570-c508) creates
democratic reform of the Athenian government, basing political responsibility
on citizenship of a particular place instead of on membership in a family

The word "democracy" (Greek: δημοκρατία - "rule by the people") is
invented by Athenians in order to define their system of government around this
time. The word Democracy comes from demos ("people") and kratos ("rule").

Athens, Greece  
2,500 YBN
[500 BC]
825) Crossbow invested in China.
2,500 YBN
[500 BC]
831) Darius the Great, king of Persia, orders a 1,306 line inscription carved
on a mountain in Behistan, Iran. This text is in 3 languages, Old Persian,
Elamite, and Akkadian. This inscription will later be used in the 1800s to
translate cuneiform.

2,499 YBN
[499 BC]
832) Hecataeus opposes the revolt of Greek cities of Asia Minor against Darius
1 of Persia. This advice is not followed, the Greek revolt is supressed, and
the 150 year scientific leadership of the Greek cities of Asia Minor ends.

2,470 YBN
[470 BC]
836) The Sun is explained as a mass of red-hot metal.
2,470 YBN
[470 BC]
840) Humans understand brain controls body. First human dissection.
2,470 YBN
[470 BC]
907) Oenopides of Chios, measures the angle between the plane of the celestial
equator, and the zodiac (the yearly path of the sun in the sky) to be 24°.
This measures the tilt of the earth relative to the plane the earth moves in.

2,467 YBN
[467 BC]
1894) Particle (or wireless) communication. The optical telegraph, using fire

Greece (presumably)  
2,460 YBN
[460 BC]
841) Theory that all matter is made of atoms.
2,460 YBN
[460 BC]
1037) Diogenes of Apollonia, a Greek natural philosopher, expresses atheistic

2,458 YBN
[458 BC]
2,454 YBN
[454 BC]
844) People in Metpontum burn the Pythagorean meeting place. Plutarch will
relate that as a young man Philolaus was one of two people to escape this

2,450 YBN
[450 BC]
843) Philolaus theorizes that earth moves through space.
Croton, Italy  
2,450 YBN
[450 BC]
1033) The "twelve tables", the basis of law in Rome, are completed. These laws
describe rules for property, crimes, marriage, divorce and funeral among other

2,450 YBN
[450 BC]
1053) Earliest Chain-mail armor (rings of metal connected together) from a
Celtic chieftain's burial in Ciumesti, Romania.

2,450 YBN
[450 BC]
1112) The Grand Canal (Simplified Chinese: 大运河;
Traditional Chinese: 大運河; pinyin: Dà Yùnhé) of China,
also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (Simplified Chinese:
京杭大运河; Traditional Chinese:
京杭大運河; pinyin: Jīng Háng Dà Yùnhé),
the largest ancient canal or artificial river on earth, is constructed at this

Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China  
2,438 YBN
[438 BC]
823) The Parthenon is completed.
2,432 YBN
[432 BC]
849) Metonic calendar: 12 years of 12 months, 7 years of 13 months.
Athens, Greece (presumably)  
2,431 YBN
[431 BC]
1372) Brahmanic hospitals are established in Sri Lanka.

According to the Mahavamsa (a historical poem written in the Pāli
language, of the kings of Sri Lanka), the ancient chronicle of Sinhalese
royalty written in the 500s CE, King Pandukabhaya (300s BCE) had lying-in-homes
and hospitals (Sivikasotthi-Sala) built in various parts of the country. This
is the earliest documentary evidence there is of institutions specifically
dedicated to the care of the sick anywhere in the world. Mihintale Hospital is
perhaps the earliest hospital on earth.

In ancient cultures, religion and medicine were linked. As early as 4000 BCE
religions identified specific deities with healing. The earliest known
institutions aiming to provide cure were Egyptian temples. Greek temples
dedicated to the healer-god Asclepius might admit the sick, who would wait for
guidance from the god in a dream. The Romans adopted this diety but using the
name Æsculapius. Æsculapius was provided with a temple (291 BC) on an island
in the Tiber in Rome, where similar rites were performed.

Sri Lanka  
2,430 YBN
[430 BC]
845) Demokritos (Democritus) (Greek: Δημόκριτος) (BCE c460 -c370)
explains that the Milky Way is a large group of stars and the universe is
filled with many other worlds.

Abdera, Thrace  
2,430 YBN
[430 BC]
910) Diagoras "the Atheist" of Melos, a Greek poet and sophist, becomes an
atheist after an incident that happens against him that goes unpunished by the
gods. He speaks out against the orthodox religions, and criticizes the
Eleusinian Mysteries. Diagoras throws a wooden image of a god into a fire,
saying that the deity should perform another miracle and save itself. The
Athenians put a price on his capture, dead or alive, and he flees, living the
rest of his life in southern Greece.

2,424 YBN
[424 BC]
1138) Playwright Aristophanes produces public plays where characters doubt the
existence of the Gods.

Athens, Greece  
2,404 YBN
[404 BC]
2,390 YBN
[390 BC]
909) Aristippus, a follower of Socrates, founds the Cyrenaic school of
philosophy. Aristippus supports the pursuit of pleasure and avoidance of pain,
usually refered to negativly as "hedonism". Cyrene was a Greek city in
Northern Africa in modern day Libya. Aristippus breaks social conventions and
engages in behavior considered undignified or shocking for the sake of
pleasure. The Cyrenaic school will developed these ideas and influence
Epicurus and later Greek skeptics. Aristippus accepts money for instruction
as the Sophists do. They also incorrectly reject the idea of postponing
immediate gratification for future or long term pleasure. In this respect they
will differ from the Epicureans. The main source of information about
Aristippus is from is the "Lives of the Philosophers" by Diogenes Laertius, who
wrote over 500 years after Aristippus died.

2,387 YBN
[387 BC]
851) Plato's Academy.
Athens, Greece  
2,378 YBN
[378 BC]
2,366 YBN
[366 BC]
858) Aristotle (Ancient Greek: Αριστοτέλης Aristotélēs (BCE 384 -
March 7, 322) is a pupil of Plato at the Academy until the age of 37 (347 BCE).
Plato calls Aristotle the "intelligence" of the school. Aristotle studies
biology and natural history.

2,347 YBN
[347 BC]
853) Plato dies and leaves Heracleides in charge of the Academy. Aristotle
leaves the Academy.
Aristotle meets Theophrastus in Lesbos, and a lifelog
friendship is started. Aristotle gives the nickname "Theophrastus" (divine
speech) to Theophrastus whose real name is Tyrtamus.

2,342 YBN
[342 BC]
857) Aristotle is called to Macedon. the Son of Amyntas II, Phillip II is King
of Macedon, and wants Aristotle back in court to teach his 14 year old son

2,341 YBN
[341 BC]
867) This domination will last from 341 until 332 BCE.
2,340 YBN
[340 BC]
801) Papyrus scroll, the Derveni papyrus, in Greece.

2,336 YBN
[336 BC]
2,332 YBN
[332 BC]
880) Dinocrates, Alexander's personal architect, designed the new city over
Rhakotis, a fishing village believed to have been in existence since the 13th
century BCE. Citizens from throughout the Greek world quickly populated
Alexandria-as well as a large number of non-citizens, including a large Jewish
community- turning it into a thriving metropolis in a few short years.

2,327 YBN
[327 BC]
875) Callisthenes (newphew of Aristotle) is killed at Alexanders order.
2,325 YBN
[325 BC]
865) Dikaearchos (Δικαιαρχος)
(DIKEoRKOS) (Dicaearchus) (~355 BCE - ~285 BCE) makes geometric constructions
of a hyperbola and a parabola, is among the first to use geographical
coordinates (latitude and longitude).

2,325 YBN
[325 BC]
887) Pytheas correctly explains the tides as being because of the influence of
the Moon, and shows that the North star is not exactly at the pole and so makes
a circle everyday.

Massalia (now: Marseille France)  
2,323 YBN
[06/10/323 BC]
2,323 YBN
[323 BC]
877) Ptolemy was one of Alexander the Great's most trusted generals, and among
the seven "body-guards" attached to his person. He was a few years older than
Alexander, and his intimate friend since childhood. He may even have been in
the group of noble teenagers tutored by Aristotle.

2,320 YBN
[320 BC]
866) Praxagoras (Πραξαγόρας)
(~350 Cos - ???) possibly teaches Herophilus, and is a strong defender of the
theories of Hippocrates. Praxagoras distinguishes between veins and arteries,
recognizing 2 kinds of blood vessels (some credit this to Alcmaeon). He things
arteries carry air (arteries are named for this opinion), thinks arteries lead
to smaller vessels (which is true) that then turned in to nerves (which is
false). Praxagoras noted the physical connection between the brain and spinal

2,317 YBN
[317 BC]
899) Demetrios Falireus (Δημήτριος
Φαληρεύς ) (Demetrius Phalereus) (died
c. 280 BCE) is an Athenian orator, a student of Aristotle (who also teaches
Theophrastus and Alexander the Great), and one of the first Peripatetics.
Demetrius writes extensively on the subjects of history, rhetoric, and literary
Demetrius is helped into power in Athens by Alexander's successor
From 317 BCE to 307 BCE, Demetrius Phalereus is the despot of
Athens, serving under Cassander. During this time he
provides money for
Theophrastus to build the Lyceum which is to be devoted to Aristotle's studies
and modeled after Plato's Academy.
institutes extensive legal reforms. Carystius of
Pergamum mentions that he had a boyfriend by the name of Diognis, of whom all
the Athenian boys were jealous. This shows clearly that bisexuality was much
more accepted as natural in Greece. As time continues, humans will lose this
wisdom by becoming more intolerent of bisexuality.

2,316 YBN
[316 BC]
908) Euhemerus writes that the Greek gods had been originally kings, for
example that Zeus was a king of Crete, who had been a great conqueror.

2,310 YBN
[310 BC]
869) Kidinnu (BCE 340-???) understands the precession of equinoxes (a wobbling
in the orientation of Earth's axis with a cycle of almost 26,000 years).

(Astronomical School) Sippar, Babylonia  
2,310 YBN
[310 BC]
871) Strato STrATOS STroTOS? (Στρατός) (340
BCE Lampsacus - 270 BCE Athens) studies at the Lyceum, traveles to Alexandria,
possibly tutors the son of Ptolomy I (the Macedonian general made King of
Egypt) there.

Strato has an atheist view of the universe. Strato views the universe as a
mechanical structure without any dieties.

Strato is mainly interested in physics, and expands on Aristotle's physics by
noticing that falling objects (for example rainwater off a roof) accelerate as
they fall to the ground rather than falling at a steady rate as Aristotle

Another one of his teachings was the doctrine of the void, postulating that all
bodies contained a void of variable size, which also accounted for weight
differences between bodies.

One of Strato's students at the Lyceum is Aristarchus of Samos.

2,310 YBN
[310 BC]
911) Theodorus "the Atheist", a student of Aristippus the founder of the
Cyrenaic of philosophy, writes "on Gods", which uses various arguments to try
to destroy Greek theology.

2,307 YBN
[307 BC]
901) When Demetrius I of Macedon takes Athens, Demetrius Falereus is
overthrown, and he flees to Egypt.

Demetrius goes into exile a second time on the accession of Ptolemy
Philadelphus, and he died soon afterward.

2,305 YBN
[305 BC]
934) Ptolemy I starts building the lighthouse of Alexandria on the island of
Pharos. The building is designed by Sostratus of Knidos (Cnidus) (Greek:
Κνίδιος). The building will not be completed
until the reigh on Ptolemy II. With a height variously estimated at between 115
and 135 metres (383 - 440 ft) it was among the tallest man-made structures on
Earth for many centuries, and was identified as one of the Seven Wonders of the
World by Antipater of Sidon. It is claimed that the light from the lighthouse
could be seen up to 35 miles (56 km) from shore.

It will cease operating and will be largely destroyed as a result of two
earthquakes in the 14th century CE; some of its remains will be found on the
floor of Alexandria's Eastern Harbour by divers in 1994. More of the remains
will be revealed by satellite imaging.

Constructed from large blocks of light-coloured stone, the tower is made up of
three stages: a lower square section with a central core, a middle octagonal
section, and, at the top, a circular section. At its top is positioned a mirror
which reflects sunlight during the day and a fire at night. Roman coins struck
by the Alexandrian mint show that a statue of a triton is positioned on each of
the building's 4 corners. A statue of Poseidon will stand atop the tower during
the Roman period.

The lighthouse is 350 feet high, forming a tower with 3 stories and a latern.
The bottom story is square, 180 feet tall, with many windows, and 300 rooms,
where the mechanics and attendants are housed. This story has a square platform
and a cornice with figures of Tritons. the second story is octagonal, 90 feet
high, surrounded by a balcony. The third story is round and 60 feet high.
Inside the tower a spiral ramp, perhaps double, goes from bottom to top.
Possibly in the center was a hydraulic lift for lifting fuel. Alternatively,
fuel could be hauled up the ramps by animals. (oxen?, horses?) Above the latern
is a bronze statue of Poseidon, 20 feet tall. The tower is built of limestone
faced with marble and decorated outside with sculptures if marble and bronze.

The lantern will fall around 700CE. The second and third stories will fall from
an earthquake around 1100 CE.

2,300 YBN
[300 BC]
927) Hekataeos (also Hecataeus) (Greek: Εκαταίος) of Abdura
(Άβδηρα) (340-280 BCE) writes "Aegyptiaca" (a history of Egypt).

2,297 YBN
[297 BC]
900) Theophrastus turns down the invitation from King Ptolemy I Soter in 297
BCE to tutor Ptolemy's heir, and instead recommends Demetrios Falireus (other
sources cite Straton as being recommended and tutoring ), who had recently been
driven out from Athens as a result of political fallout from the conflicts of
Alexander's successors. This information is based on the "Letter of Aristeas",
which will be written around 150 BCE. Ptolemy I accepts Demetrios Falireus, and
Demetrios moves to Egypt. Demtrios Falireus is a politician, and prolific
writer. Diogenes Laertius will write highly of Demetrios and will provide a
list of Demetrios' works on a wide range of subjects.

Demetrios begins collecting texts for the King's library, following the
tradition of Plato, with works on state-forming, kingship and ruling.

2,297 YBN
[297 BC]
902) Museum of Alexandria.
2,297 YBN
[297 BC]
925) Philitas of Cos, Zenodotus of Ephasus (later to become the first head
librarian of record), and Euclid (thought to be born in Alexandria) respond to
Ptolemy I Soter's invitation to be employed in the Mousaeion.

2,295 YBN
[295 BC]
926) Ptolemy I writes a history of Alexander.
2,290 YBN
[290 BC]
903) Berossos (Berossus) writes a history of Babylonia.
(Book probably funded by and stored in the Museum of Alexandria) Alexandria,
2,288 YBN
[288 BC]
873) The Hebrew Bible is translated into Greek in Alexandria around this time
or later. Commonly refered to as the "Septuagint" ("LXX"), because according
to the Letter of Aristeas, at the advice of Demetrius Phalereus, Ptolomy II
hires 72 preists to come to Alexandria to complete the translation.

The Hebrew Bible is also called the Old Testament by Christians. This text
includes the Pentateuch PeNToTUK and other books for a total of 24 or 39 books
depending on how they are grouped. The Pentateuch (also called the "Torah") is
a Greek word derived from the word "penta" (five) and "teukos" (implement),
which means "implementation of five books", and refers to the Hebrew Bible's
books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.

Probably the Pentateuch is translated into Greek in the third century BCE,
Isaiah and Jeremiah translated during the first half of the second century BCE,
and the Psalms and the rest of the Prophets during the second half of the
second century BCE.

2,288 YBN
[288 BC]
905) Ptolemy I asks advice from Demetrios Falireus about choice of co-regent
from among children of his two wives. Demetrios speaks in favor of the
children of Eurydice, but Soter chooses his son by Berenice as co-ruler. This
son, Ptolemy II will never forgive Demetrios and will have Demetrios arrested
after Ptolemy I dies. Another story has Ptolemy I exiling Demetrios for this
bad advice.

Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Greek:
Φιλάδελφος, 309-01/29/246
BCE), begins reign as coregeant with Ptolemy I from 288-285 BCE.

2,287 YBN
[287 BC]
924) Theophrastos dies, and wills Aristotle's library to Neleus. According to
Athenaeus, Ptolemy II buys this library for a large sum of money. However, in
apparent conflict to this story, Strabo will later write that the willed books
will stay in the family of Neleus until sold to Apellicon, the wealthy book
collector of Teos. Apellicon's library in Athens will be captured by Sulla in
86 BCE and taken to Rome. One way to resolve these conflicting accounts is to
presume that the book collection sold to Ptolemy II is probably the large
collection of books from the school library but not Aristotles' and
Theophrastos' own original works. Ptolemy II probably obtained Aristotle's
writing, but not original works when Straton, Ptolemy II's former tutor is head
of the Lyceum. Plutarch will write that the Peripatetics did not have the
original texts of Aristotle and Theophrastos because the legacy of Neleus had
"fallen into idle and base hands".

2,285 YBN
[285 BC]
1028) Compressed air used for a catapult and musical organ.
Alexandria, Egpyt  
2,283 YBN
[283 BC]
928) Ptolemy II has Demetrius Falireus arrested and or exiled to the delta
where Demetrios dies, possibly murdered while sleeping by the venom of a snake
bite ordered by Ptolemy II.

2,283 YBN
[283 BC]
929) Zenodotus is appointed head librarian by Ptolemy II. Zenodotus will be
head librarian from 283-270 BCE.
Zenodotus separates Homer into 24 books, which is
the same as the number of letters in the Greek alphabet, marking alledgedly
unauthentic versus with an obelus {A mark (or ÷) used in ancient manuscripts
to indicate a doubtful or spurious passage}.

2,281 YBN
[281 BC]
904) Ptolemy's first wife, Arsinoë I, daughter of Lysimachus, was the mother
of his legitimate children. After her he married, probably for political
reasons, his full-sister Arsinoë II, the widow of Lysimachus, by an Egyptian
custom opposed to Greek morality.

Ptolemy deifies his parents and his sister-wife, after her death (270 BC), as
Philadelphus. This surname was used in later generations to identify Ptolemy II
himself, but it properly belongs to Arsinoë only, not to the king.

2,281 YBN
[281 BC]
935) Ptolemy II Philadelfus is interested zoology, and may be the person that
makes the garden, zoo, and observatory. The zoo under Philadefus contains
lions, leopards, lynxes, buffaloes, wild asses, a 45 foot python, a giraffe,
rhinoceros, polar bear, parrots, peacocks, and pheasants.

Callimachus, Theocritus, and a host of lesser poets, glorify the Ptolemaic
family. Ptolemy himself is eager to increase the library and to patronize
scientific research. He has unusual beasts of far off lands sent to Alexandria.
Interested in Hellenic tradition, he shows little interest in the native

There are limits on what the people in the Alexandrian schools can write. One
story relates how Sotades of Maronea satirized Ptolemy II and his sister
Arsinoe on the occasion of their marriage, when identified, he was imprisoned
and executed, although this story may have only been a myth to scare people.

The material and literary splendour of the Alexandrian court was at its height
under Ptolemy II.

Callimachus, Theocritus, and a host of lesser poets, glorify the Ptolemaic
family. Ptolemy himself is eager to increase the library and to patronize
scientific research. He has unusual beasts of far off lands sent to Alexandria.
Interested in Hellenic tradition, he shows little interest in the native

2,280 YBN
[06/10/280 BC]
922) The Ptolemies in Egypt, Seleukids in Syria, and Attalids in Pergamon
compete for scientific supremecy by establishing Libraries and centers for
learning in their capitals, Alexandria, Antioch, and Pergamum.

2,280 YBN
[280 BC]
1199) A book called "Mechanical Problems" from Aristotle's Lykeum describes
parallel wheel in mesh, but does not specifically mention toothed wheels. These
may describe friction wheels instead of gears.

Athens, Greece  
2,275 YBN
[275 BC]
888) Manethon (also Manetho Μανέθων), a native Egyptian priest, writes a
history of Egypt in Greek.

Heliopolis, Egypt  
2,275 YBN
[275 BC]
897) A Papyrus dating to this time contains a contract of apprenticeship to a
doctor who has a house training clinic (oikia), which covers a period of 6
years for a fee.

2,275 YBN
[275 BC]
930) Callimachus of Cyrene (c305 - c240 BCE) is among Zenodotus' most famous
assistants. Callimachus may never formally have held the position of
Librarian, but begins for the Library the first subject catalog of history,
"the Pinakes" (tablets). This is composed of 6 sections, and lists some
120,000 scrolls of classical poetry and prose. The full title was "Tables of
those who were eminent in every branch of learning, and what they wrote, in 120
volumes". It may include works not yet obtained by the library. The Pinakes are
separated by subject. These subjects include: comedy, tragedy, lyric poetry,
epic, rhetoric, law, history, mathematics, medicine, philosophy (natural
science) and miscellaneous. Within each subject, authors are listed
alphabetically, with a short biography, a bibliography of the author {a
complete list of their works}, also alphabetically ordered, the opening words
of each work, and the length of the work.
The Pinakes will serve as a model for
future indexes, for example the Arabic 10th century "Al-Fihrist" by
Callimachus reports that the library has 400,000 mixed scrolls
with multiple works, and 90,000 scrolls of single works.

2,270 YBN
[270 BC]
932) Apollonius of Rhodes
(Απολλώνιος ο
Ρόδιος) (not to be confused with Apollonius of
Perga, a contemporary at the school) replaces Zenodotus as librarian from
c270-245 BCE. Apollonius is best known for his "Argonautika", a literary epic
retelling the ancient story of Jason and the Argonauts' quest for the Golden

What is known of Apollonius' life comes from two accounts taken from scholia.
Alexandrian by birth, Apollonius was drawn to the center of Hellenistic
scholarship, the Library of Alexandria, where he became a student of
Callimachus. Callimachus almost exclusively wrote epigrams and other short
works, while Apollonius became interested in epic poetry. Their difference of
opinions over the appropriate length and style for poetry led to a long and
bitter literary feud, which may have been exacerbated after Ptolemy II chose
Apollonius over his teacher Callimachus for the prestigious post of chief

The Argonautika differs in some respects from traditional or Homeric Greek
epic, though Apollonius certainly used Homer as a model. The Argonautika is
much shorter than Homer"s epics, with four books totaling less than 6,000
lines, while the Iliad runs to more than 15,000. Apollonius may have been
influenced here by Callimachus" brevity, or by Aristotle"s demand for "poems on
a smaller scale than the old epics, and answering in length to the group of
tragedies presented at a single sitting" (Poetics), which is true of the

Apollonius" epic also differs from the more traditional epic in its weaker,
more human protagonist Jason and in its many discursions into local custom,
aeitiology, and other popular subjects of Hellenistic poetry. Apollonius also
chooses the less shocking versions of some myths, having Medea, for example,
merely watch the murder of Apsyrtos instead of murdering him herself. The gods
are relatively distant and inactive throughout much of the epic, following the
Hellenistic trend to allegorize and rationalize religion. Heterosexual loves
such as Jason"s are more emphasized than homosexual loves such as that of
Herakles and Hylas are less discussed, another trend in Hellenistic literature.
Many critics regard the love of Medea and Jason in the third book as the
Argonautica"s best written and most memorable episode.

2,260 YBN
[260 BC]
663) Lever.
2,260 YBN
[260 BC]
822) Screw.

Archimedes (Greek: Αρχιμήδης ) (287-212 BCE) is usually credited with
with the concept of the spiral screw.

Syracuse, Sicily  
2,260 YBN
[260 BC]
882) Aristarchos understands that the Earth rotates around the Sun each year
and that the earth rotates around its own axis once a day.

(Mousion of Alexandria) Alexandria, Egpyt  
2,260 YBN
[260 BC]
941) Hipparchos (not the astronomer) from Alexandria is the first Greek person
to sail beyond the Red Sea, through the Straight of Bab-El-Mandeb (Gate of
Tears) into the Indian Ocean.

2,250 YBN
[250 BC]
893) Strato dies, the Lyceum declines, the most popular university in
philosophy is the Academy, but science is moving to Alexandria.

2,246 YBN
[246 BC]
898) Eratosthenes correctly calculates the size of Earth.
Alexandria, Egypt  
2,246 YBN
[246 BC]
933) Ptolemy III Euergetes
Ευεργέτης) is King of Egypt from
246-222 BCE, after the death of Ptolemy II.

2,246 YBN
[246 BC]
936) Ptolemy III (246-221 BCE) sends requests to all leaders to borrow their
books {papyri scrolls} for copying. When Athens lends him texts of Euripides,
Aeschylus, and Sophocles, Ptolemy III has them copied, but keeps the originals,
cheerfully forfeiting the fortune of fifteen talents he deposited as bond.
This amount is the equivalent of the annual salary of 300 laborers in 5th
century BCE Athens. Ptolemy III refuses to send grain to Athens during famine
unless he is allowed to borrow the master copies of the above dramas.
III is the first king to search ships for books. Galen, explaining how a copy
of "Epidemics" (a work of the Hippocratic medical corpus), which had once
belonged to Mnemon of Sidon, reached the library recounts that customs
officials had orders from Ptolemy III to confiscate from passing ships all
books they had, which were then copied. The originals were deposited in the
Library, and marked in the catalog "from the ships". Sometimes owners received
copies, but probably many people sailed away from Alexandria minus their first
editions. Galen writes that competition between the kings of Pergamon and
Egypt, in bidding for old books, inflated the prices and leads to forgeries
being made. Galen writes that the books from the ships were first put in

Seneca will claim that the Ptolemies collect so many manuscripts not for sake
of learning but merely as ornaments to display their wealth and power.

Ptolemy III stops exporting papyrus to stop the young library created by the
Selucids in Pergamon from competing. As a replacement for papyrus, people in
Pergamon use cow skin.

2,245 YBN
[245 BC]
896) Conon names the constellation Coma Berenices ("Berenice's Hair") after
Ptolemy's wife Berenice II. She sacrificed her hair in exchange for her
husband's safe return from the Third Syrian War, which began in 246 BCE. When
the lock of hair disappeared, Conon explained that the goddess had shown her
favor by placing it in the sky. Not all Greek astronomers accepted the
designation. In Ptolemy's Almagest, Coma Berenices is not listed as a distinct
constellation. However, Ptolemy does attribute several seasonal indications
(parapegma) to Conon.

2,240 YBN
[240 BC]
923) Serapeion is built in Alexandria.
Alexandria, Egypt  
2,235 YBN
[235 BC]
890) Philon (Φίλων) (Byzanteum 265-202 BCE), experiments with air, finds
that air expands with heat, possibly made an air thermometer, and notices that
air is consumed by a burning torch in a closed vessel.

2,235 YBN
[235 BC]
895) Apollonios retires as chief librarian of the library of Alexandria and
moves to Rhodes. Ptolemy III Eurgetes appoints Eratosthenes to replace
Ptolemy II Philadelphus appointed one of Eratosthenes' teachers Callimachus as
the second librarian.
In 236 BC he was appointed by Ptolemy III Euergetes I as
librarian of the Alexandrian library, succeeding the first librarian,
Zenodotos, in that post.

2,230 YBN
[230 BC]
1373) King Asoka (BCE 304-232) (reign: BCE 273-232), an Indian emperor, who
ruled the Maurya Empire across the Indian subcontinent, establishes a chain of
hospitals in Hindustan around this time.

Asoka founds hospitals for humans and the other species and supplies medicine
to the public.

Asoka creates orders stopping violence against animals.

2,212 YBN
[212 BC]
892) Archimedes is killed by a Roman soldier during the sack of Syracuse during
the Second Punic War, despite orders from the Roman general Marcellus that he
was not to be harmed. The Greeks said that he was killed while drawing an
equation in the sand; engrossed in his diagram and impatient with being
interrupted, he is said to have muttered his famous last words before being
slain by an enraged Roman soldier: Μη μου
τους κύκλους
τάραττε ("Do not disturb my circles").

2,205 YBN
[205 BC]
937) Ptolemy 5 (reigns 205-180 BCE), scholars organized games, festivals, and
library comptetitions. It remained a cult center directed by a Priest. The
main shrine of Apollo is in Delphi, for Zeus in Olympus, and for the Muses in

2,204 YBN
[204 BC]
938) Aristophanes of Byzantium (c237-180bce) (different from dramatist)
replaces Eratosthenes as fourth Head Librarian in Alexandria from 204 to 189
BCE. Aristophanes is a capable grammarian who introduces the use of accents
into the Greek Language. Aristofanes seems to have less magnetism on fellow
scholars than Eratosthenes did. After a 20 uneventful years, he will be
succeeded by the last recorded librarian, Aristarchos of Samothrace (not to be
confused with Aristarchos of Samos, the astronomer). Aristofanes grows up in
Egypt, and is head Librarian under Ptolemy 4 Philopator (reigns 221-205 BCE).
Vitruvius will write that Aristophanes systematically read each book in the
library. As a judge in poetry competitions Aristophanes could recognize any
borrowed lines in addition to identifying the original work. Aristophanes
writes many "hypotheseis", which are short summaries that preface works. Much
information of lost works will reach ppl of the future through these
hypotheseis. In his great lexicographical work "Lexeis", he separates words
thought to be used by ancient ppl (Palaioi) and words unknown to ancient
people, or new words (Kainoterai).

2,204 YBN
[204 BC]
939) Ptolemy V Epiphanes (Greek:
Επιφανής, reigned 204-181 BCE) is king
of Egypt. Ptolemy 5 is the son of Ptolemy 4 Philopator and Arsinoe III, and is
not more than five years old when he comes to the throne, and under a series of
regents the kingdom is paralysed.

2,191 YBN
[191 BC]
940) Ptolemy VI Philometor (Greek:
Φιλομήτωρ, c. 191-145 BCE) is king
of Egypt. He will reign from 180 to 145 BCE.

2,189 YBN
[189 BC]
948) Apollonius Eidograph is 5th librarian of Alexandria Library from 189-175

2,175 YBN
[175 BC]
949) Aristarchos of Samothrake (Samothrace) (Greek:
Σαμοθράκη, Samothraki) (not
Aristarchos of Samos the astronomer), is the 6th Head Librarian in the
Alexandria Library from 175-145 BCE. Aristarcos of Samothrake, is appointed by
Ptolemy VI Philometor, and is a Homeric scholar. Alexandrian scholarship is
dominated by literary criticism. Aristarchos of Samothrake's work "Life" in the
Suidas Lexicon shows that he had 40 pupils, and wrote 800 books of commentary,
probably covering most Greek classics.

2,173 YBN
[173 BC]
955) Polybios (Polybius) (Greek
Πολυβιος, c.203 BCE - 120 BCE) was a
Greek historian of the Mediterranean world famous for his book called "The
Histories" or "The Rise of the Roman Empire", covering the period of 220 BCE to
146 BCE.

Polybius writes "It is no difficult task to write from books provided one
resides in a city well equipped with achives and a library". This is evidence
that public libraries were a feature of most Hellenistic cities.

2,145 YBN
[145 BC]
950) Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (Greek:
Ευεργέτης) (c. 182 BC - 26 June
116 BC), nicknamed Physcon ("Potbelly" or "Bladder") for his obesity is king of

2,145 YBN
[145 BC]
951) With the reign of Ptolemy VIII Physcon, the last distinguished librarian
of the Alexandria Library Aristarchos of Samothrace goes into exile in the
company of other scholars, replaced by "Cydas of the spearmen" (145-116? BCE ).

2,143 YBN
[143 BC]
1337) Shishi Middle School (Simplified
,pinyin: shíshì zhōngxúe,wén wēng shíshì), founded
during the Han Dynasty by Wen Weng is the first local Chinese public school,
and is the oldest middle school on earth today.

Chengdu, China  
2,140 YBN
[140 BC]
1070) Paper.
Xian, China  
2,134 YBN
[01/01/134 BC]
1041) Hipparchos sees a "new" star (supernova) in Scorpio (according to Pliny),
around age 56, and decides to make a star map of more than 1000 of the brighter
stars. His interest in the fixed stars may have been inspired by the
observation of this supernova (according to Pliny), or by his discovery of
precession (according to Ptolemy, who will write that Hipparchos could not
reconcile his data with earlier observations made by Timocharis and
Aristyllos). This map is better than any previous star maps (including those of
Eudoxus and Eratosthenes). Hipparchus uses the lines of latitude and longitude
of Dicaearchus 150 years before to map the stars. In comparing the current
location of stars with earlier recorded locations, Hipparchos finds that there
is a uniform shift from west to east, and recognizes that the north celestial
pole moves in a slow circle, completing 1 cycle in 26,700 years. This results
in the equinox arriving earlier each year and is called the "precession of the
equinoxes". Not until Copernicus was this explained as the slow "wobble" of the
earth, not the movement of the stars.

2,127 YBN
[127 BC]
943) After a civil war with system Cleopatra II, her brother Ptolemy VIII
Euergetes II (Greek:
Ευεργέτης) (c. 182 BC - 26 June
116 BC), nicknamed Physcon ("Potbelly" or "Bladder") for his obesity, destroys
much of the city of Alexandria. Athenaeus will write around 200 CE: "It appears
the scholars of the Museum, the artists, and even the physicians, shocked at
the horrors and violence perpetrated, left Alexandria, and that the islands and
mainland of Greece were filled with refugee grammarians, philosophers,
geometers, musicians, painters, physicians, and other learned men, who, obliged
by necessity to teach what they knew, soon became celebrated." Clearly the
Mousaeion recovers after this.

2,120 YBN
[120 BC]
942) Eudoxes of Cyzicus makes the first voyage from Egypt to India which opens
a new trade route. This happens only after the Greek people in Alexandria learn
about the timing of the monsoon.

2,100 YBN
[100 BC]
952) Antiochus of Ascalon (130 BCE - 68 BCE) is the first philosopher in
Alexandria of record. Antiochus is a member of the Academy, and teaches Cicero
in Athens. Antiochus is mentioned in Cicero's "Academica" as a supporter of the
Old Academy, in opposition to the more skeptical trend of the Middle and New
Academy. Antiochus tries to blend Plato, Aristotle and Zeno, and this will
contribute to the rise of neoplatonism.

2,100 YBN
[100 BC]
1374) Around this time the Romans establish hospitals (valetudinaria) for the
treatment of their sick and injured soldiers.
Care of the soldiers is important because
the power of Rome is based on the legions.
These hospitals are identified only according
to the layout of building remains, and not by surviving records or finds of
health science tools.

2,080 YBN
[80 BC]
870) Antikythera mechanism (ο
μηχανισμός των
Αντικυθήρων) used to
display the positions of astronomical objects (like planets). This is the
oldest analog computer, and differential gear (links two shafts in a casing,
constraining the sum of the rotational angles of the shafts to equal the
rotational angle of the casing) yet found. This object may be evidence that the
sun centered theory first identified by Aristarcos of Samos may have been more
popular than previously thought.

2,076 YBN
[76 BC]
1047) Cicero (KiKerO), Marcus Tullius Cicero, Roman politician, and philosopher
writes many works, that will be preserved by Christians, which will help to
understand the history of Rome in this time.

2,075 YBN
[75 BC]
1116) Negative numbers.
2,070 YBN
[70 BC]
953) Heracleides of Tarentum, the most important Empiricist in the history of
the school practices human anatomy, develops surgical techniques, while
maintaining the Empiricist experimental method of curing. He writes a book on
drugs, dietics, and a history of the Empirical school. Many of these writing
will only reach people of the future from Arabic translations.

He was the most famous of the Empirical physicians of his day. He made
experiments on the properties of opium.

2,060 YBN
[60 BC]
958) Diodorus Siculus (c.90 BCE - c.30 BCE) is a Greek historian, born at
Agyrium in Sicily (now called Agira, in the Province of Enna).
Diodorus' history,
which he named "Bibliotheca Historia" ("Historical Library"), consistes of
forty books, which were divided into three sections. The first six books are
geographical in theme, and describe the history and culture of Egypt (book I),
of Mesopotamia, India, Scythia, and Arabia (II), of North Africa (III), and of
Greece and Europe (IV - VI). In the next section (books VII - XVII), he
recounts the history of the World starting with the Trojan War, down to the
death of Alexander the Great. The last section (books XVII to the end) concerns
the historical events from the successors of Alexander down to either 60 BCE or
the beginning of Caesar's Gallic War in 45 BCE. (The end has been lost, so it
is unclear whether Diodorus reached the beginning of the Gallic War as he
promised at the beginning of his work or, as evidence suggests, old and tired
from his labors he stopped short at 60 BCE.)

2,060 YBN
[60 BC]
959) Philo (20 BCE - 40 CE), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo
Judeaus, is a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. Philo is
thought to be the pre-cursor to the Judeo-Christian school of thought. Philo
Judeaus believes in the Old Testiment, and studies Greek philosophy.

Philo's conception of the matter out of which the world was created is similar
to that of Plato and the Stoics. According to him, God does not create the
world-stuff, but finds it ready at hand. God cannot create it, as in its nature
it resists all contact with the divine. Sometimes, following the Stoics, he
designates God as "the efficient cause,"and matter as "the affected cause." He
seems to have found this conception in the Bible (Gen. i. 2) in the image of
the spirit of God hovering over the waters ("De Opificio Mundi," § 2 ).

Philo, again like Plato and the Stoics, conceives of matter as having no
attributes or form; this, however, does not harmonize with the assumption of
four elements. Philo wrongly views matter as evil, on the ground that no praise
is meted out to it in Genesis ("Quis Rerum Divinarum Heres Sit," § 32 ). As a
result, he rejects an actual Creation, but accepts only a formation of the
world, as Plato holds.

Philo frequently compares God to an architect or gardener, who formed the
present world (the κόσμος
ἀισϑητός) according to a pattern, the
ideal world (κόσμος
νοητός). Philo takes the details of his story of
the Creation entirely from Gen. i. A specially important position is assigned
here to the Logos, which executes the several acts of the Creation, as God
cannot come into contact with matter, actually creating only the soul of the

Philo's works will be enthusiastically received by early Christians, some of
whom see a Christian in him.

Eusebius will later speculate that the Therapeutae, the Jewish group of ascetic
hermits in the Egyptian desert that Philo describes in De vita contemplativa
("Contemplative Life") is in fact a Christian group, but being written in 10 CE
they cannot be, although they may be similar to early christian monastic

Philo himself claims in his Embassy to Gaius to have been part of an embassy
sent by the Alexandrian Jews to the Roman Emperor Gaius. Philo says he was
carrying a petition which described the sufferings of the Alexandrian Jews, and
which asked the emperor to secure their rights.

His account of the Creation is almost identical with that of Plato; he follows
the latter's "Timaeus" closely in his exposition of the world as having no
beginning and no end. Like Plato, he places the creative activity as well as
the act of creation outside of time, on the Platonic ground that time begins
only with the world. The influence of Pythagorism appears in number-symbolism,
to which Philo frequently refers.

2,056 YBN
[56 BC]
1045) Lucretius (BCE c95-c55) describes light as being made of tiny atoms that
move very fast.

Rome, Italy  
2,055 YBN
[08/??/55 BC]
2,050 YBN
[50 BC]
1050) First glass blowing.

2,045 YBN
[45 BC]
954) Arius Didymus, the teacher (court philosopher) of Augustus in Athens (not
to be confused with Alexandrian historian Didymus Chalcenterus), writes a
summary (compendium, epitome) of the four leading philosophic schools, the
Peripatetic, Academic, Stoic, and Epicurean. Arius Didymus continues the
blending of the major philosophies started by Antiochus of Ascalon. In
Alexandria this new fusion of philosophies will result in two major groups, one
which develops within the religious thought of Jewish and later Christian
philosophers, and the other formulated by Pagan philosophers.

2,045 YBN
[45 BC]
1056) Julian calendar goes into use. Julius Caesar adopts this calendar on the
advice of he astronomer Sosigenes of Alexandria. This calendar has 365 days
divided into 12 months, with a leap day added to February every four years.
This calendar will last until 1582 when replaced by the Gregorian calendar.

Caesar changes the previous calendar which is based on lunar months and the
cycle of Meton to a solar calendar (like the calendar used in Egypt) based on
365 day years (plus a 366 day year, unlike Egypt, every fourth year)

Little is known about Sosigenes. There are only 2 mentions of him by Pliny the
"... There were three main schools, the Chaldaean, the Egyptian, and the
Greek; and to these a fourth was added in our country by Caesar during his
dictatorship, who with the assistance of the learned astronomer Sosigenes
brought the separate years back into conformity with the course of the sun."

In Pliny book 2, 8, indicates that Sosigenes thought that Mercury goes around
the Sun:
(get modern translation)
"Next upon it, but nothing of that bignesse and powerful
efficacie, is the starre Mercurie, of some cleped Apollo: in an inferiour
circle hee goeth, after the like manner, a swifter course by nine daies:
shining sometimes before the sunne rising, otherwhiles after his setting, never
farther distant from him than 23 degrees, as both the same Timæus and
Sosigenes doe shew."

2,045 YBN
[45 BC]
1523) Julius Caesar (JUlEuS KISoR) (BCE 100-44), is declared dictator for life
by the Roman Senate. Some historians consider this to be the end of the Roman
Republic, a representative democracy and the start of the Roman Empire, a
monarchy. From this time on, Julius Caesar's family name "Caeser" will be used
as a title for a supreme ruler, which is the meaning of the word "Kaiser" in
German, "tsar" in the Slavonic languages, and "qaysar" in Arabic languages.

Rome, Italy  
2,041 YBN
[41 BC]
957) According to Plutarch (of Chaeronea) in the first century CE, at this
time, Marcus Antonius sends scrolls from the Pergamum library to Cleaopatra
VII, theoretically to make good on the loss of scrolls from the Caesar fire.

Plutarch will write in "Life of Antony": "Calvisius, who was a companion of
Caesar, brought forward against Antony the following charges also regarding his
behaviour towards Cleopatra: he had bestowed upon her the libraries from
Pergamum, in which there were two hundred thousand volumes;" and then goes on
to write "However, most of the charges thus brought by Calvisius were thought
to be falsehoods", so this shipment of books is doubtful. This claim that Marc
Antony sent the Pergamum library to Clepoatra VII is evidence, even if untrue,
that a library (although perhaps the Serapeum or Mousaeion) is still in
existence in the first century CE, which leaves only the Christian destruction
and the Islamic destruction.

2,040 YBN
[40 BC]
1058) Waterwheel and elevator (vertical lift).
2,033 YBN
[08/01/33 BC]
961) Strabo (Strabon), (Greek Στράβων) (63
BCE/64 BCE - c. 24 AD), a historian, geographer and philosopher. Strabo is
mostly remembered for his 17-volume work Geographica ("Geography"), which
presents a descriptive history of people and places from this time. Strabo's
History is nearly completely lost. Although Strabo quotes it himself, and other
classical authors mention that it existed, the only surviving document is a
fragment of papyrus now in possession of the University of Milan.

Strabo lives in Alexandria from 25-20 BCE, and works in the Mousaeion. Strabo
documents q parade from India with gifts which include a huge snake for
Augustus, then in Samos. Strabo studies the mystery of why the Nile River
flows from inland to the Mediterranean Sea, which had baffled Greek science
since Thales and Herodotus. With no more battles between Ptolemies, peace
results in a renaissance in Alexandria.

Strabo writes of the Mousaeion in Alexandria: "The Museum, too, is part of the
royal palace. It comprises the covered walk, the exedra or portico, and a
great hall in which learned members of the Museum take their meals in common.
Money, too, is held in common in this community; (I can't understand if this
means that they don't have their own money?) they also have a priest who is
head of the Museum, formerly appointed by the sovereigns and now appointed by
Augustus." Strabo decribes the "Soma" (the body), a circular structure, chosen
by Ptolemy I as the site for Alexander's tomb, which holds bodies of the
Ptolemys too. The Soma is part of the royal palace. Alexander's body is still
in Alexandria, but not in a golden but alabaster sarcophagus, as a result of
Ptolemy 'the clandestine' attempting to profane the tomb. Many people interpret
Strabo not mentioning the library because it may not be a separate room or

"Strabo" ("squinter") is a term given by Romans of this time to anyone whose
eyes are distorted or crooked. The fathers of Julius Caesar and Pompey the
Great were called "Gaius Julius Caesar Strabo" and "Pompeius Strabo".

2,033 YBN
[08/01/33 BC]
962) Didymus Chalcenterus (ca. 63 BC to AD 10), was a Greek scholar and
grammarian who worked in the Mousaeion in Alexandria and in Rome.

He is chiefly important as having introduced Alexandrian learning to the
Romans. He was a follower of the school of Aristarchus, upon whose recension of
Homer he wrote a treatise, fragments of which have been preserved in the
Venetian scholia. He also wrote commentaries on many other Greek poets and
prose authors.

Didymus' son Apion, whom Roman Emperor Tiberius will call 'cymbal of the world'
implying that his fame resounds everywhere, will write an Egyptian history, and
'Against the Jews', reflecting a growing mood of anti-semitism which Philo
deplored, and which was to lead to the eventual destruction of the Jewish
His surname (meaning brazen-bowelled) came from his indefatigable industry: he
was said to have written so many books (more than 3,500) that he was unable to
recollect their names.

2,033 YBN
[33 BC]
1059) Greek geographer Strabo (STrABO), writes 17 volumes of geography.
Amasya, Pontus {on the coast of Turkey}  
2,031 YBN
[09/02/31 BC]
Actium, Greece  
2,030 YBN
[08/01/30 BC]
960) Octavian captures Alexandria. This marks the official annexation of
Ancient Egypt to the Roman Republic.

2,030 YBN
[08/01/30 BC]
963) Tryphon (c.60 BCE‑10 BCE) was a Greek grammarian who lived and
worked in the Mousaeion in Alexandria. He was a contemporary of Didymus

Tryphon wrote several specialized works on aspects of language and grammar,
from which only a handful of fragments now survive. These included treatises on
word-types, dialects, accentuation, pronunciation, and orthography, as well as
a grammar (Tekhné grammatiké) and a dictionary. The two extant works that
bear his name, "On Meters" and "On Tropes", may or may not be by him.

2,027 YBN
[01/06/27 BC]
1524) The Roman Senate grants Octavian (63 BCE - 14 CE) the title "Augustus".
Some historians consider this the end of the Roman Republic, a representative
democracy, and the Roman Empire, a monarchy.

Rome, Italy  
2,027 YBN
[27 BC]
1065) Pantheon is built. The Pantheon, ("Temple of all the Gods"), is a
building in Rome which is originally built as a temple to the seven deities of
the seven planets in the state religion of Ancient Rome. It is the
best-preserved of all Roman buildings and the oldest important building in the
world with its original roof intact. It has been in continuous use throughout
its history. Although the identity of the Pantheon's primary architect remains
uncertain, it is largely assigned to Apollodorus of Damascus. The Pantheon will
be destroyed in 80 CE, but rebuilt by Hadrian in 125 CE. In 609 the Byzantine
emperor Phocas will give the building to Pope Boniface IV, who will
reconsecrate it as a Christian church, the Church of Mary and all the Martyr
Saints, which title it still retains.

2,008 YBN
[8 BC]
1071) Earliest paper artifact with writing, has at least 20 ancient Chinese
characters in an ancient garrison near the Yumen Pass at Dunhuang in northwest
China used during the Western Han Dynesty (206 BCE-25 CE).
This is more than 100
years before Tsai Lun, the person traditionally thought to have invented paper.

Dunhuang, Jiuquan, Gansu province, China  
2,000 YBN
[0 AD]
6298) Artificial muscle wing flapping plane.
1,980 YBN
[08/01/20 AD]
966) Aristonicus, a Greek grammarian who lives during the reigns of Augustus
and Tiberius, and teaches in Rome, writes a book on the Mousaeion that would
probably give a good description and perhaps explain the origins of the
Mouseion, but has not yet been found.

1,980 YBN
[20 AD]
1390) Jesus of Nazareth (also Jesus of Galilee), probably a monotheist believer
in Judaism lives in this time. Jesus leaves no writings, and the earliest
record of Jesus' life is recorded in the sayings of the "Gospel Q", a number of
saying attributed to Jesus similar to those found in the Gospel of Thomas. Some
scholars characterize Jesus from these earliest sayings as being Cynic-like,
similar to Diogenes of Sinope, living voluntarily in poverty, begging,
criticizing conventional values and wealth, speaking boldly, engaging in
troublesome public behavior, etc. In addition, there is an element of belief
and focus on a God. The traditional belief by many scholars has been that Jesus
was killed as the four main gospels of the New Testament state, however, others
argue that the idea that Jesus was killed will be created by the author of the
Mark gospel around 80 CE.
Followers of Jesus will go on to form one of the
largest religions on earth, Christianity which will last for more than 2000
years. Shockingly, the popularity of this average preacher of Judaism, believed
to be unfairly killed like many trillions of humans throughout the history of
earth, will grow to dominate much of the earth, replacing the older
polytheistic religion of Greece and Rome. The rise of the Christian religion,
with violent intolerant conformity, will terribly slow the tradition of science
growing on earth. Christians will destroy, close or take over all the
non-Christian libraries and schools, destroying many valuable books of
tremendous scientific and historical value. The rise of Christianity will also
slow the natural development of atheism, the new religious fanatacism being
more intolerant of atheism than the older polytheism/paganism, although clearly
the persecution of Anaxagoras and Socrates for atheism is evidence of a
continuous intolerance of those who reject the claims of religions.

1,960 YBN
[40 AD]
944) Christianity is brought to Alexandria by Saint Mark the Evangelist.
Initially mostly believers in Judeism convert to Christianity.

1,959 YBN
[41 AD]
968) Claudius has a new museum built alongside the old one in Alexandria from
41-54 CE.

1,957 YBN
[43 AD]
1076) Pomponius Mela (mElu), a Roman geographer, makes a small book (less than
100 pages), a compilation of geography, "De situ orbis libri III" for popular
reading by humans in Rome. Except for Pliny this is the only existing book on
geography written in classic Latin. Mela copies the Greek geographers that went
before him. Mela divides the earth in to 5 zones, North Frigid, North
Temperate, Torrid, South Temperate and South Frigid. Mela incorrectly believes
that only the temperate zones are livable in, and also incorrectly believes
that the torrid zone was too hot to be passed by humans to the South Temperate
In western Europe his knowledge (as was natural in a Spanish subject of
Imperial Rome) was somewhat in advance of the Greek geographers. He defines the
western coast-line of Spain and Gaul and its indentation by the Bay of Biscay
more accurately than Eratosthenes or Strabo, his ideas of the British Isles and
their position are also clearer than his predecessors.
The first edition of Mela was
published at Milan in 1471.

Tingentera, Southern Spain  
1,950 YBN
[50 AD]
1078) Steam engine.
Heron of Alexandria (Greek: Ήρων ο Αλεξανδρεύς) (CE
c10-c70), makes the first recorded steam engine.

Alexandria, Egypt  
1,950 YBN
[50 AD]
1097) Roman emperor Claudius has a new Museum built next to the original

Alexandria, Egypt  
1,938 YBN
[62 AD]
945) Saint Mark is murdered in Alexandria, twenty-two years after arriving. His
remains will be stolen by Venetian merchents and brought to Venice, of which
St. Mark will be the patron saint, commemorated and entombed in the great
cathedral named after him.

1,925 YBN
[75 AD]
1270) Last cuneiform text dates to here ending 3000 years of cuneiform
Cuneiform is replaced by Aramaic. Legal, literary and astronomical texts are
the last written in cuneiform.

1,923 YBN
[77 AD]
1083) Encyclopedia. Pliny the Elder's "Natural History".
1,920 YBN
[80 AD]
1077) Encyclopedia of medical plants and drugs.
Tingentera, Southern Spain  
1,919 YBN
[81 AD]
969) Emperor Domitian (reigns 81-96 CE) starts his reign with an effort to
"rebuild the libraries that had been burned" {in the fire under Nero}, "had the
whole empire searched for copies of works that had disappeared", and "sent
emissaries to Alexandria charged with copying and correcting the texts" {yet
more evidence that the royal library in Alexandria is intact at this time}

1,917 YBN
[83 AD]
766) Magnetic compass.
China (more specific)  
1,903 YBN
[97 AD]
1085) Sextus Julius Frontinus (FroNTInuS) (30 CE - 104 CE), a Roman soldier,
politician, engineer and author, is put in charge of water system of Rome by
Emperor Nerva. Frontinus writes a two volume work, "De aquis urbis Romae"
containing a history and description of the water supply system (aquaducts) of
Rome. In his writing Frontius boasts how the Roman aquaducts are better than
those of Egypt and Greece.

Rome, Italy  
1,900 YBN
[100 AD]
5861) Earliest known complete musical composition, including musical notation
(Epitaph of Seikilos).

(now Aidin, Turkey) (verify)  
1,880 YBN
[01/01/120 AD]
1040) Philostratus (c170 CE - c244? CE) will write (between 230 and 238) that
"Great honors were paid to {Dionysius of Miletus, a contemporary philosopher}
by the cities that admired his talent, but the greatest was from the Emperor.
For Hadrian (January 24, 76 CE - July 10, 138 CE, Roman emperor 117-138)
appointed him satrap {prefect} over peoples by no means obscure, and enrolled
him in the order of the knights and among those who had free meals in the
Museum. (By the Museum I mean a dinning-table in Egypt to which are invited the
most distinguished men of all countries.)" Philostratos also describes
membership into the Mouseion, granted by the emperor Hadrian, for Polemo,
another philosopher, writing: "...and Hadrian ... also enrolled {Polemo} in the
circle of the Museum, with the Egyptian right of free meals." Clearly, this is
evidence that the Mouseion was still functioning as usual after the Cesar fire,
and likely up to the time of this writing (c230), since there is no mention of
a later destruction of the Mouseion. In addition to indicating that these meals
may have been quite expensive to be a privilege that might be appointed by a
Roman Emperor. The "free meals" are clearly of note in the memory of

1,870 YBN
[130 AD]
970) Earth-centered universe of Ptolomy.
(some traditions place at) Alexandria  
1,850 YBN
[150 AD]
1087) Claudius Ptolemaeus, (Greek:
Πτολεμαῖος), (c.90 - c.168)
writes "Mathematike Syntaxis ("The Mathematical Arrangement") which supports an
Earth-centered cosmology.

Ptolemy, (ToLomE), Claudius Ptolemaeus, (Greek:
Πτολεμαῖος), (c.90 - c.168),
a Greek-speaking Astronomer, Geographer and Astrologer, in the Museum in
Alexandria, writes an astronomy book "Mathematike Syntaxis ("The Mathematical
Arrangement"), called by later people "Almagest" (The Greatest), in which
Ptolemy names the 48 constellations still used today, and also includes a star
catalog (star names and locations) based on the work of Hipparchus. Sadly
Ptolemy supports the erroneous earth-centered theory and this theory will
persist until Copernicus in the 1500s. Ptolemy writes a book on optics that
describes refraction, reflection and color of light, and a book on geography.

Alexandria, Egypt  
1,827 YBN
[03/31/173 AD]
974) Valerius Diodorus describes himself as "ex-vice librarian and member of
the Museum" which shows the Mousaeion in Alexandria still has members.

1,820 YBN
[03/31/180 AD]
975) Pantaenus is the head of the Christian (catechetical) school in Alexandria
from 180-200 CE. He teaches Clement. This school claims as its founder the
Evangelist St Mark. Christianity is now a powerful movement, whose danger is
felt by the Imperial government. Christian people now have their own teachers
and school in Alexandria in competition with the Mouseion school of philosophy,
associated with the traditional Hellenic and Roman polytheistic religion.

1,800 YBN
[200 AD]
976) Clement takes over from Pantaenus as head of the Christian school in
Alexandria. Clement is born in Athens to Pagan parents and is the teacher of

1,800 YBN
[200 AD]
979) Gnostism gains popularity around this time, the Gnostic people are a
monotheistic leaning group opposed to traditional Paganism. This group will
eventually turn into mystic Christians.

1,800 YBN
[200 AD]
1073) Earliest "press-on" printing.
1,798 YBN
[202 AD]
1,797 YBN
[03/07/203 AD]
977) Perpetua and other Christians are murdered in Carthage.

1,797 YBN
[03/07/203 AD]
978) Origen revives the Christian (catechetical) school in Alexandria, whose
last teacher Clement was apparently driven out by persecution. Origen, in the
Alexandrian style of textual criticism, compares various versions of the old
testaments, followed by a study of the new testament. He claims that the
scriptures have three senses, the literal, moral and spiritual, which he
compares to the body, (and the backward ancient theories of) soul and spirit.
The Neoplatonists also have a mystic three part philosophy of being. Nepos, the
bishop of Aesinoite criticizes this abstract approach and advocates a literal
interpretation of the Bible (in other words that every story in the Bible
actually happened and is literally true), but the Bishop of Alexandria,
Dionysius follows Origen's method.

1,785 YBN
[215 AD]
980) Emperor Caracalla massacres Alexandria youth and punishes the Mousaeion.
writes "from a secure post in the Temple of Serapis, {Caracalla} viewed and
directed the slaughter of many thousand citizens, as well as strangers...".
After the massacre, Caracalla stops the public games and abolishs funding and
stipends of members (called "syssitia", the public subsidy given for the
maintenance of scholars at the Museum) and expels all foreign members of the

1,768 YBN
[232 AD]
981) Ammonius Saccas (not to be confused with Ammonius of Alexandria, the
Christian philosopher), often called the founder of the neoplatonic school,
teaches Platonic philosophy at Alexandria from 232-243 CE. Ammonius teaches
Plotinus and Origen.
Ammianus writes that Alexandria "now lost the quarter called
Bruchion which had long been the dwelling of the foremost men".

1,755 YBN
[245 AD]
982) Plotinus (Greek: Πλωτίνος)(c.205
Lycopolis, Upper Egypt-270), thought by many to be (along with Ammonius Saccas)
the father of Neoplatonism, teacher of Neo-Platonism, the last phase of ancient
philosophy, writes 9 books called "Enneades". Plotinus views a dual nature of
the universe based on a sharp contrast between reason and matter, believing in
a God as indivisible and an absolute one, in "evil" matter and in "non-evil"
matter. The allowance of "non-evil matter" is opposed to the anti-nature view
of the early christians. As a Pagan person clearly the one God idea is clear in
Plotinus' description of a God as an absolute one. His (scientifically-useless)
metaphysical writings will inspire centuries of Christian, Jewish, Muslim, and
Gnostic metaphysicians and mystics.

Asimov writes that Plotinus is a Roman philosopher who modifies the system of
Plato, adding mysticism in order to compete with eastern religions, gaining
popularity in Rome at this time.

1,750 YBN
[250 AD]
1091) Diofantos DEOFoNTOS (Greek:
Διόφαντος ὁ
Ἀλεξανδρεύς) (c.210 CE
- c.290 CE), a mathematician working in the Museum in Alexandria, uses
equations with variables that must be integers. These equations will come to be
called "Diophantine equations", named after Diofantos.

Diofantos' most famous work is the "Arithmetica" originally thirteen Greek
books, of which only six survive today in Greek manuscripts.

Diophantus also wrote a treatise on polygonal numbers, of which part survives.

The "editio princeps" of Diofantos will be published in 1575 by Xylander, and
editions of Arithmetica will exert a profound influence on the development of
algebra in Europe in the late sixteenth through eighteenth centuries.

1,733 YBN
[267 AD]
984) Hadrian's Library in Athens is among the first of the major libraries to
be attacked. Hadrian's Library is destroyed by the Herulians (also called
Heruli, nomatic Germanic people), who encountered little resistance.

1,710 YBN
[290 AD]
1092) Zosimus of Panopolis (c.250 CE Panopolis {now Akhmim}, Egypt - ?), is a
Greek alchemist who summarizes 300 hundred writings on alchemy, the beginnings
of Chemistry, in an encyclopedia of 28 books. The books contain a majority of
mysticism. Zosimus may have been aware of arsenic, describes the forming of
lead acetate, and the sweet taste of lead acetate. The 4 element (fire, air,
earth, water) Greek theory will last until Lavoisier.
Zosimus related the story of the
first alchemist, Chemes, who wrote the teachings of the fallen angels
(supposedly angels who fell to earth in order to seduce human women) in a book
called Chema. "Chemia" (Greek χημεία) is the
Greek word for chemistry, to which the Arabs added the article, al for
"alchemy", from their own language.

Panopolis {now Akhmim}, Egypt  
1,703 YBN
[297 AD]
986) Emperor Diocletian invades Alexandria, appearing in person, and many
citizens are brutally slaughtered. Men of learning are not spared, and their
books, in particular those on alchemy, are collected and burnt. Soon after this
time the largest persecution of the Christians begins.

1,697 YBN
[303 AD]
1,695 YBN
[305 AD]
989) Christian prisoners have a dispute called the Meletian schism, concerning
the treatment of those people who have lapsed in church discipline (the lapsi).
Peter, the Bishop of Alexandria, represents the more tolerant view, Meletius,
Bishop of Lycopolis (assiut), the more rigid school. This division centers on
the amount of time until a person is re-admited and then their status after
being readmited. This tolerant and ridgid division will last for many years.
Another issue of conflict is whether to include ancient Greek learning in basic
education or to only strictly teach a purely Christian course.

1,685 YBN
[315 AD]
1004) Aphthonois visits Alexandria and will note later in his "Prosgymnasmata"
that although a library still exists in the Serapeum complex, only those
alcoves containing philosophical works were accessible, and the stacks
associated with the cult of pagan deities had been closed.

1,681 YBN
[319 AD]
946) Arius, preaches what will become the "Arian Heresy", the claim that "If
the Father gave birth to the Son, He was born has an origin of existence.
Therefore once the Son was not. Therefore he is created out of nothing." This
simple theory will lead to the Council of Nicaea.

1,680 YBN
[320 AD]
1094) Pappos (Greek: Πάππος) (Pappus) (c.290 CE
Alexandria - ?? c.350 CE Alexandria) is one of the most important Hellenistic
mathematicians of this time, known for his work "Synagoge" or "Collection"
(written c.340). Pappos is a Hellenized Egyptian born in Alexandria, Egypt.
Although very little is known about his life, the written records suggest he is
a teacher.

"Synagoge", his best-known work, (thought to be written around 340) is a
compendium of Greek mathematics in eight volumes, the first volume is missing
while the other 7 volumes have missing parts. "Synagoge" (means "Collection")
covers a wide range of topics, including geometry, recreational mathematics,
doubling the cube, polygons and polyhedra (three dimensional shapes made of a
finite number of polygons). Pappus writes in detail on the astronomical system
credited to Ptolomy.

Pappos is a likely a member of the Mouseion with access to many works, and in
his own work "Synagoge" in which he outlines the history of the Mouseion and
its scientists {check}.

Alexandria, Egypt  
1,675 YBN
[07/??/325 AD]
947) Constantine summons an Ecumenical Council of the Church to meet at Nicaea
in Bithynia. This is the first General Council ever to be held by the Christian
Church. The Council is attended by 300 bishops and lasts for two months. Arius
attends and repeats his doctrine of the Son of God was created from nothing,
the He was capable both of holiness and sin, but had chosen holiness, and that
He was a creature of God, and the work of the Father. But the bishops,
interested in keeping the Church united, decides that Jesus was a part of God,
made of the same material, saying "one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son
of God, begotten of the substance of the Father, God of God, Light of Light,
Very God of Very God, begotten not made, cosubstantial with the Father." Only
two bishops and Arius dissent and all 3 are excommunicated. They condemn Arius
and adopt this view refered to as the "Nicene Creed".

1,660 YBN
[340 AD]
990) Epiphanius of Salamis (c.310/20 - 403 CE) is a Church Father, and a strong
defender of orthodoxy, known for tracking down deviant teachings (heresies)
wherever they could be traced, during the troubled era in the Christian Church
following the Council of Nicaea.

1,643 YBN
[357 AD]
995) Constantius II founds the Imperial Library in Byzantium. Themistius, a
Pagan Roman Senator praises Constantius' initiative to found this library.

1,637 YBN
[06/26/363 AD]
1044) The Eastern Roman Emperor Julian (Greek:
Ιουλιανός o
Παραβάτης; 331-June 26, 363) dies
as a result of a spear wound. Julian will be the last "Pagan" (or believer in
Hellenic religion) Emperor. After Julian, there will be little protection for
the Libraries in Alexandria, Greece and the rest of the Roman Empire which are
stored in temples dedicated to the traditional Greek Gods.

1,637 YBN
[363 AD]
1010) Ammanias Marcellinus (c330 Syrian Antioch - c393), Roman soldier and
historian writes about Alexandria: "There are besides in the city temples
pompous with lofty roofs, conspicuous among them the Serapeum, which, though
feeble words merely belittle it, yet is so adorned with extensive columned
halls, with almost breathing statues, and a great number of other works of art,
that next to the Capitolium, with which revered Rome elevates herself to
eternity, the whole world beholds nothing more magnificent. In this were
invaluable libraries, and the unanimous testimony of ancient records declares
that 700,000 volumes {voluminum}, brought together by the unremitting energy of
the Ptolemaic kings, were burned in the Alexandrine war, when the city was
sacked under the dictator Caesar {Rolfe comments that 'Ammonius confuses two
libraries, that of the Bruchion and that of the Serapeum. The former was
founded by Ptolemy Soter (322-282 BCE) and in the time of Callimachus contained
400,000 volumes; the Serapeum, founded by Ptolemy Philadelphus (285-247 BCE),
contained 42,800. At the time of the battle of Pharsalia the total number was
532,800 and it may have reached 700,000 by the time of the Alexandrine war. One
rumor reported by Plutarch relates how Antony gave Cleopatra 200,000 volumes
that had been collected at Pergamum.}
{Ammianus continues}
But Alexandria herself, not gradually (like other cities), but at her very
origin, attained her wide extent; and for a long time she was greviously
troubled by internal dissensions, until at last, many years later under the
rule of Aurelian {in 272 CE}, the quarrels of the citizens turned into deadly
strife; then her walls were destroyed and she lost the greater part of the
district called the Bruchion {at least a fourth of the city and contains the
royal palace}, which had long been the abode of distinguished men. From there
came Aristarchus, eminent in thorny problems of grammatical lore, and Herodian,
a most accurate investigator in science and Saccas Ammonius, the teacher of
Plotinus, and numerous other writers in many famous branches of literature.
Among these Didymus Chalcenterus {means of brazen guts, for his tireless
industry} was conspicuous for the abundance of his diversified knowledge,
although in those six books in which he sometimes unsuccessfully criticises
Cicero, imitating the scurrilous writers of Silli {Satirical poems}, he makes
the same impression on learned ears as a puppy-dog barking from a distance with
quavering voice around a lion roaring awfully. And although very many writers
flourished in early times as well as these whom I have mentioned, nevertheless
not even today is learning of various kinds silent in that same city; for the
teachers of the arts show signs of life, and the geometrical measuring-rod
brings to light whatever is concealed, the stream of music is not yet wholly
dried up among them, harmony is not reduced to silence, the consideration of
the motion of the universe and of the stars is still kept warm with some, few
though they be, and there are others who are skilled in numbers; and a few
besides are versed in the knowledge which reveals the course of the fates.
Moreover, studies in the art of healing, whose help is often required in this
life of ours, which is neither frugal nor sober, are so enriched from day to
day, that although a physician's work itself indicates it, yet in place of
every testimony it is enough to commend his knowledge of the art, if he has
said that he was trained in Alexandria. But enough on this point. If one wishes
to investigate with attentive mind the many publications on the knowledge of
the divine, and the origin of divination, he will find that learning of this
kind has been spread abroad from Egypt through the whole world. There, for the
first time, long before other men, they discovered the cradles, so to speak, of
the various religions, and now carefully guard the first beginnings of worship,
stored up in secret writings. Trained in this wisdom, Pythagoras, secretly
honoring the gods, made whatever he said or believed recognized authority, and
often showed his golden thigh at Olympia {wishing to represent himself as the
equal of Apollo}, and let himself be seen from time to time talking with an
eagle. From here Anaxagoras foretold a rain of stones, and by handling mud from
a well predicted an earthquake. Solon, too, aided by the opinions of the
Egyptian priests, passed laws in accordance with the measure of justice, and
thus gave also to Roman law its greatest support {Herodotus 1,30 states Solon
went to Egypt after making laws, see also Aristotle "Constitution of Athens".
The Romans are said to have made use of Solon's code in compiling the XII
Tables}. On this source, Plato drew and after visiting Egypt, traversed higher
regions {of thought}, and rivaled Jupiter in lofty language, gloriously serving
in the field of wisdom." (Again. for me, it is unusual that Plato is so
revered, for a person having no significant scientific contributions. Perhaps
once the celebrity of Plato was established, his fame and name recognition
overcame any criticism or doubts about the value of Plato's contribution to
science and knowledge.)

1,636 YBN
[364 AD]
993) Ammianus Marcellinus writes that even Rome is virtually devoid of books.
All libraries in Rome are closed. Ammianus Marcellinus relates that there are
certain people in Rome who 'hated learning like poison', and "libraries were
closed for ever like tombs"

1,636 YBN
[364 AD]
996) Emperor Jovianus has the library of the Trajanum Temple in Antioch burned.

1,634 YBN
[366 AD]
1100) The Caesarion, a Pagan temple in Alexandria with a library is plundered
and destroyed by Christian people.

Alexandria, Egypt  
1,630 YBN
[370 AD]
1376) Around this time Basil of Caesarea, (CE c330-379) (Greek:
Βασίλειος ο
Μέγας), Bishop of Caesarea, establishes a religious
foundation that includes a hospital, an isolation unit for those suffering from
leprosy, and buildings to house the poor, the elderly, and the sick. Following
this example similar hospitals will be built in the eastern part of the Roman

1,625 YBN
[375 AD]
992) Aphthonius of Antioch, who must visit the Serapeum a few years before it's
destruction, mentions the storerooms for books attached to the colonnades (rows
of columns), and claims that the books were open to all who desired to study,
and attracted the whole city to master wisdom.

1,625 YBN
[375 AD]
994) Ammianus Marcellinus writes of Alexandria: "The city lost the greater part
of the Brucheion which was the residence of the most distinguished men" and
"Even now in that city the various branches of learning make their voices
heard: for the teachers of the arts are still alive, the geometer's rod reveals
hidden knowledge, the study of music has not yet completely dried up there,
harmony has not been silenced and some few still keep the fires burning in the
study of the movement of the earth and stars in addition to them there are a
few men learned in the science which reveals the ways of fate. But the study of
medicine...grows greater from day to day."

1,620 YBN
[380 AD]
999) Theon, father of Hypatia, is the last recorded scholar-member of the
Mouseion in Alexandria.

1,614 YBN
[386 AD]
997) Jerome sees the royal quarter of Alexandria almost deserted and the center
of city life conglomerates in the Egyptian quarter around the Serapeum. The
royal quarter has become "a site near Alexandria called Kourchon" (i.e.

1,611 YBN
[389 AD]
1001) Emperor Theodosius I (Emperor 379-395 CE) releases a series of decrees
which declare among other things that any Pagan feast that has not yet been
transfered to a Christian feast is now to be a workday.

1,609 YBN
[391 AD]
1002) Roman Emperor Theodosius I orders all non-Christian temples closed.
1,609 YBN
[391 AD]
1003) Library in Alexandria (The Serapeion) destroyed.
Alexandria, Egypt  
1,600 YBN
[400 AD]
1005) Eunapius describes the Pagan temples in Alexandria as "scattered to the
winds" in terms of cult ceremonies.
Around this time Orosius reports that Christians have
already plundered the contents of Alexandrian libraries.
Copying and
preservation by Christians of only those philosophical treatises that do not go
against their religious beliefs contribute to the loss of thousands of

1,600 YBN
[400 AD]
1118) The Bakhshali Manuscript, an Indian mathematics text, is one of the
earliest records of the use of the number zero and negative numbers.

Bakhshali, Pakistan  
1,600 YBN
[400 AD]
1329) Paper is invented in America by Mayan people independently of Asia.
This paper
is called "Amatl" and is made by boiling the inner bark of several species of
fig trees (genus Ficus) and pounding the resulting fibers with a stone (and
allowed to dry). The paper is light brown with corrugated lines, is stretchy
and delicate.

1,588 YBN
[10/15/412 AD]
1006) Theophilus dies, and is succeeded by his nephew Cyril. Theophilus is
refered to as the "church's pharaoh". Theophilus's harsh and authoritarian
conduct provokes anger among Alexandrian Pagan people, monks of the desert
Nitria, the Bishop of Constantinople, John Chrysostom, and from various
Christian groups in the East.
Church historians of today express great respect for
Cyril, but his contemporaries view Cyril differently describing him as
impetuous (in other words forcefully impulsive), and power-hungry. Cyril
arouses strong opposition in Egypt. There are three days of fighting between
supporters of Timothy, Theophilus' archdeacon, and supporters of Cyril.

1,588 YBN
[10/17/412 AD]
1007) The supporters of Cyril
(Κυρίλλου) win the three day battle and
Cyril is bishop.

Socrates Scholasticus, a Christian historian, alive at this time, writes:
succeeds Theophilus Bishop of Alexandria.
Shortly afterwards Theophilus bishop of
Alexandria having fallen into a lethargic state, died on the 15th of October,19
in the ninth consulate of Honorius, and the fifth of Theodosius. A great
contest immediately arose about the appointment of a successor, some seeking to
place Timothy the archdeacon in the episcopal chair; and others desiring Cyril,
who was a nephew of Theophilus. A tumult having arisen on this account among
the people, Abundantius, the commander of the troops in Egypt, took sides with
Timothy. (Yet the partisans of Cyril triumphed.)20 Whereupon on the third day
after the death of Theophilus, Cyril came into possession of the episcopate,
with greater power than Theophilus had ever exercised. For from that time the
bishopric of Alexandria went beyond the limits of its sacerdotal functions, and
assumed the administration of secular matters.21 Cyril immediately therefore
shut up the churches of the Novatians at Alexandria, and took possession of all
their consecrated vessels and ornaments; and then stripped their bishop
Theopemptus of all that he had."

1,585 YBN
[03/??/415 AD]
1009) Murder of Hypatia (Greek: Υπατία and Ὑπατίας) (CE

(steps of a church called The Caesarium ) Alexandria, Egypt  
1,584 YBN
[416 AD]
1011) Museum in Alexandria closed.
1,577 YBN
[423 AD]
1012) Honorius and Theodosius issue one of their final edicts (CTh. XVI.10.22)
regarding pagans, they remark that "We now believe that there are none." This
is solid evidence that all pagan temples are destroyed.

1,561 YBN
[439 AD]
1013) Socrates Scholasticus (380 CE Constantinople - ~450 CE) completes his
"Historia Ecclesiatica" (Church History), a history that covers 305-439 CE.

Socrates expresses an issue of conflict in the new rising Christian religion:
whether to include ancient Greek learning in basic education or to only
strictly teach a purely Christian course. In his history, Socrates identifies
the common belief that "the education of the Christians in the philosophy of
the heathens, in which there is constant assertion of Polytheism, instead of
being conducive to the promotion of true religion, is rather to be deprecated
as subversive of it." Socrates then goes on to reject this claim writing
"First, Greek learning was never recognized by either Christ or his apostles as
divinely inspired nor, on the other hand, was it wholly rejected as pernicious.
Second, there are many philosophers among the Greeks who were not far from the
knowledge of God. Third, the divinely inspired scriptures undoubtably inculcate
{implant,teach} doctrines that are both admirable in themselves and heavenly in
character; they also eminently tend to produce piety and integrity of life in
those who are guided by their precepts...But they do not instruct us in the art
of reasoning, by means of which we may be enabled successfully to resist those
who oppose the truth. Besides adversaries are more easily foiled when we can
turn their own weapons against them."{3 166 Eccl Hist Chapter XVI}

1,550 YBN
[450 AD]
1096) Proklos (Proclus) (PrOKlOS) (Greek:
Πρόκλος) (410 CE Constantinople {now
Istanbul, Turkey} - 04/17/485 CE Athens) is the last Pagan science person
recognized for any thing, at this time, because of the intolerance of the
Christian people that now have a majority, it is dangerous to be Pagan. Proclus
teaches at the Academy in the last century of its existence and is the head of
that school. Proclus writes a commentary of Ptolomy and Euclid.

Proklos writes about Euclid, Ktesibios, and Pappos, all three who make
important contributions to science.

Athens, Greece  
1,524 YBN
[09/04/476 AD]
Rome, Italy  
1,511 YBN
[489 AD]
1384) The Nestorian established scientific center in Edessa, is transferred to
the School of Nisibis, also known as "Nisibīn", then under Persian rule
with its secular faculties at Gundishapur, Khuzestan. Here, scholars, together
with Pagan philosophers banished by Justinian from Athens carried out important
research in Medicine, Astronomy, and Mathematics".

Gundishapur, Khuzestan (southwest of Iran, not far from the Karun river.)  
1,501 YBN
[499 AD]
1309) Aryabhata describes Earth rotation around its own axis.
Kusumapura (modern Patna), India  
1,500 YBN
[500 AD]
1101) The first clinker-built boats.
1,480 YBN
[01/01/520 AD]
1099) Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius (c.480 CE Rome - 524 CE
Ticinum (now Pavia), Italy), a high ranking person in the the Roman government
under the Ostrogoth emperor of Rome Theodoric, translates works of Aristotle
from Greek to Latin, summarizes various science subjects, in addition to
writing "On he Consolation of Philosophy" from prison, after Theodoric arrests
him for treason.

Boethius expressed ancient Hellenic ideas of free will, and virtue, but
Boethius is thought to be Christian. Boethius is one of the last Roman people
to understood Greek. The writings of Boethius will be the only source of Greek
science for people in Europe until Arabic writings are translated to Latin 600
years later.

1,472 YBN
[528 AD]
1377) The Byzantine emperor Justinian builds a hospital, as reward for services
given by a physician, Sampson the Hospitable.

1,471 YBN
[529 AD]
1014) Plato's Academy is closed.
Athens, Greece (and Alexandria,Egypt)  
1,471 YBN
[529 AD]
1423) The Roman Emperor Justinian (reign 527-565) orders death by fire, and
confiscation of all possessions by the State to be the punishment for heresy
against the Christian religion in his Codex Iustiniani (CJ 1.5.).

1,470 YBN
[530 AD]
1426) John Philoponus (also John the Grammarian), (CE c490â€"c570), a
Christian philosopher in Alexandria, in a commentary on Aristotle's "Physics"
critisizes Aristotle's theory of motion where air is thought to rush behind a
projectile to keep it moving, by writing that a projectile moves on account of
a kinetic force which is impressed on it by the mover and which exhausts itself
in the course of the movement. Philoponus then evaluates the medium, concluding
instead of being responsible for the continuation of a projectile's motion, the
medium is actually an impediment to the projectile's motion.

Concepts similar to Philoponus' impetus theory appear in earlier writers such
as Hipparchos (2nd c. BCE) and Synesios (4th c. CE)

Alexandria, Egypt  
1,467 YBN
[533 AD]
1015) Chosroe (Khosrau) of Persia and Justinian approve a treaty which ensures
the protection of the philosophers who fled from prosecution. These
philosophers, for example Damascius, the head of the Academy when closed by
Justinian, do not return to Athens, but Alexandria instead.

1,458 YBN
[542 AD]
1381) The Hôtel-Dieu (Hospice of God) in Lyon, the oldest hospital in France
is founded.
In this and the Hotel-Dieu in Paris, monks use religious-based
treatments more than trying to cure health problems through science. The
monasteries have an infirmitorium, a place where sick monks are taken for
treatment. The monasteries have a pharmacy and frequently a garden with
medicinal plants. In addition to caring for sick monks, the monasteries open
their doors to pilgrims and to other travelers.

Lyon, France  
1,411 YBN
[589 AD]
1328) Toilet paper is used in China at this time. In this year the Chinese
scholar-official Yan Zhitui (531-591 AD) writes: "Paper on which there are
quotations or commentaries from Five Classics or the names of sages, I dare not
use for toilet purposes".

1,400 YBN
[600 AD]
1111) Earliest known windmill. This windmill uses a vertical shaft and
horizontal sails to grind grain.

Persia (Iran)  
1,387 YBN
[613 AD]
1391) Muhammad (Arabic: محمد) (full name: Abu al-Qasim
Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allah ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim), begins to preach
monotheistic religion in Mecca. Muhammad claims that complete "surrender" to a
single god (the literal meaning of the word "islām") is man's religion
(dīn), and that he is a prophet and messenger of God, in the same way that
Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, Jesus, and other prophets were. This is the
beginning of the religion of Islam which will grow to dominate all Arab and
Persian nations. All or most of the Holy book of Islam, the Qur'an will
apparently be written down by Muhammad's followers after supposedly being
revealed by the Angel Grabriel while Muhammad was alive. The Qur'an is
primarily an orally related document, and the written compilation of the whole
Qur'an in its definite form will be completed early after the death of
Muhammad. Initially, Islam will promote literacy and education, and much of the
science of Greece and other nations being supressed and destroyed under
Christianity will be preserved by Arabic people living under Islam, however
Islam, like many religions, will violently enforce belief and conformity which
will slow the natural growth of science and atheism in Arabic nations for

Mecca, Arabia (modern Saudi Arabia)  
1,367 YBN
[633 AD]
1114) Isidore of Seville (c.560 CE Cartagena, Seville - 4/4/636 CE Seville)
writes an Encyclopedia called "Etymologies" which describes the accumulated
learning from the Greek tradition.

Seville, Spain  
1,360 YBN
[640 AD]
1119) Most Coptic Christian people change to Islam. Coptic churches and
monastaries are left empty and abandoned.

1,358 YBN
[642 AD]
1,358 YBN
[642 AD]
1017) Mostafa El-Abaddi describes that the events of the early Arab conquests
are recorded by historians from both sides, by Arab, Copt and Byzantine people,
and that for more than five centuries after the Arab invasion there will be not
one single reference to any event connected with an Alexandrian Library under
Arab rule.
Not until the early 1200s will there be a report from an Arab writer
"Abdullatif of Bagdad" around 1200 CE who will write a confused statement upon
seeing Pompey's Piller that "I believe this was the site of the stoa where
Aristotle and his successors taught; it was the center of learning set up by
Alexander when he founded his city; in it was the book-store which was burnt by
Amr, by order of Caliph Omar". Obviously, the report about Aristotle is wrong,
placing Aristotle in the wrong school in the wrong country, so clearly there is
a lot of erroneous info here. Many of the Arab people will associate Aristotle
with the Greek learning in Egypt. A much more detailed report will be given by
Ibn Al-Qifti in his "History of Wise Men" written in the 1200s, which tells
this story:
"There was at that time a man named John the Grammarian of Alexandria in
Egypt; he was a pupil of Severus, and had been a Coptic priest, but was
deprived of his office owing to some heresy concerning the Trinity, by a
council held at Babylon... He lived to see the capture of Alexandria by the
Arabs, and made the acquaintance of Amr (also Amrou) the Arab General in Egypt,
whose clear and active mind was no less astronished then delighted with John's
intellectual acuteness and great learning. Emboldened by Amr's favour, John one
day remarked, 'You have examined the whole city, and have set your seal on
every kind of valuable. I make no claim for anything that is useful to you, but
things useless to you may be of service to us.'
'What are you thinking of?' asked
'The books of wisdom', said John, 'which are in the royal treasuries.'
Amr asked, 'And who
collected these books?'
John answered, 'Ptolemy Philadephus, King of Alexandria, was
fond of learning.... His search for books went far and wide, and he spared no
costs in acquiring them. He appointed Demetrios in charge. He soon collected
54,000 books. One day the king asked Demetrius, 'Do you think there are still
on earth books of knowledge out of our hands?' 'Yes', answered Demetrius,
'there are still multitudes of them in Sind {North of India}, India, Persia,
Georgia, Armenia, Babylonia, Music and Greece.' The King was astonished to hear
that, and said, 'Continue gathering them.' In that way he went on till he dies
and these books continued to be guarded and preserved by the kings and their
successors till our day.'
Amr said, 'I cannot dispose of these books without the
authority of Caliph.'
According to Al-Qifti, Amr sends a letter to Omar, and Omar
responses with: 'Touching the books you mention, if what is written in them
agrees with the Book of God, they are not required; if it disagrees, they are
not desired. Destroy them therefore."' Amr then ordered the books to be
distributed among the baths of Alexandria and used as fuel for heating; it
takes six months to consume them. 'Listen and wonder' concludes Al-Qifti.
El-Abaddi explains that the main problems identified with this story are
identified by J.H. Butler, who identified John the Grammarian with John
Philoponus who lived 100 years before the Arab invasion, and that the text can
be divided into 3 parts, the first part about John the Grammarian is taken
almost verbatim from a work of the tenth century by Ibn Al-Nadim which does not
include anything about the library. The second part probably came from the
second century BCE, Letter of Aristias. The third part is probably a 12th
century creation used to justify the Sunni Saladin selling many valuable books
as being less of a crime than the burning of books.

Luciano Canfora claims that at this time the city's books are now mainly
Christian writings, Acts of Councils, and "sacred literature" in general.
Canfora includes details about John Philoponus and a friend, Philaretes, a
Jewish doctor arguing with Amr, and trying to convince Amr that the library was
destroyed recently.

According to (get author name, one author), Edward Gibbon debunks this story.
Alfred Butler in 1902 discusses at length the Arabic and other sources for this
story. This story first appears in Abu'l Faraj, an Arab historian of the 13th
century CE. The story first appears more than 500 years after the Arab conquest
of Alexandria. John the Grammarian appears to be the Alexandrian philosopher
John Philoponus, who must have been dead by the time of the conquest. It seems
that both the Alexandrian libraries were destroyed by the end of the fourth
century, citing Orosius describing the bookcases only, and then as spoiling.

The same exact response of 'destroy everything' is recorded by Ibn Khaldun
relating to the destruction of another library in Persia.

Alfred Butler summarizes the reasons to doubt this report of Amr destroying the
books of the great library:
"1) that the story makes its first appearance more than five
hundred years after the event to which it relates;
2) that on analysis the details of
the stories resolve into absurdities;
3) that the principal actor in the story, ..John
Philoponus, was dead long before the Saracens invaded Egypt;
4) that of the two great
public Libraries to which the story could refer, a) the Museum Library perished
in the conflagration caused by Julius Caesar, of, if not, then at a date not
less than four hundred years anterior to the Arab conquest; while b) the
Serapeum Library either was removed prior to the year 391, or was then
dispersed or destroyed, so that in any case it disappeared two and a half
centuries before the conquest;
5) that fifth, sixth, and early seventh century literature
contains no mention of the existence of any such Library;
6) that if, nevertheless, it
had existed when Cyrus set his hand to the treaty surrendering Alexandria, yet
the books would almost certainly have been removed-under the clause permitting
the removal of valuables-during the eleven months' armistice which intervened
between the signature of the convention and the actual entry of the Arabs into
the city;
and 7) that if the Library had been removed, or if it had been destroyed,
the almost contemporary historian and man of letters, John of Nikiou, could not
have passed over its disappearance in total silence."

1,340 YBN
[660 AD]
1380) The Hôtel-Dieu (Hospice of God), the oldest hospital in Paris, France is

Paris, France  
1,320 YBN
[680 AD]
1018) Khalid Ibn Yazid Ibn Moawiyat, a distinguished member of the Omayyad
family, orders a group of Greek philosophers living in Egypt to translate
medical books from Greek and Coptic into Arabic, according to Ibn Al-Nadim in
the 900s, who indicates that this is the 'beginning of translation in Islam'.

1,315 YBN
[685 AD]
1019) Caliph Abdel-Malik Ibn Marwan makes a special department for translation.
His son and successor, Hisham Ibn Abdel-Malik continues this work, the
secretary of Hisham translates Aristotle's "Letter to Alexander", some 100
papers. These efforts will be forgotten, however until the early Abbassid

1,287 YBN
[713 AD]
1123) Bede (BED), (c.672/673 Jarrow, Durham - May 27, 735 Jarrow), a monk in
Great Britain, recognizes that the time system of Sosigenes is not accurate
since the vernal equinox arrives 3 days earlier than the traditional March 21,
understands that the tides are affected by the moon and that the earth is a
sphere. Bede is the first to date events based on the birth of Jesus, instead
of the creation of the world, this stupid BC/AD system will become standard and
shockingly continues even to this time. Bede writes "Historia ecclesiastica
gentis Anglorum" (The Ecclesiastical History of the English People) and other

Jarrow, Durham  
1,249 YBN
[751 AD]
1253) Acids prepared.
Kufa, (now Iraq)  
1,240 YBN
[760 AD]
1020) Caliph Al-Mansur acquires various books of learning from Byzantium
including Euclid's "Elements" according to Ibn Khaldun, a historian in the 14th
century, who claims that "Elements" is the first Greek work to be translated
into Arabic under Islam.

1,230 YBN
[770 AD]
1074) Wood-cut Printing.
1,219 YBN
[781 AD]
1254) Lower case letters.
Aachen, in north-west Germany, or York, England  
1,211 YBN
[01/01/789 AD]
1256) Charlemagne (soRlemoN) (c742 - January 28, 814), as King of the Franks,
establishes schools where math grammar and ecclesiastical subjects are taught.

Aachen, in north-west Germany  
1,200 YBN
[800 AD]
6221) Bowed string instrument.
River Oxus (modern) Turkmenistan (Central Asia)  
1,185 YBN
[815 AD]
1021) "Bayt al-Hikma" (House of Wisdom).
1,175 YBN
[825 AD]
1257) Hindu-Arabic numerals (1 through 9), and decimal point notation.
(House of Wisdom) Bagdad, Iraq  
1,171 YBN
[829 AD]
1299) Khalif Al-Ma'mun repeats the experiment of Eratosthenes to measure the
earth's arc by assembling a number of scientists in the plain of Sinjar in
Mesopotamia, west of Mosul. Al-Ma-mun divides the scientists into two groups
which move apart until they see a change of one degree in elevation of the pole
(star). The distance travelled is then measured and found to be 228,000 "black
cubits", a measure of length specially created for this experiment, and another
measurement of 234,000 black cubits. 2,500 black cubits equals 1 km and 4,000
black cubits equals 1 mile, so these measurements, when multiplied by 360
degrees, since there are 360 degrees in a full circle, equal a circumference of
around 33 km (the modern estimate is around 40,000 km), or 21,000 mi (the
modern estimate is around 25,000 mi). This estimate is just a few thousand km
or miles short of the actual circumference.

Sinjar in Mesopotamia, west of Mosul  
1,159 YBN
[841 AD]
1304) Al-Kindi (long name: Yaʻqūb ibn Isḥāq al-Kindī)
(Arabic: يعقوب بن
اسحاق الكندي)
(Latinized Alkindus), working in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, oversees the
translation of many Greek texts into Arabic, and writes many original treatises
on mathematics, phamacology, ethics, and others of non-scientific nature (such
as metaphysics). Al-Kindi is the first of the Arab peripatetic philosophers,
and is known for his efforts to introduce Greek philosophy to people in Arab

Al-Kindi writes that all terrestrial objects are attracted to the center of the
earth, which is the earliest recorded form of a gravity law.

Baghdad, Iraq  
1,150 YBN
[850 AD]
1144) Gunpowder.
1,150 YBN
[850 AD]
1332) Hunayn ibn Ishaq (Arabic: حنين بن
العبادي ) (Latin: Johannitius) (CE
810-877), an Arab Nestorian Christian physician and scholar is appointed head
of the Bayt al Hikma (a college of scholars supported by the Abbasids for the
purpose of translating Greek texts). Hunayn ibn Ishaq with his students, which
include his son, make the most exact translations from Greek texts into Syriac
and Arabic versions. These translations will play a major role in the rise of
interest in Hellenistic science by Arabic people. Of particular value are Ibn
Ishaq's translations of Galen, because most of the original Greek manuscripts
will be lost.

Ibn Ishaq translates many treatises of Galen and the Galenic school into
Syriac, and thirty-nine into Arabic. Hunayn also translates Aristotle's
"Categories", "Physics", and "Magna Moralia"; Plato"s "Republic", "Timaeus",
and "Laws"; Hippocrates" "Aphorisms", Dioscorides" "Materia Medica", Ptolemy's
"quadri-partition", and the Old Testament from the Septuagint Greek.

In addition to Hunain's work of translation, he writes treatises on general
health and medicine and various specific topics, including a series of works on
the eye which will remain influential until 1400.

Baghdad, Iraq  
1,150 YBN
[850 AD]
1333) Unlike his predecessors, the Abbasid Caliph, Al-Mutawakkil applies a
discriminatory policy toward minority groups like the Assyrian Christians and
Jews. In a decree of this year, the caliph orders that these "Ahlu dh-Dhimma"
(أهل الذمة) or "Protected
Peoples" be made to wear various specific identifying marks and honey-colored
robes and even to make their slaves immediately identifiable in the

These decrees also force the destruction of all churches and synagogues built
since Islam was established and confiscate one out of every ten Christian or
Jewish homes with the stipulation that, where suitable, mosques should occupy
the sites or that the sites should be left open. The doors of remaining
buildings are to be identified by wooden images of devils that are to be nailed
to them.

The decree also stipulates that Jewish and Christian graves should be flat
against the ground, which would identify them as non-Muslim graves.
Al-Mutawakkil bars Jews and Christians from ruling over Muslims, thus
effectively removing them from government service, and limits their schooling
to that which is taught by Jews and Christians, forbidding Muslims from
teaching them.

The aggregate of these rulings can very plausibly be interpreted as a means of
identifying "infidels", their women and even their slaves, the doorways of
their houses, and their graves, in order to expose them to the wrath of the

Samarra (near Baghdad), Iraq  
1,124 YBN
[876 AD]
1115) The number zero.
Gwalior, India  
1,124 YBN
[876 AD]
1300) Thabit Ibn Qurra, (in full Al-Sabi' Thabit ibn Qurra al-Harrani) (arabic
ثابت بن قرة
بن مروان) (CE 836-901) an Arabian
mathematician, astronomer, and physician, in the House of Wisdom in Bagdad,
translates many works of Greek scientists into Arabic in addition to writing
commentary on them.

Thabit goes to Baghdad to work for three wealthy brothers, known as the Banu
Musa, translating Greek mathematical texts. Among the major Greek
mathematicians whose works Thabit translates (or whose translations he revises)
are Euclid, Archimedes, Apollonius of Perga, and Ptolemy. Ibn Qurra also
prepares summaries of the works of the physicians Galen of Pergamum and
Hippocrates as well as the philosophy of Aristotle. Ibn Qurra then writes
original works on geometry, statics, magic squares, the theory of numbers,
music, astronomy, medicine, and philosophy.

Thabit ibn Qurrah is a major translator, almost as important as Hunayn, for
creating lasting works in health and philosophy.

Bagdad, Iraq  
1,122 YBN
[878 AD]
1301) Alfred the Great (849 - 10/28/900), an english monarch, establishes a
court school after the example of Charlemagne. and orders the translation of
Latin books into Old English, translating some books from Latin himself, for
example, Boethius and Bede.

Wessex (871-899), a Saxon kingdom in southwestern England.  
1,110 YBN
[890 AD]
1302) The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is created. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a
chronological account of events in Anglo-Saxon and Norman England, a
compilation of seven surviving interrelated manuscript records that is the
primary source for the early history of England.

Wessex (871-899), a Saxon kingdom in southwestern England.  
1,100 YBN
[900 AD]
1379) Around this time, a health (medical) school, in Salerno, Italy, grows
from the dispensary of a monastery founded in the 800s. (A dispensary is a
charitable or public place where medicines are provided and free or inexpensive
health advice is available.) Some people view this medieval physician school as
the first university.
On the Amalfi Coast in Salern, Italy, Christian, Islamic and Jewish
health science flow together and create a health science renaissance.

The first recorded female medical school faculty member named "trotula de
ruggiero" or "trocta salernitana" learns in the school in Solerno.

Salerno, Italy  
1,096 YBN
[904 AD]
1145) Gunpowder missile.
1,090 YBN
[910 AD]
1407) Abū Nasr al-Fārābi (full name: Abū Nasr Muhammad ibn
al-Farakh al-Fārābi) (Persian: محمد
فارابی) (Latin: Alpharabius) (CE c870-c950)
writes many works on of mathematics, philosophy and music. Al-Farabi is the
first Arab scholar to classify all the sciences as Aristotle did. Of the 70
works credited to al-Farabi, half are devoted to logic, including commentary on
the "Organon" of Aristotle. Al-Farabi writes independent works on physics,
mathematics, music, ethics, and political philosophy.

Baghdad, Iraq  
1,080 YBN
[920 AD]
6183) Norwegian explorers reach North America.
L'Anse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland  
1,064 YBN
[936 AD]
1408) Abu'l-Hasan al-Mas'udi (full name: Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn
al-Masudi) (أبو الحسن ،
علي بن الحسين
المسعودي) (CE c896-956), writes
a world history, "Akhbar az-zaman" ("The History of Time") in 30 volumes.

Baghdad, Iraq  
1,040 YBN
[960 AD]
6186) Earliest rocket.
1,036 YBN
[964 AD]
1502) 'Abd Al-Rahman Al Sufi (Persian:
صوفی) (Latin: Azophi) (CE 903-986), Persian astronomer,
publishes his "Book of Fixed Stars", which describes much of his work, both in
textual descriptions and pictures. This work contains the first recorded
description of the Large Magellanic Cloud, and the earliest recorded
observation of the Andromeda Galaxy.

Isfahan (Eşfahān), Persia (modern Iran)  
1,030 YBN
[970 AD]
1338) Al-Azhar University.
Cairo, Egypt  
1,025 YBN
[975 AD]
1839) The earliest explicit depiction of a triangle of binomial coefficients
occurs in commentaries by Halayudha, on the "Chandas Shastra", an ancient
Indian book on Sanskrit written by Pingala between 400-100 BCE.

?, India (presumably)  
1,021 YBN
[979 AD]
1410) Maslama al-Majriti,(Full name: Abu'l Qasim Maslamah al-Majrifi) (Arabic:
أبو القاسم مسلمة بن
أحمد المجريطي) (CE 9?? - 1007), an Arab
Muslim scholar in Spain, writes two important works on alchemy, "The Sage's
Step" and "The Aim of the Wise" (in Latin: "Picatrix") and establishes a school
in Cordova where the historian Ibn Kaldun and the physician al-Zahrawi will

Cordova, Spain  
1,019 YBN
[981 AD]
1385) The Al-Adudi Hospital is founded in Baghdad.

Baghdad, Iraq  
1,015 YBN
[985 AD]
1306) Gerbert d'Aurillac (ZARBAR) (c945 aurillac, auvergne - 5/12/1003 Rome,
Italy) is a prolific scholar of the 10th century. Gerbert introduces Arab
knowledge of arithmetic and astronomy/astrology to Europe. Gerbert picks up the
use of Indian numerals (many times called arabic numerals) without zero perhaps
from Alkwarizmior in Spain and is one of the first people to use Indian
numerals in Europe.
Gerbert reintroduces the use of the abacus in mathematical
calculation. Gerbert builds clocks, organs, and astronomical instruments by
consulting translated arab works.
Gerbert writes a series of works dealing with
matters of the quadrivium (the higher division of the liberal arts, which
includes music, arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy). In Rheims, he constructs
a hydraulic organ that excels all previously known instruments, where the air
had to be pumped manually.

According to Asimov, Gerbert is suspected of wizardry because of his great

Auvergne, France  
1,000 YBN
[1000 AD]
1022) Encyclopedia the "Suda".
1,000 YBN
[1000 AD]
1054) Paper money.
990 YBN
[1010 AD]
1311) Ibn Sina (iBN SEno) (full name Abu 'Ali al-Husayn ibn 'Abd Allah ibn
Sina) Persian: ابو علی
الحسین ابن
عبدالله ابن
سینا) (Latin: Avicenna oViSeNo) (CE 980-1037), a
Persian physician writes "Canon of Medicine" a massive book of Arab health
science. This book will be translated into Latin and be taught for centruies in
European universities. Ibn Sina is also famous for an encyclopedia "The Book of
Healing" (Kitab al-shifa) which is described as the high point of Peripatetic
philosophy in Arabic science and contains chapters on logic, mathematics and
natural sciences. Ibn Sina's works will have a large influence on both Arabic
and Latin health science for centuries.

Ibn Sina is credited with more than 250 books on a wide range of subjects, many
of which concentrate on philosophy and health. His most famous works are "The
Canon of Medicine", which will be for almost five centuries a standard medical
text at many European universities and "The Book of Healing". Ibn Sina's
theories are based on those of Hippocrates and Galen which he combines with
Aristotelian metaphysics as well as traditional Persian and Arab lore.

About 100 treatises are ascribed to Ibn Sina. Some of them are tracts of a few
pages, others are works extending through several volumes. The best-known of
these works, and that defines Ibn Sina's European reputation, is his 14-volume
"The Canon of Medicine", which will be translated into Latin in the 1100s, and
will be a standard medical text in Western Europe for almost five centuries
until the time of Harvey. This work classifies and describes diseases, and
outlines their assumed causes. Hygiene, simple and complex medicines, and
functions of parts of the body are also covered. In this, Ibn Sina is credited
as being the first to correctly document the anatomy of the human eye, along
with descriptions of eye afflictions such as cataracts. It asserts that
tuberculosis was contagious, which will be later disputed by Europeans, but
will be found to be true. It also describes the symptoms and complications of
diabetes. In addition, the workings of the heart as a valve are
described.(needs citation)

Almost half of Avicenna's works are versed as poetry.

Hamadan, Iran  
962 YBN
[1038 AD]
1308) Pin-hole camera (or camera obscura).
Cairo, Egypt  
959 YBN
[1041 AD]
1124) Movable type printing, where individual blocks can be put together to
form a text.

936 YBN
[1064 AD]
1313) Omar Khayyam, (OmoR KoToM) (full name: Ghiyās ol-Dīn Ab'ol-Fath
Omār ibn Ebrāhīm Khayyām Neyshābūrī)
(Persian: غیاث الدین
ابو الفتح عمر
بن ابراهیم
نیشابوری),(CE 1048-1131) a
mathematician, astronomer and poet, in an early paper he writes regarding cubic
equations, Khayyam discovers that a cubic equation (a polynomial equation of
the third degree (in other words an equation where at least one variable is
raised to the third power, and no other variables are raised to a higher power
than 3)) can have more than one solution, that it cannot be solved using
earlier compass and straightedge constructions, and finds a geometric solution
(for the variable or "roots" of all cubic equations) (by intersecting a
parabola with a circle(?)) which can be used to get a numerical answer by
consulting trigonometric tables.

Although Khayyam's approach at solving for the roots of cubic equations by
intersecting a parabola with a cicle had earlier been attempted by Menaechmus
and others, Khayyám provides a generalization extending it to all cubic

Persia, Iran (presumably)  
930 YBN
[1070 AD]
1314) Omar Khayyam, (OmoR KoToM) (full name: Ghiyās ol-Dīn Ab'ol-Fath
Omār ibn Ebrāhīm Khayyām Neyshābūrī)
(Persian: غیاث الدین
ابو الفتح عمر
بن ابراهیم
نیشابوری),(CE 05/18/1048
-12/04/1131) writes "Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra" (Risalah
fi'l-barahin 'ala masa'il al-jabr wa'l-muqabalah), the best book on algebra of
this time. In this book Khayyam catagorizes equations according to their
degree, gives rules for solving quadratic equations (polynomial equations of
the second degree (equations where the variable with the highest power is the
power of 2), which are very similar to the ones in use today, and a geometric
method for solving cubic equations with real (non integer) roots fonjud by
means of intersecting conic sections. In this book Khayyam also extends Abu
al-Wafa's results on the extraction of cube and fourth roots to the extraction
of nth roots of numbers for arbitrary whole numbers n.(not clear, show work if

927 YBN
[1073 AD]
1316) The Seljuk Sultan, MalikShah, calls Omar Khayyám, already a famous
mathematician, to build and work with an observatory, along with various other
distinguished scientists. Eventually, Khayyám very accurately (correct to six
decimal places) measures the length of the solar year as 365.24219858156 days.
This calendar measurement has only an 1 hour error in every 5,500 years,
whereas the Gregorian Calendar used today, has a 1 day error in every 3,330
years. Khayyam also calculates how to correct the Persian calendar. On March
15, 1079, Sultan Jalal al-Din Malekshah Saljuqi (1072-92) will put this
corrected calendar, the Jalali calendar, which Khayyam and other astronomers
created into effect, as in Europe Julius Caesar had done in 46 B.C.E. with the
corrections of Sosigenes, and as Pope Gregory XIII would do in February 1552
with Aloysius Lilius' corrected calendar (although Britain will not switch from
the Julian to the Gregorian calendar until 1751, and Russia will not switch
until 1918).

In this observatory Khayyam prepares improved astronomical tables (describe
fully). Kyammam built a star map (now lost).(original source?)
Omar Khayyam also
estimates and proves to an audience that includes the then-prestigious and most
respected scholar Imam Ghazali, that the universe is not moving around earth as
was believed by all at that time. By constructing a revolving platform and
simple arrangement of the star charts lit by candles around the circular walls
of the room, Khayyam demonstrates that earth revolves on its axis, bringing
into view different constellations throughout the night and day (completing a
one-day cycle). Khayyam also elaborates that stars are stationary objects in
space which if moving around earth would have been burnt to cinders due to
their large mass.

923 YBN
[1077 AD]
1315) Omar Khayyam, (OmoR KoToM) (full name: Ghiyās ol-Dīn Ab'ol-Fath
Omār ibn Ebrāhīm Khayyām Neyshābūrī)
(Persian: غیاث الدین
ابو الفتح عمر
بن ابراهیم
نیشابوری),(CE 05/18/1048
-12/04/1131) writes "Explanations of the Difficulties in the Postulates of
Euclid" ("Sharh ma ashkala min musadarat kitab Uqlidis"). An important part of
this book is concerned with Euclid's famous parallel postulate, which had also
attracted the interest of Thabit ibn Qurra. Al-Haytham had previously attempted
a demonstation of the postulate; Omar's attempt is a distinct advance.
writes this book in Esfahan and these ideas will make their way to Europe,
where they will influenced the English mathematician John Wallis (1616-1703),
and the eventual development of non-Euclidean geometry.

Also around this time Khayyám writes a geometry book (also in Esfahan) on the
theory of proportions. In this book Khayyam argues for the important idea of
enlarging the notion of number to include ratios of magnitudes (and therefore
such irrational numbers as the square root of 2 and pi).

919 YBN
[1081 AD]
1312) Orbit of planet Mercury described as an oval in an Earth-centered model.
Toledo (in Castile, now) Spain  
912 YBN
[1088 AD]
1163) Su Sung (蘇頌, style Zirong 子容) (1020 - 1101),
a Chinese engineer, invents a water-driven astronomical clock, one of the first
uses of an escapement mechanism (a device that stops a gear from continuously
unwinding, such as a pendulum) and one of the first astronomical clocks.

912 YBN
[1088 AD]
1339) University of Bologna.
Bologna, Italy  
905 YBN
[1095 AD]
1137) The First Crusade is ordered by Pope Urban II to regain control of the
sacred city of Jerusalem and the Christian Holy Land from the Islamic Arab

What starts as an appeal to the French knightly class quickly turned into a
wholesale migration and conquest of territory outside of Europe. Both knights
and peasants from many different nations of western Europe, with little central
leadership, travel over land and by sea towards Jerusalem and will capture the
city in July 1099, establishing the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader
states. Although these gains will last for fewer than two hundred years, the
First Crusade is a major turning point in the expansion of Western power, and
is the only crusade, in contrast to the many that followed, to achieve its
stated goal, which is possession of Jerusalem.

901 YBN
[1099 AD]
1382) The Knights Hospitalers of the Order of St. John establish a hospital in
Jerusalem that can care for some 2,000 people. It is said to have been
particularly concerned with eye disease, and be the first specialized hospital.

The growth of hospitals accelerates during the Crusades, which began at the end
of the 11th century. Military hospitals came into being along the well traveled
routes. Disease kills more people than Saracens (Islamic soldiers).

900 YBN
[1100 AD]
1023) From the 12th century on, Arab interest in the classic works of the past
changes from direct translation to compilations and surveys of earlier efforts,
for example translating Ibn Al-Quifti's "History of Wise Men", Ibn Abi
Usaybia's "Main Sources of Medical Schools", and Al-Shahristani's "Creeds and

894 YBN
[1106 AD]
1411) Al-Ghazzali (full: Abu Hamed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-Ghazzali) (Persian:
ابو حامد محمد ابن محمد الغزالی or امام محمد
غزالی) (Latin: Algazel) (CE 1058-1111), a Persian Islamic Theologin,
writes "Tahafut 'al-Falasifah" (Arabic:تهافت الفلاسفة) (The
Incoherence of the Philosophers), which marks a turning point in Islamic
philosophy in its vehement rejections of Aristotle and Plato. The book focuses
on the falasifa, a loosely defined group of Islamic philosophers from the 8th
through the 11th centuries (most notable among them Avicenna and Al-Farabi) who
drew intellectually upon the Ancient Greeks. Ghazali bitterly denounces
Aristotle, Socrates and other Greek writers as non-believers and labels those
who employed their methods and ideas as corrupters of the Islamic faith.

In the next century, Averroes will draft a lengthy rebuttal of Ghazali's
Incoherence entitled "the Incoherence of the Incoherence", however the course
of Islamic thought into an anti-science Dark Age of religious intolerance had
already been set.

Nishapur, Iran  
880 YBN
[1120 AD]
1318) Pierre Abélard (English: Peter Abelard) (oBALoR) (CE 1079-04/21/1142), a
French scholar, writes "Sic et Non" (Yes and No), in Latin, a list of 158
philosophical and theological questions about which there are divided opinions
and authorities conflict each other.

There are eleven surviving full and partial manuscripts of the "Sic et non".

Abilard is in constant danger of being charged with heresy, and will die while
preparing his defense against a charge of heresy.

Abelard also writes a book called "Theologia", which will be formally condemned
as heretical and burned by a council held at Soissons in 1121.

(the royal abbey of Saint-Denis near) Paris, France  
870 YBN
[1130 AD]
1140) Bernard of Clairvaux (Saint Bernard) (Fontaines, near Dijon, 1090 -
August 21, 1153 Clairvaux), who helps to form and preaches on the Second
Crusade (1145-46), is the prosecutor in the trial of Peter Abelard, the French
scholar and author of "Sic et Non", for heresy. Bernard also describes the
Jewish people, as "a degraded and perfidious people"{1 get source} (perfidious
means "tending to betray, disloyal and or faithless"). However, after many
Jewish people are murdered in Germany, according to Martin Bouquet (1685-1754)
(Martin Bouquet, "Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France," xv. 606)
Bernard sends a letter to (specifically?) England, France and Germany
expressing his view that Jewish people should not be disturbed or destroyed but
that they should be punished as a race of people by dispersion for their crime
against Jesus (who again, was a Jewish person with many Jewish

870 YBN
[1130 AD]
1322) Adelard of Bath (CE c1090 - c1150), English scholar translates Euclid's
"Elements" from Arabic to Latin. This is the first time the writings of Euclid
will be available to Europe. Adelard translates al-Khwarizmi, and uses arabic
numerals. Adelard writes "Quaestiones naturales"(Natural Questions) (76
discussions of human nature, meteorology, astronomy, botany, and zoology) which
are based on all he has learned about Arabic science. His other writings
include works on the abacus and the astrolabe and a translation of an Arabic
astronomical table.

Bath, England  
868 YBN
[1132 AD]
1146) First cannon and gun.
Ta-tsu, Szechuan Province, China  
850 YBN
[1150 AD]
6239) Earliest keyboard instrument. The organistrum, is the first stringed
instrument to use a keyboard.

846 YBN
[1154 AD]
1323) Gerard of Cremona (JeRoRD) (AD c1114 - 1187), and Italian scholar
translates (or supervises the translation of) 92 Arabic works, including
portions of Aristotle, the Almagest of Ptolemy, works of Hippocrates, Euclid
and Galen.
In Toledo, which had been a center for Arab learning, Gerard finds many
Arab books and people that help with translation.

Gerard moves to Toledo to learn Arabic in order to read the "Almagest", which
is not available in Latin and remains there for the rest of his life. Some
people speculate that Gerard is in charge of a school of translators that are
responsible for some of the translations. Gerard will complete the translation
of the Almagest in 1175. Gerard also translates original Arabic texts on
health, mathematics, astronomy, astrology, and alchemy.

Gerard is one of a small group of scholars who invigorates medieval Europe in
the 1100s by transmitting Greek and Arab traditions in astronomy, medicine and
other sciences, in the form of translations into Latin, which make them
available to every literate person in the West.

Gerard of Cremona's Latin translation of Ptolemy's "Almagest" from Arabic will
be the only version of this book that is known in Western Europe for centuries,
until George of Trebizond and then Johannes Regiomontanus translate it from the
Greek originals in the 1400s. The "Almagest" forms the basis for a mathematical
astronomy until being replaced by the sun-centered theory popularized by

Gerard translates into Latin the "Tables if Toledo", the most accurate
compilation of astronomical data ever seen in Europe at the time. These Tables
are partly the work of Al-Zarqali, known to the West as Arzachel, a
mathematician and astronomer who flourished in Cordoba in the eleventh

Al-Farabi, the Islamic "second teacher" after Aristotle, wrote hundreds of
treatises. His book on the sciences, "Kitab al-lhsa al Ulum", discusses
classification and fundamental principles of science in a unique and useful
manner. Gerard renders this book as "De scientiis" (On the Sciences).

Gerard translates Euclid"s "Geometry" and Alfraganus's "Elements of

Gerard also composes original treatises on algebra, arithmetic and astrology.
In the astrology text, longitudes are reckoned both from Toledo and Cremona.

Toledo, Spain  
834 YBN
[1166 AD]
1330) Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (oVROEZ) (full name: Abu-Al-Walid Muhammad
Ibn Ahmad Ibn Rushd) (Arabic: أبو
الوليد محمد
بن احمد بن
رشد) (CE 1126 - 12/10/1198), physician and philosopher,
writes an encyclopedia of health science, commentaries on most of Aristotle's
surviving works, Plato's "Republic", and original philosophical works.
Ibn Rushd's health science works are his original medical encyclopedia called
"Kulliyat" ("Generalities", i.e. general medicine), known in Latin translation
as "Colliget", a compilation of the works of Galen, and a verse commentary on
Ibn Sina's "Qanun fi 't-tibb" (Canon of Medicine).
Ibn Rushd writes
commentaries on Arabic versions of most of the surviving works of Aristotle.
Because Ibn Rushd has no access to any text of Aristotle's "Politics", as a
substitute he comments on Plato's "Republic".
Ibn Rushd's most important original
philosophical work is "The Incoherence of the Incoherence" (Tahafut
al-tahafut), in which he defends Aristotelian philosophy against al-Ghazali's
claims in "The Incoherence of the Philosophers" (Tahafut al-falasifa).
Al-Ghazali argued that Aristotelianism, especially as presented in the writings
of Ibn Sina (Avicenna), is self-contradictory and an affront to the teachings
of Islam. Ibn Rushd's (Averroes') argues that al-Ghazali's arguments are
mistaken and that, in any case, the system of Ibn Sina was a distortion of
genuine Aristotelianism. However, this work will not have as much influence on
Arabic people as al-Ghazzali's original attack on philosophers does. Although I
have not seen this mentioned before, part of this unfortunate rejection of
ancient Greek science, may very well be a racial prejudice against ideas from
Greek history versus ideas from Arabic history, in particular those from
Muhammad as recorded in the Quran. In Europe, however, Ibn Rushd will be viewed
as the most influential Arabic thinker, and most of Ibn Rushd's works survive
today only in Latin and Hebrew instead of the original Arabic.

Other works by Ibn Rushd are "the Fasl al-Maqal", which argues for the legality
of philosophical investigation under Islamic law, and the "Kitab al-Kashf".

Asimov wrote that after Averroes the Islamic world will enter a Dark Age, where
scientific inquiry will be lost, just as the Christian world is emerging from a
Dark Age.

Cordova, Spain  
833 YBN
[1167 AD]
1340) The University of Oxford, the oldest university of the English-speaking
nations is founded. There is no clear date of foundation, but teaching existed
at Oxford in some form in 1096 and developed rapidly in this year, when Henry
II bans English students from attending the University of Paris.
After a dispute
between students and townsfolk breaks out in 1209, some of the academics at
Oxford move north-east to the town of Cambridge, where the University of
Cambridge will be founded.

Oxford, England (now: United Kingdom)  
830 YBN
[1170 AD]
1319) University of Paris.
Paris, France  
825 YBN
[1175 AD]
1341) The University of Modena in Italy is founded.

Modena and Reggio Emilia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy  
824 YBN
[1176 AD]
1334) Moshe (Moses) ben Maimon (Hebrew: משה בן
מימון) (Arabic name: Abu Imran Mussa bin Maimun
ibn Abdallah al-Qurtubi al-Israili (أبو
عمران موسى بن
ميمون بن عبد
الله القرطبي
(Greek: Moses Maimonides (Μωυσής
Μαϊμονίδης)), a Jewish
philosopher and physician to Saladin, completes his "Guide to the Perplexed" in
Arabic, which calls for a more rational philosophy of Judaism.

writes "Guide for the Perplexed", where he speaks against astrology and tries
to reconcile the Old Testament with the teaching of Aristotle.

820 YBN
[1180 AD]
1335) Alexander Neckam (neKeM), an English scholar at the University of Paris
writes a book "De utensilibus" ("On Instruments") that is the first mention of
a mariner's compass in Europe. Chinese people have been using a (magnetic)
compass for at least 200 years by this time.

Neckam writes "De naturis rerum" ("On the Natures of Things"), a two-part
introduction to a commentary on the Book of Ecclesiastes, which contains
miscellaneous scientific information new to western Europe but already known to
educated people in Greek and Arabic nations.

816 YBN
[11/??/1184 AD]
1153) Start of the Inquisition. Pope Lucius II makes burning the official
punishment for heresy.

Verona, Italy  
805 YBN
[1195 AD]
1331) Ibn Rushd (Averroës) is banished to Lucena, possibly to gain undivided
loyalty from the people before a jihad (holy war) against Christian Spain, or
as Arabic sources claim to protect Ibn Rushd from attacks by people at the
request of religious leaders.

Lucena, Spain  
798 YBN
[1202 AD]
1393) Leonardo Fibonacci (FEBOnoCE), and Italian mathematician, writes "Liber
Abaci" ("Book of the Abacus") in Latin, which explains the use of Indian-Arabic
numerals, how position affects the value (positional or place-value notation)
and the use of the number zero. Adelard of Bath had used arabic numerals, but
this book in particular will contribute to the end in a few centuries of the
"Roman numerals" which the Greeks and Romans had used (although Roman numerals
are still rarely used).

Fibonacci's name is known in modern times mainly because of the Fibonacci
sequence, a series of numbers where the next number is the sum of the last two
numbers, which is derived from a problem in the Liber abaci.

Pisa, Italy (guess based on:)  
791 YBN
[1209 AD]
1342) The University of Cambridge in England is founded.
Early records suggest, in this
year scholars leave Oxford after a dispute with local townsfolk over a killing.

Cambridge, England  
788 YBN
[1212 AD]
1343) The University of Valladolid is founded. This is the earliest and oldest
University in Spain.

Valladolid province of the autonomous region of Castile-Leon,in northern
785 YBN
[06/15/1215 AD]
1520) The Magna Carta is signed, limiting the power of the King of England.
Runnymede, England  
785 YBN
[1215 AD]
1154) The Fourth Lateran Council orders all Jewish people in Catholic lands to
wear distinguishing labels or cloths in addition to ordering Jewish people to
be confined in ghettos.

782 YBN
[1218 AD]
1344) The University of Salamanca is founded.

Salamanca, west of Madrid, Spain  
780 YBN
[1220 AD]
1345) The University of Montpelier is founded.

Montpellier in the Languedoc-Roussillon région of the south of France.  
778 YBN
[1222 AD]
1346) The University of Padua (Italian Università degli Studi di Padova,
UNIPD) is founded. Padua is the second oldest University in Italy after the
University of Bologna. The university is founded in 1222 when a large group of
students and professors leave the University of Bologna in search of more
academic freedom.

Padua, Italy  
776 YBN
[06/05/1224 AD]
1347) The University of Naples Federico II is founded by the emperor of the
Holy Roman Empire Frederick II.

Naples, Italy  
773 YBN
[1227 AD]
1400) Michael Scot, in Frederick II's court, translates from Arabic to Latin
many of the Arabic translations and commentaries of Aristotle's works by people
such as Ibn Rushd (Averroes) and Ibn Sina (Avicenna).
Frederick II urges Scot to spread his
translations to the universities of Europe.

772 YBN
[1228 AD]
1392) Theory that all matter is made of light published by Robert Grosseteste
(GrOSTeST), (CE c1175-1253)

In his work "De Luce" ("On Light"), English scholar, Robert Grosseteste begins
with: (translated from Latin) "The first corporeal form which some call
corporeity is in my opinion light.".
"Corporeal" is defined as "material".

Lincoln, England (where de luce is written)  
771 YBN
[1229 AD]
1348) The University of Toulouse (TUlUS) is founded.
The formation of the University of
Toulouse is imposed on Count Raymond VII as a part of the Treaty of Paris in
1229 ending the crusade against the Albigensians. Suspected of sympathizing
with the heretics, Raymond VII has to finance the teaching of theology.

Toulouse, France  
767 YBN
[1233 AD]
1396) Albertus Magnus (Albert the great) (1193-1280), German scholar and
teacher of Thomas Aquinas, recognizes that the Milky Way is composed of many
stars, compiles a list of a hundred minerals, and recognizes the existence of

Paris, France  
766 YBN
[1234 AD]
1125) Metal block printing press.
766 YBN
[1234 AD]
1399) Frederick II, the German Holy Roman Emperor, (1194-1250), expreses
antireligious views, funds and corresponds with many scholars. Frederick II
keeps company with people of any race and religion. Frederick II keeps a
traveling zoo that includes monkeys, camels, a giraffe and an elephant.

Frederick writes "De arte venandi cum avibus", a standard work on falconry
based entirely on his own experimental research. In this book Frederick
describes hundreds of kinds of birds, their anatomy, physiology, and behavior.
The book also includes illustrations.

Asimov describes Frederick II as atheist and makes no distinctions between
religions, although in 1220 issues laws against heretics. Frederick is supposed
to have joked that Moses, Christ, and Muhammad were three impostors who had
themselves been fooled.

Frederick is in his own time as "Stupor mundi" ("wonder of the world"), and is
said to speak nine languages and be literate in seven at a time when some
monarchs and nobles cannot read or write. Frederick is a ruler very much ahead
of his time, being an avid patron of science and the arts.

760 YBN
[1240 AD]
1349) The University of Sienna is founded.

Siena, Tuscany, Italy  
758 YBN
[1242 AD]
1403) Roger Bacon (c1220-1292), is the first person in Europe to give exact
directions for making gunpowder, in a letter "De nullitate magiæ" at Oxford.
Bacon may
have learned about gunpowder from an Arab trader.
Bacon writes that if confined,
gunpowder would have great power and might be useful in war, but fails to
speculate further. The use of gunpowder in guns in Europe happens early in the
next century.

Oxford, England  
741 YBN
[1259 AD]
1412) Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (full: Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Tusi)
(CE 1201-1274), as scientific adviser to Hülegü Khan (c. 1217-1265), grandson
of Genghis Khan, al-Tusi convinces Khan to construct an observatory in Maragheh
(now in Azerbaijan).

in Maragheh (now in Azerbaijan)  
737 YBN
[1263 AD]
1417) Taddeo Alderotti (CE 1223-c1295), an Italian physician, writes
"Consilia", which describes clinical case studies, and writes one of the first
health works in the vernacular Italian language "Sulla conservazione della
salute" a family health encyclopedia.

Bologna, Italy  
735 YBN
[01/20/1265 AD]
1525) The first Parliament where members are required to be elected, formed by
Simon de Montfort (c1208-1265) without royal approval, meets in England.

Rome, Italy  
735 YBN
[1265 AD]
1418) Thomas Aquinas (uKWInuS) (c1225-1274), an Italian theologian, with others
promote the idea first identified by Ibn Rushd (Averroes) that reason and faith
can coexist and each operate according to their own laws. This is a step
forward in the eventual complete replacement of religion with science, faith
with logic.

Paris, France  
733 YBN
[1267 AD]
1401) Roger Bacon (c1220-1292), English scholar, writes "Opus Majus", an 840
page book in Latin, an encyclopedia of all aspects of natural science, from
grammar and logic to mathematics, physics, and philosophy. "Opus Majus" is the
first work that proposes mechanically propelled ships and carriages. "Opus
Majus" also mentions the use of spectacles which soon come into use (although
magnifying glasses for reading are already in use in China and Europe at this
time), and describes the principles of reflection, refraction, and spherical
aberration. "Opus Majus" contains what may be the first description of a

Bacon suggests that a balloon of thin copper sheet filled with "liquid fire"
would float in the air as many light objects do in water and seriously studies
the problem of flying in a machine with flapping wings.

Bacon denounces magic, but believes in astrology and alchemy.

Bacon suggests that the earth can be circumnavigated. Ancient Greek people such
as the Pythagoreans viewed the earth as a sphere and Eratosthenes was the first
to accurately calculate the size of the spherical earth. Columbus will quote
this suggestion from Bacon in a letter to Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. In
300 years Magellan will be the first to circumnavigate the earth.

Bacon estimates that the outermost heavenly sphere, the sphere with the stars
is 130 million miles (units) from earth, far short of the actual distance to
any star other than the sun, but such a guess is rare, and probably inspires
other people to wonder.

Following Grosseteste, Bacon constructs magnifying glasses.

Bacon writes that lenses can correct the vision of those who are farsighted
(cannot see close objects). In Europe eyeglasses first appeared in Italy, their
introduction being attributed to Alessandro di Spina of Florence.

Bacon recognizes the flaw in the Julian calendar.

Between 1777 and 1779 Bacon will be imprisoned and his works ordered supressed.
His greatest book "Opus Majus" will not be printed until 1733.

Oxford, England  
732 YBN
[1268 AD]
1147) Mortars with metal tubes (made of iron or bronze) first appeared in the
wars between the Mongols and the Song Dynasty (1268-1279).

731 YBN
[08/08/1269 AD]
1420) French: Pierre Pèlerin de Maricourt, (Latin: Petrus Peregrinus de
Maharncuria) ("Peter the Pilgrim from Maricourt") (PruGrINuS) (c1240-?), a
French scholar, writes the first known treatise describing the properties of
magnets. Pelerin tries to build a motor to keep a planetarium designed by
Archimedes moving for a period of time by using magnetic force (in my opinion
the magnetic force is actually the electric force). This is the first recorded
suggestion that magnetic force might be used as a source of power like water,
and air. Peregrinus attempts to prove that magnets can be used to realize
perpetual motion. I think some time in the future, if not already, permanent
magnets, arranged perhaps in a circle, may constantly turn another magnet or
piece of metal, as a virutal perpetual motion machine, because the source of
magnetic force in a permanent magnet appears to last for a very long time and
may be able to even overpower the friction of turning. The force of gravity is
another force that appears to last for many millions of years.

Peregrinus writes his treatise to a friend while serving as an engineer in the
army of Charles I of Anjou during a siege of Lucera (in Italy) in a "crusade"
sanctioned by the Pope. In this treatise Peregrinus describes how to determine
the north and south pole of a bar magnet (explain how), that like poles repel
each other and opposite poles attract each other, and that a pole cannot be
isolated by breaking a magnet, because each half is then a complete magnet with
both a north and south pole.
Peregrinus improves the compass by placing the magnetic
needle on a pivot instead of allowing the needle to float on a piece of cork,
and surrounding the pivot point with a circular scale to allow direction to be
read more accurately. This improvement will help those navigating and
Peregrinus is one of few medeival scholars to practice experiment.

My feeling is that a permanent magnet has a current running through it creating
an electric field which may be the actual explanation for the so-called
magnetic field of a permanent magnet.

Lucera, Italy  
730 YBN
[12/??/1270 AD]
1405) The Condemnation of 1270 is enacted by Bishop Étienne (Stephen) Tempier,
which lists thirteen doctrines held by "radical Aristotelians" as heretical and
that anybody that practices or teaches them would be faced with the punishment
of the Inquisition. The banned propositions are related to Ibn Rushd's (Latin
Averroes') theory of the soul and the doctrine of monopsychism (that all humans
share one eternal soul, mind, or intellect). Other propositions banned included
Aristotle's theory of God as a passive Unmoved Mover.
Conservative forces in the
Church attempted to use the Condemnation for political purposes to stop, or at
least control and contain, supposed threats to questions of theology posed by
Aristotelian reason. In particular the Condemnation targeted such radical
scholars as Siger of Brabant, a teacher at the University of Paris that is one
of the inventors and major proponents of Averroism, Averrois' interpretation of
In 7 years Tempier will enact a second list of condemnations, the Condemnation
of 1277.

Paris, France  
725 YBN
[1275 AD]
1419) Arnold of Villanova (CE 1235-1311), Spanish alchemist and physician, is
the first to recognize that wood burning with poor ventilation gives rise to
poisonous fumes, so Villanova is the first to describe carbon monoxide. Some
claim that Villanova is the first to prepare (distill?) pure alcohol.

Paris, France  
723 YBN
[1277 AD]
1404) Some time from 1277 and 1279 Roger Bacon (c1220-1292), Bacon is placed
under house arrest by Jerome of Ascoli, the Minister-General of the Franciscan
Order (later to be Pope Nicholas IV), and Bacon's works are ordered supressed.
His greatest book "Opus Majus" will not be printed until 1733.

Oxford, England  
723 YBN
[1277 AD]
1406) The Condemnation of 1277 is enacted by Bishop Tempier of Paris. These
Condemnations list 219 banned propositions. Propositions banned included
statements on Aristotle's "Physics": that God could not make several worlds or
universes; that God could not move a spherical heavens with a rectilinear
motion; that God could not make two bodies exist in the same place at once.

12 of these propositions are theses of Aquinas and these condemnations will
eventually lead to a direct attack on the works of Thomas Aquinas.

Paris, France  
720 YBN
[1280 AD]
6238) Eyeglasses.
Florence, Italy  
719 YBN
[1281 AD]
1413) Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (CE 1236-1311), student of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi,
writes a commentary on Ibn Sin'a "Canon", and composes numerous works on
optics, geometry, astronomy, geography and philosophy. In "The Limit of
Accomplishment concerning Knowledge of the Heavens", Qutb al-Din also discusses
the possibility of heliocentrism.

Maragha, Iran  
710 YBN
[1290 AD]
1350) The University of Coimbra (Portuguese: Universidade de Coimbra) is

Coimbra, Portugal  
703 YBN
[1297 AD]
1422) Pietro D'Abano (DoBoNO) (1257-c1315), an Italian physician, writes
"Conciliator", in which he describes the brain as the source of nerves, and the
heart as the source of the blood vessels. D'Abano recognizes that air has
weight, and makes a very accurate estimate of the length of a year. D'Abano
will be brought twice before the Inquisition for heresy, magic, and atheism
because he rejects the miraculous aspects of the gospel tales. D'Abano is
acquitted the first time and dies in prison during the course of the second

Padua, Italy  
702 YBN
[1298 AD]
1421) Marco Polo (c1254-1324), Italian explorer, writes a book "Il milione"
("the Millions"), known in English as "the Travels of Marco Polo", describing
the use of coal, paper money and asbestos while in prison.
Columbus will be inspired by
Polo's book into seeking the riches of the Indies.
Marco Polo is one of the few people
from Europe to visit China.

Genoa, Italy  
700 YBN
[1300 AD]
1121) Earliest mechanical clock.
697 YBN
[1303 AD]
1351) The University of Rome "La Sapienza" (Italian: Università degli Studi di
Roma "La Sapienza") is founded. The University of Rome La Sapienza is the
largest European university and the most ancient of Rome's three public
universities. In Italian, Sapienza means "wisdom" or "knowledge".
La Sapienza is founded in
1303 by Pope Boniface VIII, as a Studium for ecclesiastical studies more under
his control than the universities of Bologna and Padua.

Coimbra, Portugal  
692 YBN
[09/08/1308 AD]
1352) The University of Perugia (Italian: Università degli Studi di Perugia)
is founded.
One of the "free" universities of Italy, the University of Perugia is
erected into a studium generale on September 8, 1308, by the Bull "Super
specula" of Clement V.

Perugia, Italy  
690 YBN
[10/24/1310 AD]
356) Secret: Direct neuron reading of sounds the ear hears.
London, England  
690 YBN
[10/24/1310 AD]
656) Secret: Remote neuron reading of sounds the ear hears.
London, England  
690 YBN
[10/24/1310 AD]
657) Secret: Direct neuron reading of thought-audio.
The exact date, time, location,
invention, and even inventor are not clear because of the secrecy that still
surrounds this technology.

London, England (presumably)  
690 YBN
[1310 AD]
357) Secret: Nerve cell made to fire directly ("direct neuron writing").
London, England (presumably)  
690 YBN
[1310 AD]
1424) False Geber (c1270-?), an unknown alchemist writing under the name of
Jabir (Ibn Haiyan), is the first to describe sulfuric acid and other strong
acids. Before this viniger is the strongest acid known.

690 YBN
[1310 AD]
4540) Secret: Nerve cell made to fire remotely ("remote neuron writing").
London, England (presumably)  
688 YBN
[1312 AD]
363) Secret: Remote neuron reading of thought-image.
London, England (presumably)  
688 YBN
[1312 AD]
4539) Secret: Direct neuron reading of thought-image.
London, England (presumably)  
684 YBN
[1316 AD]
1428) Mondino De' Luzzi (MoNDEnO DA lUTSE) (c1275-1326), an Italian anatomist,
does his own dissections (unlike previous physicians who lectured from a high
platform while an assistant conducted the actual autopsy, which continues after
Mondino for 200 years until Vesalius), and in 1316 writes "Anathomia Mundini",
the first book devoted entirely to anatomy. Mondino De' Luzzi makes advances in
describing the anatomy of the organs in the reproductive system.

Bologna, Italy  
683 YBN
[1317 AD]
1427) William of Ockham (oKuM) (CE c1285-1349), English scholar, correctly
rejects Plato's view that observed objects are only imperfect copies of
reality, opting for the view that objects we observe are real, and that Plato's
philosophy is abstraction. Ockham (skeptical of the constant adding of more
items required to make theories work) writes that "Entities must not needlessly
be multiplied", which will come to be called "Okham's razor", basically meaning
that of two arguments the simplest is probably the more accurate.

Oxford, England  
673 YBN
[1327 AD]
1353) Sankoré Madrasah, The University of Sankoré is founded.

The Mali Empire gained direct control over the city of Timbuktu in 1324 during
the reign of Mansa Kankan Musa. A royal lady financed Musa'a plans to turn
Sankoré into a world class learning institution with professors on par with
any outside of Africa. Upon returning from his famous Hajj, Musa brought the
Granada architect Abu Ishaq es Saheli from Egypt to build mosques and palaces
throughout the empire.

Timbuktu, Mali, West Africa  
665 YBN
[1335 AD]
1354) The University of Zaragosa is founded.

Zaragosa, Spain  
665 YBN
[1335 AD]
1425) Jean Buridan (BYUrEDoN) (c1295-c1358), French philosopher, revises
Aristotle's theory of motion, which states that an object needs a continuous
force to keep the object moving, arguing instead that an initial force on an
object is all that is needed and that the motion then continues indefinitely.
John Philoponus
(6th c. CE) had reached a similar conclusion in his commentary on Aristotle's
"Physics", as had Hipparchos (2nd c. BCE) and Synesios (4th c. CE) before him.
n then applies this concept to the so-called spheres of heaven, saying once put
into motion by a god, the motion of the spheres would continue forever, and do
not need angels to keep them moving (as, shockingly, is the common belief,
among those who care).

Paris, France  
664 YBN
[1336 AD]
1355) The University of Camerino is founded.

Camerino, Italy  
657 YBN
[09/03/1343 AD]
1356) The University of Pisa is founded.
The University of Pisa is founded by an edict
of Pope Clement VI on this day, although there had been lectures on law in Pisa
since the 11th century.

Pisa, Italy  
652 YBN
[04/07/1348 AD]
1357) The Charles University in Prague is founded. Charles University (Czech:
Univerzita Karlova; Latin: Universitas Carolina) is the oldest university in
the Czech Republic.

On April 7 of 1348, Charles I, the King of Bohemia (later known as Charles IV,
Holy Roman Emperor) issues a Golden Bull (transcription of the Latin original)
granting the University of Prague its privileges. A minority however sees the
papal bull of Pope Clement VI on January 26 of 1347 as primary.
Charles University is
based on the model of the University of Paris.

Prague, Czech Republic (EU)  
640 YBN
[1360 AD]
1977) Nicholas Oresme (OrAM) (CE c1320-1382), French Roman Catholic bishop and
scholar understands the movement of uniformly accelerated motion.

Paris, France (presumably)  
639 YBN
[1361 AD]
1358) The University of Pavia (Italian: Università degli Studi di Pavia,
UNIPV) is founded.

An edict issued by King Lotarius quotes a higher education institution in Pavia
as already established 825 CE. This institution, mainly devoted to
ecclesiastical and civil law as well as to divinity studies. The University of
Pavia is officially established as a studium generale by Emperor Charles IV in

Pavia, Itlay  
636 YBN
[1364 AD]
1359) Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet Jagielloński) is
Jagiellonian University is the first university in Poland and is the second
oldest university in Central Europe behind The University of Prague.
For much of its
history, this university is known as the Cracow Academy, but in the 1800s the
university is renamed to commemorate the Jagiellonian dynasty of Polish kings.
nian University is founded by Casimir III the Great as Akademia Krakowska.

635 YBN
[03/12/1365 AD]
1360) The University of Vienna (German: Universität Wien) is founded.
The University is
founded March 12, 1365 by Duke Rudolph IV and his brothers Albert III and
Leopold III.
The University of Vienna is the oldest University in the
German-speaking world.

Vienna, Austria  
633 YBN
[03/12/1367 AD]
1361) The University of Pécs in Hungary is founded.
The University of Pécs is the
oldest university in Hungary. The Anjou king Louis the Great establishes it in

Pécs, Hungary  
621 YBN
[1379 AD]
1414) Ibn Khaldūn (full name: Wali al-Din 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn
Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr Muhammad ibn al-Hasan Ibn Khaldun) (Arabic: ابو زيد
عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون) (CE 1332-1406), writes
"Muqaddimah" ("Introduction") an introductory to the philsophy of history, and
starts a very large history, "Kitab al-'Ibar", the best single source on the
history of Islamic North Africa.

the castle Qal'at ibn Salamah, near what is now the town of Frenda,
614 YBN
[1386 AD]
1362) The Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg (German
Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg) is founded.
The University of Heidelberg is
founded by Rupert I, Count Palatine of the Rhine, in order to provide faculties
for the study of philosophy, theology, jurisprudence, and medicine.

Heidelberg, Germany  
609 YBN
[03/04/1391 AD]
1363) The University of Ferrara (Italian: Università degli Studi di Ferrara)
in Italy is founded.

Ferrara, Italy  
602 YBN
[03/04/1398 AD]
1364) Seonggyungwan University is established in 1398 to offer prayers and
memorials to Confucius and his disciples, and to promote the study of the
Confucian canon. Seonggyungwan is located in the capital Hanseong, modern-day
Seoul. It follows the example of the Goryeo-period Gukjagam, which in its later
years is also known by the name "Seonggyungwan." The Sungkyunkwan will be
Korea's foremost institution of the highest learning under the Joseon dynasty
education system.

(Myeongnyun-dong, Jongno-gu in central) Seoul and Suwon, South Korea  
600 YBN
[1400 AD]
1024) From the 1400s to the 1800s Arab interest in the classics becomes less.
Mostafa El-Abbadi sites the Arab adoption of a popular problem solving
technique of posing problems and solutions initiated by Aristotle, instead of
exploring other techniques including explaining observational phenomena as
being a major reason for this failure for Arab science to progress, although I
think the brutal intolerance for science by a religious majority may have
contributed to this failure too. The Arab people accept Ptolomy's earth
centered universe and progress no further.

590 YBN
[1410 AD]
1365) The University of St Andrews (Scottish Gaelic: Oilthigh Chill Rìmhinn),
the oldest university in Scotland is founded.

St. Andrews, Scotland  
580 YBN
[1420 AD]
1429) Henry the Navigator (1394-1460), a Portuguese prince, establishes an
observatory, and tries unsuccessfully to circumnavigate Africa as Hanno did
2000 years before.

Lagos, Portugal  
580 YBN
[1420 AD]
1430) Ulugh Beg (UloNG BeG) (actual name: Muhammad Taragay) (1394-1449), a
Mongol astronomer, founds a university (madrasa) in Samarkand.

Samarkand, Uzbekistan  
576 YBN
[1424 AD]
1431) Ulugh Beg (UloNG BeG) (actual name: Muhammad Taragay) (1394-1449), a
Mongol astronomer, builds an astronomic observatory in Samarkand.

Samarkand, Uzbekistan  
575 YBN
[1425 AD]
1366) The Catholic University of Leuven, the first university in Belgium is

Leuven, Belgium  
565 YBN
[1435 AD]
1435) Johannes Gutenberg (GUTeNBRG) (c1398-c1468), German inventor, introduces
the movable type printing press in Europe.

Strassburg (now Strasbourg, France)  
565 YBN
[1435 AD]
1440) Leon Battista Alberti (oLBRTE) (CE 1404-1472), Italian artist and
achitect, writes "On Painting" the first book to describe the laws of
perspective (how to draw a picture of a three-dimensional scene on a
two-dimensional plane). Poncelet will develop this 400 years later, and
Leonardo da Vinci will make use of perspective in painting. This book will
result in more real looking paintings. This book is the first modern treatise
on painting.

In 1452 Alberti writes "De re aedificatoria" (Ten Books on Architecture), a
monumental theoretical result of his long study of Vitruvius. This work, not a
restored text of Vitruvius but a wholly new work, gives hima a reputation as
the "Florentine Vitruvius" and becomes a bible of Renaissance architecture,
because it incorporates and makes advances on the engineering knowledge of
This treatise on architecture will remain the best for centuries.

Alberti writes small treatise on geography, the first work of its kind since
antiquity. It sets forth the rules for surveying and mapping a land area, in
this case the city of Rome, and it is probably as influential as his earlier
treatise on painting. Although it is difficult to trace the historical
connections, the methods of surveying and mapping and the instruments described
by Alberti are precisely those that were responsible for the new scientific
accuracy of the depictions of towns and land areas that date from the late
1400s and early 1500s.

Florence, Italy  
563 YBN
[1437 AD]
1432) Ulugh Beg (UloNG BeG) (actual name: Muhammad Taragay) (1394-1449), a
Mongol astronomer, Beg publishes an astronomical table and star catalogue
"Zij-i-Sultani", that contains a star map of 994 stars and is the product of
the work of a group of astronomers working under the funding of Ulugh Beg.

Samarkand, Uzbekistan  
560 YBN
[02/12/1440 AD]
1437) Nicholas of Cusa (Nicholas Krebs) (CE 1401-1464) describe space as
infinite in size, and that stars are other suns with inhabited planets.

Cusa, Germany  
557 YBN
[1443 AD]
1438) John Bessarion (BeSoREoN) (CE 1403-1472), a Greek scholar, accumulates
many manuscripts of great Greek books.

Rome, Italy  
550 YBN
[1450 AD]
1171) Spring driven clocks are invented.
550 YBN
[1450 AD]
1798) Clockmakers working probably in southern Germany or northern Italy began
to make small clocks driven by a spring. These are the first portable

southern Germany, or northern Italy  
548 YBN
[1452 AD]
1441) Leon Alberti (oLBRTE) (CE 1404-1472), writes "De re aedificatoria" (Ten
Books on Architecture), a monumental theoretical result of his long study of
Vitruvius. This treatise on architecture will remain the best for centuries.

Florence, Italy  
547 YBN
[05/29/1453 AD]
546 YBN
[1454 AD]
1436) Johannes Gutenberg (GUTeNBRG) (CE c1398-c1468) produces 300 copies of the
Bible, in double columns with forty-two lines in Latin on each page. This is
the first printed book in Europe. Gutenberg goes into debt to produce the books
and is sued for the money. Infact the winners of the lawsuit take his presses
and supplies and are the first to actually sell the books.

Mainz, Germany  
540 YBN
[1460 AD]
1367) The University of Basel (German: Universität Basel), the oldest
university in Switzerland is founded.

Basel, Switzerland  
538 YBN
[1462 AD]
1443) Regiomontanus (rEJEOmoNTAnuS) (Johnann Muller) (1436-1476), German
astronomer, publishes a revised and corrected version of "Almagest" using Greek
copies brought from Cardinal Bessarion from Constantinople. In this work
Regiomontanus completes Peuerbach's half-finished "Epitome" on Ptolemy's
"Almagest" around 1462 (first printed in 1496 as Epytoma…in Almagestum

prepares new table of planetary motions bringing those under Alfonso X up to
date. These tables are used by many people including Columbus.

Introduces Indian (Arabic) numerals to Germany, reproducing his tables with a
printing press and is one of the first printers.
1472 observes a comet (later called
Halley's comet), this is the first time comets are the objects of scientific
study instead of merely stirring up superstitious terror.

Rome, Italy  
528 YBN
[1472 AD]
1442) Georg von Peurbach (POERBoK) (CE 1423-1461), Austrian mathematician and
astronomer, uses arabic numerals to prepare the most accurate table of sines.

Vienna, Austria  
528 YBN
[1472 AD]
1461) Leonardo da Vinci (VENcE) (CE 1452-1519), Italian painter, sculpture and
inventor, draws designs for tanks, airplanes, uses elaborate gears, chains,
ratchets an other devices in his designs, designs a parachute, designs an
elevator for the Milan cathedral, among other engineering feats.

Florence, Italy  
526 YBN
[1474 AD]
1433) Paolo Toscanelli (ToSKuneLE) (1397-1482), an Italian physician and
mapmaker, creates a map with Europe on the right hand side and Asia on the left
hand side, separated by the Atlantic Ocean which Toscanelli estimates is 3000
miles (actual units?) wide which is too small). Toscanelli sends a letter and
the map to the court of Lisbon, detailing a plan for sailing westwards to reach
the Spice Islands. A copy of this letter and map is sent to Christopher
Columbus, which excites and inspires Columbus. Columbus carries the map with
him during his first voyage to the new world. Toscanelli's miscalculation of
the size of the earth will result in Columbus never realizing he has found a
new continent.

Florence, Italy  
523 YBN
[1477 AD]
1368) Uppsala University (Swedish Uppsala universitet), a public university in
Uppsala, Sweden is founded. Uppsala university is the oldest university in
Scandinavia, outdating the University of Copenhagen by two years.

Uppsala, Sweden  
521 YBN
[1479 AD]
1369) The University of Copenhagen (Danish: Københavns Universitet), the
oldest and largest university in Denmark is formed.

Copenhagen, Denmark  
520 YBN
[1480 AD]
1463) Leonardo da Vinci (VENcE) (CE 1452-1519), draws a machine for storming

Florence, Italy  
516 YBN
[05/01/1484 AD]
1449) Christopher Columbus (CE 1451-1506), Italian explorer, seeks support for
crossing the Atlantic to Asia from King John II of Portugal but is denied.

515 YBN
[1485 AD]
1464) Leonardo da Vinci (VENcE) (CE 1452-1519), draws designs for a boat, a
giant crossbow, an eight-barrelled machine gun, and an automatic igniting
device for firearms.

Milan, Italy  
513 YBN
[1487 AD]
1465) Leonardo da Vinci (VENcE) (CE 1452-1519), draws the first known design
for a tank (armored car) (metal?).

Milan, Italy  
513 YBN
[1487 AD]
1468) Leonardo da Vinci (VENcE) (CE 1452-1519), draws a design of a helicopter
or aerial screw.

Milan, Italy  
512 YBN
[1488 AD]
1467) Leonardo da Vinci (VENcE) (CE 1452-1519), draws a design for an
"ornithopher" a flying machine with flapping wings.

Milan, Italy  
508 YBN
[01/??/1492 AD]
1451) King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella fund Columbus with 3 small ships and
120 men (most are from prison).

508 YBN
[08/03/1492 AD]
1452) Columbus sets sail west in search of Asia.

Palos, Spain  
508 YBN
[09/13/1492 AD]
1453) Columbus is first to note the shifting of direction of the compass needle
as a person moves over large areas of the earth. He keeps this a secret from
his crew because they might fear that they were moving into areas were the laws
of nature are no longer observed.

Atlantic Ocean  
508 YBN
[10/12/1492 AD]
1450) Humans from Europe reach the Americas by crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
(probably) San Salvador  
508 YBN
[12/05/1492 AD]
1455) Christopher Columbus (CE 1451-1506) reaches Haiti. Columbus renames it La
Isla Española, or Hispaniola. He seems to have thought that Hispaniola might
be Cipango or, if not Cipango, then perhaps one of the legendarily rich isles
from which King Solomon's triennial fleet brought back gold, gems, and spices
to Jerusalem (1 Kings 10:11, 22); alternatively, he reasons that the island
could be related to the biblical kingdom of Sheba (Saba'). There Columbus finds
at least enough gold and other products to save him from ridicule on his return
to Spain. With the help of a Taino cacique, or Indian chief, named
Guacanagarí, Columbus has a stockade built on the northern coast of the
island, names it "La Navidad", and posts 39 men to guard it until his return.
The accidental running aground of the Santa María provids additional planks
and provisions for the garrison. This is the first European settlement in
America. In the future many millions of European people will move to and live
in America.

507 YBN
[01/16/1493 AD]
1456) Christopher Columbus (CE 1451-1506) leaves America (Hispaniola) with his
remaining two ships, the Nina and Pinta, for Spain. Columbus takes some of the
native people back with him. As Columbus had predicted the westerly winds do
indeed direct them homeward.

507 YBN
[03/15/1493 AD]
1459) Christopher Columbus (CE 1451-1506) arrives at his home port of Palos
March 15. Pinzón arrives at Palos in the Pinta a few hours later but dies
within days. Columbus presents Isabella with "Indian" human captives, parrots
and other unknown animals, spices, and some gold.

Palos, Spain  
506 YBN
[06/07/1494 AD]
1460) The Treaty of Tordesillas between Portugal and Spain. According to this
treaty Spain is allowed to take all land west of a line drawn from pole to pole
370 leagues (about 1,185 miles/1,910 km) west of the Cape Verde Islands, and
Portugal is allowed to claim all land to the east of the line.

Tordesillas (now in Valladolid province, Spain)  
506 YBN
[1494 AD]
1445) Luca Pacioli (PoKOlE or PocOlE) (CE c1445-1517), Italian mathematician,
publishes his major work on arithmetic and geometry "Summa de arithmetica,
geometrica, proportioni et proportionalita", the first printed description of
method of double-entry bookkeeping.

Venice, Italy  
496 YBN
[1504 AD]
1474) Amerigo Vespucci (VeSPYUCI) (Latin: Americus Vespucius) (VeSPYUsuS) (CE
1454-1512), Italian navigator, recognizes that the new lands extend too far to
the South to be Asia, and that the new lands are not Asia but represent a new
continent unknown to ancient people, and that between that continent and Asia
there must be a second ocean. The new continent will be named "America" after
Amerigo Vespucius.

493 YBN
[1507 AD]
1476) Martin Waldseemuller (VoLTZAmYULR) (c1470-c1518), German cartographer,
prints 1000 copies of the first map to show America which he names after
Amerigo Vespucius for recognizing that America is infact a new landmass.

Saint-Dié, Lorraine, France  
489 YBN
[1511 AD]
1513) Desiderius Erasmus (CE 1469-1536), Dutch humanist, publishes "Moriae
encomium" ("Praise of Folly"), which contains satirical criticisms of church
and state.
Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the
dignity and worth of all humans, based on their ability to determine right and
wrong by appeal to universal human qualities, particularly logic (reason).

written: London, Netherlands  
488 YBN
[1512 AD]
1481) Around this time Nicolas Copernicus (KOPRniKuS) (Polish:Mikolaj Kopernik)
(1473-1543), Polish astronomer, distributes "Commentariolus" ("Little
Commentary"), a short handwritten paper describing his ideas about the sun
centered theory.

Frombork, Poland  
487 YBN
[09/25/1513 AD]
1485) Vasco Nunez de Balboa (BoLBOo) (1475-1519), Spanish explorer, is the
first European to see and describe the Pacific Ocean. Balboa names the Pacific
Ocean the "South Sea".

a peak in Darién, Panama  
485 YBN
[1515 AD]
1486) Johannes Schöner (sOEnR) (1477-1547), German geographer, constructs the
first globe (a manuscript) with the new lands discovered by Columbus, and with
the name "America" as Waldseemüller suggested.

Bamberg, Bavaria, Germany  
483 YBN
[10/31/1517 AD]
1389) Martin Luther posts Ninety-five Theses on the door of the Castle Church,
Wittenberg, Germany, on October 31, 1517, the eve of All Saints' Day, the
traditional date for the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.

In 1521 Luther will be excommunicated and what began as an internal reform
movement will become a major fracture in western Christendom.

As a result of the Protestant Reformation, although Protestant people will
persecute and murder atheists and scientists just as Catholic people will, the
Protestant Reformation does represent a challange to the traditional religious
Christian belief, the massive group of followers of Jesus of Nazareth.

Before this there are other reformers within the medieval church such as St.
Francis of Assisi, Valdes (founder of the Waldensians), Jan Hus, and John

Wittenberg, Germany  
480 YBN
[10/21/1520 AD]
1496) Magellan's ships find the passage through the southern tip of South
America that connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Magellan will name the
waters the "Mar Pacifico" (Pacific Ocean) because of the calmness of the
Pacific Ocean after the storms of the strait.

Straight of Magellan  
480 YBN
[1520 AD]
1487) Johannes Schöner (sOEnR) (1477-1547), German geographer, constructs a
globe with the new lands discovered by Columbus.

Bamberg, Bavaria, Germany  
478 YBN
[09/08/1522 AD]
1475) Humans circumnavigate the Earth.
Seville, Spain  
477 YBN
[1523 AD]
1488) Johannes Schöner (sOEnR) (1477-1547) 1523 map of earth.

Bamberg, Bavaria, Germany(presumably)  
476 YBN
[1524 AD]
1386) The first hospital in the Western Hemisphere is built by the conquistador
Hernán Cortés to care for poor Spanish soldiers and the native inhabitants.
The original name is "Hospital de la Purísima Concepción de Nuestra Señora"
(Hospital of Our Lady of the Purest Conception).

Mexico City, Mexico  
476 YBN
[1524 AD]
1510) Peter Apian (oPEoN) (1495-1552), publishes "Cosmographia", which contains
some of the earliest maps of America.

Landshut, Bavaria, Germany  
475 YBN
[1525 AD]
1477) Albrect Dürer (DYvrR) (CE 1471-1528), German artist, invents the art of
etching and publishes "Vier Bücher von menschlicher Proportion" ("The
Painter's Manual", more literally, "the Instructions on Measurement"), a book
on geometrical constructions for use by artists which helps the popular trend
of naturalism (realism) in painting at this time.

Nürnberg, Germany  
470 YBN
[1530 AD]
1503) Paracelsus (PoRoKeLSuS) (real name: Phillip von Hohenheim) (1493-1541),
Swiss physician and alchemist, publishes a clinical description of syphilis.
Paracelsus will establish the use of chemistry in health.

Basel?, Switzerland?  
467 YBN
[1533 AD]
1489) Johannes Schöner (sOEnR) (1477-1547) 1533 map of earth.
Bamberg, Bavaria, Germany(presumably)  
466 YBN
[1534 AD]
1514) Parliament in England creates a series of acts which transfers authority
over all churches in England to the King, removing Papal authority and
ownership of church property from Rome and creating the Church of England.

London (presumably), England  
464 YBN
[1536 AD]
1504) Paracelsus (PoRoKeLSuS) (real name: Phillip von Hohenheim) (1493-1541),
publishes "Der grossen Wundartzney" ("Great Surgery Book").

Basel?, Switzerland?  
463 YBN
[1537 AD]
1536) Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia (ToRToLYo) (CE 1499-1557) publishes "Nova
Scientia" ("A New Science"), the first book on the theory of projectiles
(Leonardo da Vinci had written one earlier, but Da Vinci's writings were not

Venice, Italy (presumably)  
462 YBN
[10/28/1538 AD]
1371) The Autonomous University of Santo Domingo (Spanish: Universidad
Autónoma de Santo Domingo (UASD)), a public university in the Dominican
Republic, the oldest university in the western hemisphere, is established.

The Autonomous University of Santa Domingo is founded during the reign of
Charles I of Spain.

Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic  
460 YBN
[1540 AD]
1509) Peter Apian (oPEoN) (1495-1552), German astronomer, publishes
"Astronomicum Caesareum", a book describing his observations of comets,
describing the appearance of 5 different comets (including what will become
named Halley's comet). Apian mentions that comets always have their tails
pointing away from the sun.

Ingolstadt, Bavaria, Germany  
459 YBN
[1541 AD]
1557) Konrad von Gesner (GeSnR) (CE 1516-1565), Swiss naturalist, completes
"Historia plantarum", a dictionary of plants.

Zurich, Swizerland (presumably)  
458 YBN
[1542 AD]
1511) Jean François Fernel (FRneL) (1497-1558), French physician, publishes
"Medicina", in which Fernel is the first to use the words "physiology" and
Fernel is the first to make human dissection an important part of his clinical
"Medicina" corrects some of Galen's errors.
Fernel is the first to describe an
Fernel describes the central canal of the spinal cord.

458 YBN
[1542 AD]
1540) Leonhard Fuchs (FYUKS), (CE 1501-1566), German botanist, writes "Historia
Stirpium", "History of Plants", in which numerous plant species are described
in detail. "Historia Stirpium" is a landmark in the development of natural
history because of its organized presentation, the accuracy of its drawings and
descriptions of plants, and its glossary. Prepares the first important glossary
of botanical terms. This will define botany, the study of plants, as a specific
branch of science.

Basel, Switzerland  
457 YBN
[1543 AD]
1025) Copernicus writes to Pope Paul III stating that the earliest suggestion
he had seen that the earth is in motion, was a statement that he quoted from
Cicero's "Academica".

457 YBN
[1543 AD]
(presumably) written in (Frauenburg, East Prussia now:)Frombork, Poland;
(printed in)Nuremberg, Germany  
457 YBN
[1543 AD]
1553) Andreas Vesalius (VeSALEuS) (CE 1514-1564), Flemish anatomist, publishes
"De Corporis Humani Fabrica" ("On the Structure of the Human Body"), the first
accurate book on human anatomy, and the first with illustrations.

Basel, Switzerland  
455 YBN
[1545 AD]
1537) Girolamo (or Geronimo) Cardano (KoRDoNO) (CE 1501-1576), Italian
mathematician, publishes "Ars Magna" (Great Work), the first book to publish a
solution for equations of the third degree (or cubic equations). "Ars Magna"
also contains the solution of the quartic equation found by Cardano's former
servant, Lodovico Ferrari.

Cardano is the first to recognize the value of negative and to understand
imaginary numbers.

Cardano is the first to write a clinical description of Typhus fever.

Cardano is the first to understand the water cycle (how water evaporates from
the seas into vapor (or gas) and the vapor turns to rain and falls back to the
ground and into the oceans from rivers.
Cardano writes 200 works.

?, Italy (presumably)  
455 YBN
[1545 AD]
1543) Ambroise Paré (PorA) (CE 1510-1590), a French surgeon considered by many
to be the founder of modern surgery, writes "La Méthod de traicter les playes
faites par les arquebuses et aultres bastons à feu", ("The Method of Treating
Wounds Made by Harquebuses and Other Guns"), which is ridiculed because it is
written in French instead of Latin.
Wisely decides to not use boiling oil to
treat gunshots
Pare ties off arteries to stop bleeding.
Summarizes the books of Vesalius into
French (so other barber-surgeons can learn anatomy).
Pare builds artificial limbs.
Pare improves
obstetrical (care of a woman during pregnancy) methods.

Paris, France  
454 YBN
[1546 AD]
1507) Georgius Agricola (oGriKOlo) (George Bauer) (1494-1555), German
mineralogist, publishes "De natura fossilium", considered the first mineralogy
textbook. This book presents the first scientific classification of minerals
(based on their physical properties) and describes many new minerals, their
occurrence and mutual relationships.

written: Chemnitz, Saxony, Germany| published: Basel, Switzerland  
454 YBN
[1546 AD]
1508) Georgius Agricola (1494-1555) publishes "De ortu et causis
subterraneorum" and "De natura eorum quae effluunt ex terra". In these books
Agricola correctly attributes the origin of ore deposits to deposition from
aqueous solution, describes the erosive action of rivers and how erosion shapes
mountains. Agricola readily discards the mistakes of ancient authorities such
as Aristotle and Pliny.

written: Chemnitz, Saxony, Germany | published: Basel, Switzerland   
450 YBN
[1550 AD]
1506) Georgius Agricola (oGriKOlo) (George Bauer) (1494-1555), German
mineralogist, writes "De Re Metallica" which will be published a year after his
death in 1556. This book summarizes all the knowledge gained by the Saxon
miners including drawings of mining machines.

Chemnitz, Saxony, Germany  
449 YBN
[1551 AD]
1549) Erasmus Reinhold (rINHOLD) (CE 1511-1553), German mathematician,
publishes "Tabulae Prutenicae" (Prussian Tables), the first set of planetary
tables based on the sun-centered theory revived by Copernicus.

448 YBN
[1552 AD]
1545) Bartolomeo Eustachio (YUSToKEO?) (CE c1510-1574), Italian anatomist,
completes his book "Tabulae anatomicae". Because Eustachio fears
ex-communication by the Catholic Church, he does not publish his work and it
will not be published until 1714.
In "Anatomical Engravings" Eustachio is the first
to describe the adrenal gland. The Eustachian tube is named after Eustachio,
although first described by Alcmaeon 2000 years before.
Eustachio does a
detailed study of teeth.
1552 Eustachio writes a book but will not be published until
1714, with anatomical illustrations
(worked on the sympathetic nervous system, kidney and

Rome, Italy  
447 YBN
[10/27/1553 AD]
1548) Michael Servetus (SRVETuS) (Spanish: Miguel Servet) (CE 1511-1553),
Spanish physician, is burned alive on a stake for heresy in Champel, Geneva,

Geneva, Switzerland  
447 YBN
[1553 AD]
1541) Reiner Gemma Frisius (1508-1555), Dutch cartographer, explains that
longitude can be measured by using an accurate timepiece, but no accurate
timepieces exist at this time.

Friesland (present day Netherlands)  
447 YBN
[1553 AD]
1547) Michael Servetus (SRVETuS) (Spanish: Miguel Servet) (CE 1511-1553),
Spanish physician, publishes "Christianismi Restitutio" which contains a
description of the function of pulmonary circulation.

Toulouse, France (presumably)  
445 YBN
[1555 AD]
1561) Pierre Belon (BeLoN) (CE 1517-1564), French Naturalist, publishes
"L'histoire de la nature des oyseaux" (1555; "Natural History of Birds"),
illustrating, classifying, and describing about 200 species of birds.

442 YBN
[1558 AD]
1556) Konrad von Gesner (GeSnR) (CE 1516-1565), Swiss naturalist, completes
"Historia animalium" (1551-8), an exhaustive effort to describe all known

Zurich, Swizerland (presumably)  
441 YBN
[1559 AD]
1544) Realdo Colombo (KOlOMBO) (CE c1510-1559), Italian anatomist, writes "De
re anatomica" (1559; "On Things Anatomical"), which clearly describes the
passage of blood between the heart and lungs (pulmonary circulation).

Rome, Italy (presumably)  
440 YBN
[1560 AD]
1538) Girolamo (or Geronimo) Cardano (KoRDoNO) (CE 1501-1576), Italian
mathematician, writes "Liber de ludo aleae" (The Book on Games of Chance),
which presents the first systematic computations of probabilities, a century
before Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat.

440 YBN
[1560 AD]
1563) Giambattista della Porta (PoURTo) (1535-1615), Italian physicist, forms
the first scientific society (associations for scholars to communicate), named
"Accademia Secretorus Naturae".

439 YBN
[1561 AD]
1562) Gabriel Fallopius (FoLOPEuS) (CE 1523-1562), Italian anatomist, publishes
"Observationes anatomicae", in which he identifies the tubes that connect the
ovaries to the uterus (now known as fallopian tubes) and several major nerves
of the head and face. Fallopius describes the semicircular canals of the inner
ear (responsible for maintaining body (balance)). Fallopius names the "vagina",
"placenta", "clitoris", "palate", and "cochlea" (the snail-shaped organ of
hearing in the inner ear).
The actual function of the Fallopian tubes, where
sperm fertilizes the ovum, will not be known for 200 years.

Venice, Italy  
433 YBN
[1567 AD]
1512) Jean François Fernel's (FRneL) (1497-1558) most comprehensive work,
"Universa medicina", is published posthumously. In this book Frenel describes
peristalsis (the rhythmic contraction of smooth muscles to propel contents
through the digestive tract.), and the heart's systole (the contraction of the
chambers of the heart, driving blood out of the chambers.) and diastole (the
period of time when the heart relaxes after contraction).

431 YBN
[1569 AD]
1550) Gerardus Mercator mRKATR (CE 1512-1594), publishes a world map with the
Mercator projection, which allows lines of latitude and longitude to be
straight instead of curved.

Duchy of Cleves, Germany (presumably)  
431 YBN
[1569 AD]
1551) Gerardus Mercator mRKATR (CE 1512-1594), publishes a chronology of the
world from the Creation to 1568.

Duchy of Cleves, Germany (presumably)  
431 YBN
[1569 AD]
1992) Rafael Bombelli (CE 1526-1572) is the first to use the symbol "i" for the
square root of -1.

Bologna, Italy  
428 YBN
[11/11/1572 AD]
1573) Tycho Brahe (TIKO BroHA) (CE 1546-1601), Danish Astronomer observes an
exploded star (now called SN 1572) in the constellation Cassiopeia, as bright
as Venus.

Scania, Denmark (now Sweden)  
427 YBN
[1573 AD]
1574) Tycho Brahe (TIKO BroHA) (CE 1546-1601), Danish Astronomer, publishes "De
nova stella" ("Concerning the new star"), which records his observation of an
apparently new star (now named SN 1572).

Herrevad Abbey, an abbey near Ljungbyhed, Scania, Denmark (now Sweden)  
427 YBN
[1573 AD]
1575) Tycho Brahe (TIKO BroHA) (CE 1546-1601), Danish Astronomer, publishes "De
mundi aetherei recentioribus phenomenis" ("?"), in which Tycho proves that the
great comet of 1577 had to be at least six times farther than the moon, and
this provides another criticism of the claim recorded by Aristotle that no
change can occur above the orbit of the moon.

Island of Hven (now Ven, Sweden)  
420 YBN
[1580 AD]
3221) Earliest flintlock gun. The flintlock replaces the matchlock.
419 YBN
[1581 AD]
1588) Robert Norman (CE 1560-?) , English navigator, publishes "The Newe
Attractive", which shows that a compass needle allowed to swing up and down
points down below the horizon. Gilbert also recognizes this.

London, England  
418 YBN
[1582 AD]
1566) The proposal to reform the Julian calendar by the German astronomer,
Christoph Clavius (KloVEUS) (CE 1537-1612), is accepted at an astronomical
conference in Rome. Pope Gregory XII approves this change, and so the calendar
is called the Gregorian calendar. Eleven days are dropped so that October
15,1582 is the day after October 4, 1582.
With the Gregorian calendar, February
29th is omitted in century years which are not divisible by 400.

Rome, Italy  
417 YBN
[1583 AD]
1569) Joseph Justus Scaliger (SkoLiJR) (CE 1540-1609), French historian and
astronomer, publishes "Opus de emendatione tempore" (1583; "Study on the
Improvement of Time"), a study of earlier calendars. In this book Scaliger
compares the computations of time made by the various civilizations of the
past, corrects their errors, and is the first to places chronology on a solidly
scientific basis.

Scaliger founds the "Julian Day" system, where January 1, 4713 BCE is set to
day 1. This system forms a standard for astronomers through periods of various
diverse calendars, and is still used today.

?, France  
415 YBN
[1585 AD]
1581) Simon Stevin (STEVen) (CE 1548-1620) , publishes a small pamphlet in
Dutch, "La Thiende" ("The Tenth"), which contains the introduction of a decimal
system of notating fractions.

Netherlands (presumably)  
414 YBN
[1586 AD]
1415) Baha' al-Din Muhammad ibn Husayn al-'Amili (CE 1546-1622), writes works
in mathematics and astronomy summarizing earlier scientists and is causes a
revival in mathematics in Iran which was neglected for more than 100 years.

Isfahan, Iran  
414 YBN
[1586 AD]
1582) Simon Stevin (STEVen) (CE 1548-1620) , publishes "De Beghinselen der
Weeghconst" (1586; "Statics and Hydrostatics") which explains Stevin's
discovery that the downward pressure of a liquid is independent of the shape of
its vessel and depends only on its height and area of the surface.

(possibly Antwerp or Nassau), Netherlands  
414 YBN
[1586 AD]
1583) Simon Stevin (STEVen) (CE 1548-1620) shows that two objects of different
mass fall at the same speed.

Netherlands (presumably)  
411 YBN
[1589 AD]
1182) John Harrington (1561 - November 20, 1612) invents the first modern flush

Somerset, England  
410 YBN
[1590 AD]
1580) Giordano Bruno (CE 1548-1600), Italian philosopher, writes "De immenso,
innumerabilibus et infigurabilibus" ("On the Immeasurable and Innumerable"),
describe the concept of an atomic basis of matter and being.

Frankfurt am Main, Germany  
409 YBN
[1591 AD]
1568) Franciscus Vieta (VYATu) (CE 1540-1609), French mathematician, publishes
"In artem analyticem isagoge" (1591; "Introduction to the Analytical Arts"),
which closely resembles a modern elementary algebra text.

Vieta is first to use letters to symbolize constant and unknown numbers, using
consonents for constants and vowels for unknowns.

Uses Archimedes method of using polygons to estimate pi. using 393,216 sides in
his calculation he gets the value of pi accurate to 10 decimal places, the most
accurate value up to this time.

?, France  
408 YBN
[1592 AD]
1587) Prospero Alpini (oLPEnE) (CE 1553-1616) , Italian botanist, prints "De
plantis Aegypti liber" (1592; "Book of Egyptian Plants") which includes the
first European botanical accounts of coffee, banana, and a genus of the ginger

Alpini is the first to recognize that plants have gender.

Venice, Italy  
408 YBN
[1592 AD]
1613) Thermometer.
Padua, Italy  
405 YBN
[1595 AD]
1586) John Napier (nAPER) (CE 1550-1617), Scottish mathematician, writes a
manuscript which describes four weapons: two kinds of mirrors that burn
opponents using light, a piece of artillery, and a battle vehicle covered with
metal plates having small holes for emission of offensive firepower and moved
and directed by men inside, although none are ever built.

Scotland (presumably)  
404 YBN
[08/??/1596 AD]
1616) David Fabricius (FoBrisEuS) (CE 1564-1617) , German astronomer, finds the
first variable star, a star that shows periodic changes in brightness.
Fabricius finds this star (what will be called Omicron Ceti, and later "Mira")
before the use of the telescope, but is one of the first after Galileo to start
using a telescope for astronomical observations.

Esens, Frisia (now northwest Germany and northeast Netherlands) (guess)  
404 YBN
[1596 AD]
1621) Johannes Kepler (CE 1571-1630) publishes his first major astronomical
work, "Mysterium Cosmographicum" ("The Sacred Mystery of the Cosmos"), the
first published defense of the Copernican system.

Graz, Austria  
400 YBN
[02/17/1600 AD]
1578) Giordano Bruno (CE 1548-1600), Italian philosopher, is burned alive at
the stake.

Rome, Italy  
400 YBN
[1600 AD]
1564) Hieronymus Fabricius ab Aquapendente (FoBrEsEuS) (CE 1537-1619), Italian
physician, publishes "De Formato Foetu" (1600; "On the Formation of the
Fetus"), which summarizes his investigations of the fetal development of many
animals, including human, contains the first detailed description of the
placenta and opens the field of comparative embryology. In this book, Fabricius
gives the first full account of the larynx as a vocal organ and is the first to
demonstrate that the pupil of the eye changes its size.

Corrects Vesalius who puts eye lens in middle of eye, by correctly describing
the lens as near the forward (front) rim.

Padua, Italy (presumably)  
400 YBN
[1600 AD]
1571) William Gilbert (CE 1544-1603), English physician and physicist,
publishes "De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno Magnete Tellure"
(1600; "On the Magnet, Magnetic Bodies, and the Great Magnet of the Earth"),
which describes his research on magnetic bodies and electrical attractions.
From experiments involving a spherical lodestone, the most powerful magnet then
available, Gilbert concludes that the earth is a spherical magnet and
recognizes that the compass points to magnetic poles not up to the stars (or
heavens) as wrongly thought.

Gilbert works with amber which is known to attract light objects after being
rubbed with a cloth, Gilbert extends this knowledge by finding other substances
including rock crystal, and a variety of gems that show the same property.
Gilbert labels these objects "electrics" from the Greek word for Amber
Gilbert is the first to use the terms electric attraction, electric
force, and magnetic pole and is often considered the father of electrical

Gilbert invents the first known electroscope, a device to measure the quantity
of static electricity. This is the versorium or electrical needle, which
consists simply of a light metallic needle balanced on a pivot like a compass

London, England (presumably)  
398 YBN
[1602 AD]
1594) Sanctorius Sanctorius (SANKTOrEuS) (CE 1561-1636) , Italian physician,
invents a pulse clock, a "pulsilogium".

Padua, Italy (presumably)  
397 YBN
[1603 AD]
1565) Hieronymus Fabricius ab Aquapendente (FoBrEsEuS) (CE 1537-1619), Italian
physician, publishes "De Venarum Ostiolis" (1603; "On the Valves of the
Veins"), which contains the first clear description of the semilunar (one-way)
valves of the veins, which will later provided Harvey with a crucial point in
his argument for circulation of the blood.

Padua, Italy (presumably)  
397 YBN
[1603 AD]
1636) Johann Bayer (BIR) (CE 1572-1625), German astronomer, publishes
"Uranometria", the first star catalog to show the entire celestial sphere, and
invents an ordered star naming system of listing each star in a constellation
in order of brightness.

Augsburg, Germany  
396 YBN
[01/01/1604 AD]
1622) Johannes Kepler (CE 1571-1630) publishes "Astronomiae Pars Optica" ("The
Optical Part of Astronomy")
In this book Kepler describes the inverse-square law governing
the intensity of light, reflection by flat and curved mirrors, and principles
of pinhole cameras, as well as the astronomical implications of optics such as
parallax and the apparent sizes of heavenly bodies. "Astronomiae Pars Optica"
is generally recognized as the foundation of modern optics (though the law of
refraction is conspicuously absent).

Prague, (now: Czech Republic) (presumably)  
396 YBN
[1604 AD]
1635) Johannes Kepler (CE 1571-1630) publishes "Ad Vitellionem Paralipomena,
Quibus Astronomiae Pars Optica Traditur" (1604; "Supplement to Witelo, in Which
Is Expounded the Optical Part of Astronomy") which contains the first accurate
description of how light from a single point forms a cone with a circular base
at the pupil, and then meets again at a single point on the retina.

Prague, (now: Czech Republic) (presumably)  
395 YBN
[1605 AD]
1590) Francis Bacon (CE 1561-1626) , English philosopher, published
"Advancement of Learning", in which he argues against mysticism and tradition.

London, England (presumably)  
395 YBN
[1605 AD]
1630) Using Tycho Brahe's observations, Johannes Kepler (CE 1571-1630)
recognizes that Mars moves in an elliptical orbit.

Prague, (now: Czech Republic)  
394 YBN
[1606 AD]
1570) French historian and astronomer Joseph Justus Scaliger's (SkoLiJR) (CE
1540-1609) book "Thesaurus temporum, complectens Eusebi Pamphili Chronicon"
(1606; "The Thesaurus of Time, Including the Chronicle of Eusebius Pamphilus")
is published. This book is a reconstruction of the Chronicle of the early
Christian historian Eusebius Pamphilus and a collection of Greek and Latin
remnants placed in chronological order.

Scaliger founds the "Julian Day" system, where January 1, 4713 BCE is set to
day 1. This system forms a standard for astronomers through periods of various
diverse calendars, and is still used today.

Leiden, Netherlands (presumably)  
394 YBN
[1606 AD]
1589) Andreas Libavius (liBAVEuS) (CE 1560-1616) , German alchemist, publishes
"Alchymia" (1606; "Alchemy"), the first systematic chemistry textbook, in which
Libavius is the first to describe the preparation of hydrochloric acid. tin
tetrachloride, ammonium sulfate, and antimony sulfide.

392 YBN
[1608 AD]
1618) Telescope and microscope.

Hans Lippershey (LiPRsE) (CE 1570-1619), German-Dutch optician, invents the
first telescope (and microscope).

391 YBN
[08/??/1609 AD]
1603) Galileo presents a telescope that can magnify object 8 times larger to
the Venetian Senate. Galileo is rewarded with life tenure (which makes being
fired very difficult) and a doubling of his salary. Galileo is now one of the
highest-paid professors at the University of Padua.

Venice, Italy  
391 YBN
[1609 AD]
1599) Galileo Galilei (GoLilAO) (CE 1564-1642), understands that the distance
covered by a falling body is proportional to the square of the elapsed time.

This law is called the "Law of falling bodies". In empty space, all bodies fall
to earth with the same constant acceleration and in proportion to the square of
time. This motion is called uniformly accelerated motion.

This law will later be expressed (by whom) as s = 1/2 (at2), where s is
distance, t is time, and a is acceleration. (state by whom)
Galileo finds that the
trajectory of a projectile is a parabola.

(University of Padua) Padua, Italy  
391 YBN
[1609 AD]
1602) Galileo builds a telescope (that can also be used as a microscope) after
hearing about the invention created in Holland.

?, Italy  
391 YBN
[1609 AD]
1619) Johannes Kepler (CE 1571-1630) shows that planets have elliptical orbits.
Weil der Stadt (now part of the Stuttgart Region in the German state of
Baden-Württemberg, 30 km west of Stuttgart's center)  
390 YBN
[01/??/1610 AD]
1605) Moons of Jupiter seen and their period determined by Galileo Galilei.
Venice, Italy  
389 YBN
[06/??/1611 AD]
1617) Johannes Fabricius (FoBrisEuS) (CE 1587-1615) shows that the Sun has
spots and rotates around its own axis.

Esens, Frisia (now northwest Germany and northeast Netherlands) (guess)  
389 YBN
[1611 AD]
1627) Johannes Kepler (CE 1571-1630) circulates a manuscript that will be
published posthumously as "Somnium" ("The Dream") about a man who travels to
the moon in a dream, and is the first science fiction (or futuristic) book.

Prague, (now: Czech Republic)  
389 YBN
[1611 AD]
1628) Johannes Kepler (CE 1571-1630) publishes a short pamphlet entitled
"Strena Seu de Nive Sexangula" ("A New Year's Gift of Hexagonal Snow") which
investigates an atomistic basis for the symmetry of snowflakes, and explores
the most efficient way to pack spheres.

Prague, (now: Czech Republic)  
389 YBN
[1611 AD]
1629) Johannes Kepler (CE 1571-1630) completes the publishing of "Epitome
astronomiae Copernicanae" ("Epitome of Copernican Astronomy") (published in
three parts from 1618-1621), the first textbook of Copernican astronomy.

Prague, (now: Czech Republic)  
389 YBN
[1611 AD]
1637) Simon Marius (CE 1573-1624) , German Astronomer, publishes the first
telescopic observation of the Andromeda galaxy, describing the sight as "like a
candle seen at night through a horn" (referring to horn lanterns, then common).

??, Germany  
388 YBN
[01/12/1612 AD]
1642) Christoph Scheiner (siGnR? or sInR?) (CE 1575-1650), German Astronomer,
publishes "Tres Epistolae de Maculis Solaribus" ("Three Letters on Solar
Spots"), in which he claims to have observed sunspots on a projection of the
Sun, before Galileo on March in 1611, which Galileo disputes.

This results in a controversy with Galileo, who claims that he was the first to
discover sunspots.

Scheiner publishes this book under the pseudonym "Apelles latens post tabulam",
or "Apelles hiding behind the painting".

Ingolstadt, Bavaria, Germany (presumably)  
388 YBN
[1612 AD]
1595) Sanctorius Sanctorius (SANKTOrEuS) (CE 1561-1636) , Italian physician, is
the first to use a thermometer (one invented by Galileo that uses a liquid and
air trapped in a tube) to measure the temperature of humans.

Padua, Italy (presumably)  
386 YBN
[1614 AD]
1584) John Napier (nAPER) (CE 1550-1617) invents exponential notation and

Scotland (presumably)  
386 YBN
[1614 AD]
1596) Sanctorius Sanctorius (SANKTOrEuS) (CE 1561-1636) , Italian physician,
publishes "De Statica Medicina" (1614; "On Medical Measurement") is the first
systematic study of basal metabolism (the average rate that a body breaks apart
molecules for fuel).

Padua, Italy (presumably)  
386 YBN
[1614 AD]
1638) Simon Marius (CE 1573-1624) , German Astronomer, publishes "Mundus
Iovialis", in which he names the 4 major moons of Jupiter: Io, Europa,
Ganymede, Callisto after four Gods closely related to Jupiter (Zeus) in myths,
and claims to have seen Jupiter's four major moons some days before Galileo.

??, Germany  
384 YBN
[1616 AD]
1608) Copernicanism is declared a heresy by Pope "Paul V" (Camillo Borghese).
Rome, Italy  
384 YBN
[1616 AD]
1644) William Harvey (CE 1578-1657) understands the circulatory system.
London, England  
384 YBN
[1616 AD]
1831) Niccolò Zucchi (CE 1586-1670) builds the earliest known reflecting

Rome, Italy  
383 YBN
[1617 AD]
1592) Henry Briggs (CE 1561-1630), English mathematician, publishes
"Logarithmorum Chilias Prima" ("Introduction to Logarithms"), which describes
using logarithms with base 10 and includes the logarithms of numbers from 1 to
1,000, calculated to 14 decimal places.

London, England (preumably)  
381 YBN
[1619 AD]
1632) Johannes Kepler's (CE 1571-1630) publishes "Harmonices Mundi" ("Harmonies
of the World") which includes his third law: that the square of the period of
orbit of a planet is proportional to the cube of its distance from the Sun.

Linz, Austria  
381 YBN
[1619 AD]
1643) Christoph Scheiner (siGnR? or sInR?) (CE 1575-1650), German Astronomer,
publishes "Oculus hoc est: Fundamentum opticum", in which Scheiner recognizes
that the curvature of the lens in the human eye changes as the eye focuses to
different distances.

Innsbruck, Austria  
380 YBN
[1620 AD]
1591) Francis Bacon's (CE 1561-1626) "New Atlantis" is published posthumously
in 1627. This book describes an island governed by an Academy of Sciences. This
idea will find partial realization with the organization of the Royal Society
in 1660.

London, England (presumably)  
379 YBN
[1621 AD]
1651) Law of refraction.
Leiden, Netherlands (presumably)  
378 YBN
[1622 AD]
1639) William Oughtred (oTreD) (CE 1574-1660), English mathematician invents
the first slide-rule, two identical linear or circular logarithmic scales, used
to perform calculations by moving them mechanically by hand.

Albury, Surrey, England (presumably)  
376 YBN
[1624 AD]
6241) Submarine.
Thames River, England  
373 YBN
[1627 AD]
1634) Johannes Kepler (CE 1571-1630) publishes the "Rudolphine Tables", the
planetary tables meant to replace the Prussian Tables of Erasmus Reinhold. This
book includes the first time estimates for the "transit" of the planets Mercury
and Venus across the face of the Sun. These transits have never been observed
before, but according to the sun-centered theory have to take place.

Ulm, Germany  
372 YBN
[1628 AD]
1645) William Harvey (CE 1578-1657) publishes the circulation of blood theory
in a small book of 72 pages, titled "Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et
Sanguinis in Animalibus" ("An Anatomical Exercise Concerning the Motion of the
Heart and Blood in Animals"). Harvey is ridiculed for refuting Galen, he is
called "Circulator" which is Latin slang for the name given to people who sell
medicines at a circus.

London, England printed in: Frankfurt, Germany  
371 YBN
[1629 AD]
1672) Bonaventura Cavalieri (KoVoLYARE) (CE 1598-1647), Italian mathematician,
develops his "method of indivisibles", a method of determining the size of
geometric figures similar to the methods of integral calculus.

written: Bologna, Italy  
370 YBN
[1630 AD]
1649) Godefroy Wendelin (CE 1580-1667), Flemish astronomer repeats the
experiment done by Aristarchos to measure the distance to the sun during a half
moon, and gets an estimate 12 times Aristachos' estimate, but still 1/3 of the
distance too short.

Belgium (presumably)  
369 YBN
[1631 AD]
1640) William Oughtred (oTreD) (CE 1574-1660), English mathematician publishes
"Clavis Mathematicae" ("The Key to Mathematics"), in which he introduces the
"X" symbol for multiplication, and the abbreviations sin, cos, and tan used for
the trigonometric functions sine, cosine, and tangent still used today.

Arundel, West Sussex, England (presumably)  
369 YBN
[1631 AD]
1655) Pierre Vernier (VRnYA) (CE 1584-1637), French mathematician, invents the
"vernier scale" (pronounced with the r in England and the USA), a device
capable of precise measurement.

Ornans, France (presumably: birth and death location)  
369 YBN
[1631 AD]
1663) Transit of Mercury observed.
Paris, France (presumably)  
369 YBN
[1631 AD]
1664) Pierre Gassendi (GoSoNDE) (CE 1592-1655), measures the speed of sound.
Paris, France (presumably)  
368 YBN
[1632 AD]
1606) Galileo publishes "Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems" in support of
the sun-centered system.

Venice, Italy  
367 YBN
[06/22/1633 AD]
1611) Galileo Galilei (CE 1564-1642) is condemned to life imprisonment by the

Rome, Italy  
367 YBN
[1633 AD]
1666) René Descartes (CE 1596-1650) (DAKoRT) describes the law of inertia (a
body preserves its motion) and compares light to a ball.

Netherlands (presumably)  
365 YBN
[1635 AD]
1657) Marin Mersenne (mRSeN) (CE 1588-1648), French Mathematician, forms the
informal, private "Académie Parisienne" (the precursor to the French Academy
of Sciences).

Paris, France (presumably)  
365 YBN
[1635 AD]
1660) Frequencies of sounds measured.
Paris, France (presumably)  
364 YBN
[1636 AD]
1219) Harvard College is founded in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, and is
the first college in America.

Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA  
364 YBN
[1636 AD]
1697) William Gascoigne (GasKOEN) (CE c1612-1644), invents the micrometer (a
device for precision measurement)

363 YBN
[1637 AD]
1668) Cartesian coordinate system.
Netherlands (presumably)  
362 YBN
[1638 AD]
1612) Galileo attempts to measure the speed of light.
Leiden, Netherlands and Florence, Italy  
361 YBN
[1639 AD]
1387) The second hospital in the Western Hemisphere is the Hôtel-Dieu du
Précieux Sang, established in Quebec city in New France.

Quebec, New France (modern Canada)  
361 YBN
[1639 AD]
1708) Transit of Venus observed.
Hoole, Lancashire, England (presumably)  
360 YBN
[1640 AD]
1665) Pierre Gassendi (GoSoNDE) (CE 1592-1655), performs the experiment of
releasing a ball from the mast of a moving ship, and as he expects, the ball
falls to the foot of the mast in a straight line.

Paris, France (presumably)  
359 YBN
[1641 AD]
1699) Franciscus Sylvius (CE 1614-1672), French physician,publishes "Praxeos
medicae idea nova" (1671, "New idea in medical practice").
Sylvius is one of the earliest
and strongest defenders of Harvey's view of blood circulation.
Sylvius is the first to
reject health being dependent on the balance of 4 humors (blood, phlegm, black
bile, and yellow bile), a theory that goes back to Greek health science
Sylvius is the first to make gin and uses it to treat kidney ailments.
Sylvius correctly
views digestion as a chemical process.

Leiden, Netherlands (presumably)  
359 YBN
[1641 AD]
6244) Repeating gun,
358 YBN
[1642 AD]
1719) Blaise Pascal (PoSKoL) (CE 1623-1662) invents a mechanical calculating
machine that can add and subtract.

Rouen, France (presumably)  
357 YBN
[1643 AD]
1692) Earliest vacuum.

Italian physicist, Evangelista Torricelli (TORriceLlE) (CE 1608-1647) is the
first human to create a sustained vacuum. Pursuing a suggestion from Galileo,
Torricelli fills a glass tube 4 feet (1.2 m) long with mercury and inverts the
tube into a dish. Torricelli observes that some of the mercury does not flow
out and that the space above the mercury in the tube is a vacuum.

Torricelli observes that the height of the mercury in the tube changes from day
to day and
correctly concludes that this is caused by changes in atmospheric
pressure (the weight of the air on earth).

This device is also the first barometer, a measure of pressure exerted by air.

Florence, Italy  
356 YBN
[1644 AD]
1694) Johannes Hevelius (HeVAlEUS) (CE 1611-1687), German astronomer, is the
first to see the phases of Mercury.

355 YBN
[1645 AD]
1844) Ismaël Bullialdus (CE 1605-1694) recognizes that the strength that the
Sun holds the planets with decreases by the distance squared.

Paris, France  
353 YBN
[1647 AD]
1695) Johannes Hevelius (HeVAlEUS) (CE 1611-1687), German astronomer, publishes
"Selenographia" ("Pictures of the Moon"), and atlas of the moon's surface,
using hand-engraved copper plates for the illustrations. Hevelius names parts
of the moon after places on earth, calling the dark flat areas "seas" (maria in

352 YBN
[09/19/1648 AD]
1721) Blaise Pascal (PoSKoL) (CE 1623-1662) proves that atmospheric pressure
changes at different elevations. This implies that empty space (a vacuum)
exists above the atmosphere.

Rouen, France (presumably)  
352 YBN
[1648 AD]
1648) The Flemish physician and alchemist, Jan Baptista van Helmont's (CE
1580-1644), "Ortus Medicinæ (1648; "Origin of Medicine") is published
(posthumously) in which Helmont is the first to label a substance as a "gas"
and to identify the gas "carbon dioxide".

Vilvoorde, Belgium  
352 YBN
[1648 AD]
1686) Johann Rudolf Glauber (GlOBR) (CE 1604-1670), German chemist, finds that
hydrochloric acid can be formed by sulfuric acid and common salt (sodium
chloride) and finds that the residue sodium sulfate (also know as "sal
mirabile" and "Glauber's salt") works as a laxative (makes defecation easier).
also records a method for forming nitric acid, from potassium nitrate and
sulfuric acid in 1648.
Glauber prepares compounds of many metals known at this time,
for example an antimony salt.
Glauber builds the largest chemistry lab of the time in
his house, at one point employing 5 or 6 people.
Glauber prepares acetone and benzene.

Amsterdam, Netherlands (presumably)  
351 YBN
[05/19/1649 AD]
1526) The English Civil War ends with the replacement of the English monarchy
with first the Commonwealth of England (1649-1653).

350 YBN
[1650 AD]
1670) Giovanni Battista Riccioli (rETcOlE) (CE 1598-1671), is the first to
observe a double (binary) star system (Mizar in Ursa Major).

Riccioli calculates the earth's acceleration due to gravity at 30 feet (9.144
meters) per second per second (close to the current value of 9.80665 meters per
second per second accepted today). (place chronologically)

Riccioli measures the parallax of the Sun (from two points on earth?), and
calculates the distance at 24 million miles {units} (the actual average
distance of the Sun from Earth is 150 million km, 93 million miles).

Bologna, Italy (presumably)  
350 YBN
[1650 AD]
1675) Athanasius Kircher (KiRKR) (CE 1601-1680), German Scholar produces a
vacuum (by using Guericke's method) to prove that sound cannot be produced in
the absence of air.

Rome, Italy (presumably)  
350 YBN
[1650 AD]
1683) Otto von Guericke (GAriKu) (CE 1602-1686) constructs the first air pump.
Magdeburg, Germany (presumably)  
350 YBN
[1650 AD]
1722) Blaise Pascal (PoSKoL) (CE 1623-1662) understands (Pascal's law) that
pressure applied to a confined liquid is transmitted equally through the liquid
in all directions regardless of the area to which the pressure is applied. This
is the basis of the hydraulic press.

Rouen, France (presumably)  
350 YBN
[1650 AD]
1753) Malpighi (moLPEJE), (CE 1628-1694) is one of the first people to use a
microscope to study animal and vegetable structure.

Bologna, Italy (presumably)  
349 YBN
[1651 AD]
1572) William Gilbert's (CE 1544-1603) writings are published after his death
as "De Mundo Nostro Sublunari Philosophia Nova" ("A New Philosophy of Our
Sublunar World").

Gilbert is the first to speculate on what keeps the planets in their orbits if
the celestial spheres first invented by Pythagoras do not exist, deciding that
magnetic attraction keeps the planets in their orbits.

London, England (presumably)  
349 YBN
[1651 AD]
1646) William Harvey (CE 1578-1657) publishes "Exercitationes de Generatione
Animalium" (1651, "Anatomical Exercitations Concerning the Generation of
Animals") in which Harvey correctly supports the theory that the embryo builds
gradually from its parts, as opposed to existing complete and preformed in the

London, England (presumably)  
349 YBN
[1651 AD]
1647) William Harvey (CE 1578-1657) publishes "De generatione" (1651; "On the
Generation of Animals") which describes the theory that an embryo builds
gradually from its parts, instead of existing preformed in the ovum.

London, England (presumably)  
349 YBN
[1651 AD]
1671) Giovanni Battista Riccioli (rETcOlE) (CE 1598-1671), publishes
"Almagestum novum" ("The New Almagest") in which he names the craters on the
moon after astronomers.

Bologna, Italy  
348 YBN
[1652 AD]
1775) Olof Rudbeck (rUDBeK) (CE 1630-1702) identifies lymphatic vessels.
Uppsala, Sweden  
346 YBN
[1654 AD]
1720) Blaise Pascal (PoSKoL) (CE 1623-1662) and Pierre de Fermat (FARmo) (CE
1601-1665) through their correspondence create the science of probability.

Paris, France (presumably)  
345 YBN
[03/25/1655 AD]
1763) Huygens (HOEGeNZ) (CE 1629-1695) identifies the first known moon of
Saturn, Titan.[18

The Hague, Netherlands (presumably)  
345 YBN
[1655 AD]
1702) John Wallis (CE 1616-1703) extends exponents to include negative numbers
and fractions (for example x-2=1/x2, and x1/2=sqrt(x)).

(University of Oxford) Oxford, England  
344 YBN
[1656 AD]
1764) Christaan Huygens (HOEGeNZ) (CE 1629-1695) invents the first pendulum
{PeNJUluM or PeNDUluM} clock.

The Hague, Netherlands (presumably)  
343 YBN
[1657 AD]
1703) John Wallis (CE 1616-1703) creates the infinity symbol ∞.
London, England (presumably)  
343 YBN
[1657 AD]
1794) Robert Hooke (CE 1635-1703) invents the spiral spring which he calls the
"circular pendulum".

Oxford, England (presumably)  
342 YBN
[1658 AD]
1677) Athanasius Kircher (KiRKR) (CE 1601-1680), proposes that disease is
caused by tiny living creatures.
Kircher also proposes hygienic measures to prevent the
spread of disease.

Rome, Italy (presumably)  
342 YBN
[1658 AD]
1804) Jan Swammerdam (Yon SVoMRDoM) (CE 1637-1680) is the first to observe and
describe red blood cells.

Amsterdam, Netherlands (presumably)  
341 YBN
[1659 AD]
1681) Pierre de Fermat (FARmo) (CE 1601-1665), French mathematician
independently of Descartes, Fermat invents analytic geometry (which is plotting
points from a function on to a graph).

Fermat uses three dimensional coordinates (or triordinates) where Descartes
only uses two dimensional coordinates.

Through correspondence, Fermat and Blaise Pascal form the theory of

Fermat is famous for scribbling in the margin of a book of Diofantos what is
called "Fermat's last theorem", that the equation (xn + yn = zn for n>2) has no
solution for whole numbers, but that there is no room for the simple proof in
the margin. This theorem will remain unsolved until the late 1900s.

Fermat finds a summation process for areas bounded by curves, that is
equivalent to the formula used in modern integral calculus. (integration, but
not differentiation?)

Toulouse, France (presumably)  
341 YBN
[1659 AD]
1755) Malpighi (moLPEJE), (CE 1628-1694) Malpighi is first to note the lymph
glands (or lymph nodes), which Rudbeck will include as part of the lymphatic

Bologna, Italy  
341 YBN
[1659 AD]
1766) Huygens (HOEGeNZ) (CE 1629-1695) is the first to note surface markings on

The Hague, Netherlands (presumably)  
340 YBN
[11/28/1660 AD]
1704) The Royal Society is formed.
London, England  
340 YBN
[1660 AD]
1737) Robert Boyle (CE 1627-1691) performs experiments sending electricity
through an evacuated container and states that electrical attraction is
transmitted through empty space (a vacuum).

(verify if electrical current can move through empty space, Plucker stated that
it can't)

Oxford, England (presumably)  
339 YBN
[1661 AD]
1738) Robert Boyle (CE 1627-1691) recognizes acids, bases and neutral liquids
using acid-base indicators.
Boyle defines an element as any substance that cannot be broken
down farther into another substance.

Oxford, England (presumably)  
339 YBN
[1661 AD]
1754) Malpighi (moLPEJE), (CE 1628-1694) observes the connection of arteries
and veins.

Bologna, Italy  
339 YBN
[1661 AD]
1810) Nicolaus Steno (STAnO) (CE 1638-1686) discovers the duct of the parotid
gland (the salivary gland located near the angle of the jaw), (still called the
duct of Steno).

In addition, Steno demonstrates the existence of the pineal gland in animals
other than humans.
demonstrates the existence of the pineal gland in animals other than
humans. René Descartes had considered the pineal gland the location of the
soul, wrongly believing that both were found only in humans.
views fossils {as does his
contemporary Hooke} as ancient animals that had lived normal lives and in death
were petrified.

Amsterdam, Netherlands   
338 YBN
[1662 AD]
1739) Robert Boyle (CE 1627-1691) explains that the pressure and volume of a
gas are inversely related (Boyle's Law).

Oxford, England (presumably)  
337 YBN
[1663 AD]
2247) Otto von Guericke (GAriKu) (CE 1602-1686) builds the first static
electricity generator by rotating a sulfur globe against a cloth.

Magdeburg, Germany (presumably)  
336 YBN
[07/??/1664 AD]
2328) Robert Hooke (CE 1635-1703) measures the frequency of sound (that is the
pitch, the number of beats per second).

Hooke measures two hundred seventy two vibrations in one second of time as
being the note "G" (although this is now recognized as C#).

Marin Mersenne was the first of record to record a frequency for any sound by
1637, that of 84 cycles per second.

London, England (presumably)  
336 YBN
[11/23/1664 AD]
1799) Robert Hooke (CE 1635-1703) publishes "Micrographia", which contains
beautiful drawings of microscopic observations.

Hooke is first to use the word "cells" to describe the tiny rectangular holes
he identifies in a thin sliver of cork viewed under a microscope.

Hooke suggests a transverse wave theory of light with a transparent homogenius
medium, comparing the spreading of light vibrations to that of waves in water.
Hooke's wave theory in "Micrographia" (1665), and Francesco Grimaldi's wave
theory in "Physico-mathesis de lumine, coloribus, et iride" (1665;
"Physicomathematical Studies of Light, Colors, and the Rainbow") are curiously
both released to the public in the same year and are the earliest recorded wave
theories for light that I am aware of.

London, England  
336 YBN
[1664 AD]
1714) Thomas Willis (CE 1621-1675), publishes "Cerebri Anatome, cui accessit
Nervorum descriptio et usus" (1664; "Anatomy of the Brain, with a Description
of the Nerves and Their Function"), the most complete and accurate account of
the nervous system to this time.
Willis gives the first reliable description of
typhoid fever.
Willis is the first to describe myasthenia gravis and childbed fever,
naming it "puerperal fever" from Latin phrase for "child bearing" (is?)

Willis recognizes (as earlier Greek physicians may have known) the (unusually
high quantity of) sugar content in urine among some people with diabetes.
(Perhaps this fact is recognized from oral sex?)

Oxford, England (presumably)  
335 YBN
[1665 AD]
1688) Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (BoreLE) (CE 1608-1679), proposes that comets
also move in elliptical orbits.

Borelli understands that a hollow copper sphere is buoyant (in air) when
evacuated, but that it soon collapses under air pressure. The Montgolfier
brothers will recognize in 150 years that by putting in a lighter than air gas,
a sphere can be used as a balloon. (place chronologically)

Pisa, Italy (presumably)  
335 YBN
[1665 AD]
1707) Francesco Grimaldo (also Grimaldi} {GREMoLDE} (CE 1618-1663) theorizes
that, in addition to the properties of reflection, and refraction, light has a
new property he calls "diffraction". Grimaldo observes what he calls
"diffraction" of light through two narrow openings. This double-slit experiment
will be an obstacle to the correct interpretation of light as a particle that
obeys the law of gravity for 300 and counting years. The more accurate and
surprisingly obvious interpretation of light particles reflecting off the sides
of the slit will not be explored until modern times, however humans should keep
open minds and explore as many theories as possible.

Grimaldi creates a wave theory of light. Robert Hooke in England publishes a
wave theory for light in this year too. These two wave theories for light are
the earliest recorded wave theories for light I am aware of. This debate over
light being a particle or wave phenomenon will continue for the next 350 years
into the present time.

Bologna, Italy (presumably)  
335 YBN
[1665 AD]
1726) Period of Mars day measured.
Bologna, Italy  
335 YBN
[1665 AD]
1776) Richard Lower (CE 1631-1691) performs the first blood transfusion.
London?, England  
334 YBN
[12/22/1666 AD]
1712) The French Academy of Sciences (Académie des sciences) is founded.
Paris, France  
334 YBN
[1666 AD]
1723) Thomas Sydenham (SiDnuM) (CE 1624-1689) is first to differentiate scarlet
fever from measles and names "Scarlet fever". (place chronologically)
Sydenham is the first to
use a derivative of opium, laudanum (alcohol tincture of opium) to relieve pain
and induce rest.
Sydenham uses iron in the treatment of anemia. (place
Sydenham popularizes the use of cinchona (quinine) to treat malaria.

London, England (presumably)  
334 YBN
[1666 AD]
1757) Malpighi (moLPEJE), (CE 1628-1694) publishes "De viscerum structura
execitatio anatomica" (1666) which gives a detailed and fairly accurate account
of the structure of the liver, spleen, and kidney.

Bologna, Italy  
334 YBN
[1666 AD]
1758) Malpighi (moLPEJE), (CE 1628-1694) publishes "De bombyce" (1669), on the
internal organs of the silk-worm moth, which is the first detailed account of
the structure of an invertebrate.

Bologna, Italy  
333 YBN
[06/15/1667 AD]
1815) Jean Baptiste Denis (DunE) (CE 1640-1704), French physician, performs the
firsthuman blood transfusion.

?, France  
333 YBN
[1667 AD]
1813) Nicolaus Steno (STAnO) (CE 1638-1686) publishes a short essay "The
Dissection of the Head of a Shark" at the end of his "Elements of Myology".
This essay marks the beginning of the science of paleontology.

Florence, Italy (presumably)  
333 YBN
[1667 AD]
1816) James Gregory (1638-1675) is the first to study a "convergent series", a
series with an infinite number of members but has a finite sum.

Padua?, Italy  
332 YBN
[1668 AD]
1727) Gian Cassini (Ko SEnE) (CE 1625-1712) establishes Jupiter's period of
rotation as nine hours fifty-six minutes.

(Observatory at) Panzano (near Bologna), Italy  
332 YBN
[1668 AD]
1736) Francesco Redi (rADE) (1 1626-1697) disproves "spontaneous regeneration"
of flies from meat.

Florence, Italy (presumably)  
332 YBN
[1668 AD]
1830) Issac Newton (CE 1642-1727) builds the first reflecting telescope that
can compete with a refracting telescope, and the first with a second mirror
angeled at 45 degrees to send the image to the side of the telescope.

Cambridge, England  
331 YBN
[07/??/1669 AD]
1827) Isaac Newton (CE 1642-1727) invents calculus, a system of calculating,
using two main tools: differentiation and integration. Differentiation
(differential calculus) determines the rate of change of an equation, and
integration (integral calculus) uses the summation of infinitely many small
pieces to determine the length, area or volume described by an equation.

Cambridge, England  
331 YBN
[1669 AD]
1735) "Double Refraction" observed.
Copenhagen, Denmark  
331 YBN
[1669 AD]
1774) Hennig Brand (CE 1630-c1710) identifies phosphorus which is the first
known element.

Hamburg, Germany (presumably)  
331 YBN
[1669 AD]
1805) Jan Swammerdam (Yon SVoMRDoM) (CE 1637-1680) publishes "Historia
Insectorum Generalis" ("A General History of Insects").

Amsterdam, Netherlands (presumably)  
331 YBN
[1669 AD]
1811) Nicolaus Steno (STAnO) (CE 1638-1686) published his geological
observations in "De solido intra solidum naturaliter contento dissertationis
prodromus" ("The Prodromus of Nicolaus Steno's Dissertation Concerning a Solid
Body Enclosed by Process of Nature Within a Solid").

Amsterdam, Netherlands   
329 YBN
[1671 AD]
1715) Thomas Willis (CE 1621-1675), is the first to describe myasthenia gravis
in 1671, a chronic muscular fatigue marked by progressive paralysis, and
puerperal (childbed) fever, which he names.

Oxford, England (presumably)  
329 YBN
[1671 AD]
1729) Moon of Saturn, Iapetus (IoPeTuS) identified.
(Paris Observatory) Paris, France   
329 YBN
[1671 AD]
1854) Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (LIPniTS) (CE 1646-1716), constructs a
calculating machine that can add, subtract, multiply and divide.

Mainz, Germany  
329 YBN
[1671 AD]
2119) Robert Boyle (CE 1627-1691) describes the reaction between iron filings
and dilute acids that results in the release of gaseous hydrogen (which Boyle
describes as an) ("inflammable solution of Mars" {iron}).

Oxford, England (presumably)  
328 YBN
[02/19/1672 AD]
1829) The theory that light is a particle is revived. Color determined to be a
property of light, not of objects. Glass prism. White light separated into and
recreated from primary colors. Light of different colors shown to refract at
different angles.

Isaac Newton (CE 1643-1727) theorizes that light may be "...globular

Cambridge, England  
328 YBN
[1672 AD]
1191) Thomas Willis (1621-1675), English physician publishes the earliest
English work on so-called mental disease, "De Anima Brutorum" ("Discourses
Concerning the Souls of Brutes"), which reveals a violent brutal side to Willis
and the people of this time. As the title implies people labeled with mental
disorders are viewed as "brutes". In this book describes so-called "insane"
people as having super human strength, and advocates violence as a useful
treatment, writing: "Discipline, threats, fetters, blows are needed as much as
medical treatment...".

London, England  
328 YBN
[1672 AD]
1730) Moon of Saturn, Rhea {rEo} identified.
Paris, France  
328 YBN
[1672 AD]
1731) The scale of our star system is measured.
Paris, France;Guiana, South America  
328 YBN
[1672 AD]
1759) Malpighi (moLPEJE), (CE 1628-1694) sends the Royal Society "De formatione
pulli in ovo" (1672).

Bologna, Italy  
327 YBN
[1673 AD]
1770) Huygens (HOEGeNZ) (CE 1629-1695) publishes "Horologium oscillatorium".
Paris, France (presumably)  
327 YBN
[1673 AD]
1819) Regnier de Graaf (CE 1641-1673) is the first to describe the follicles of
the ovary, but does not understand that the follicle contains the oocyte or
ovum cell.

Delft, Netherlands (presumably)  
326 YBN
[09/07/1674 AD]
1781) Leeuwenhoek (lAVeNHvK) (CE 1632-1723) is the first to observe protists.
Delft, Netherlands  
326 YBN
[1674 AD]
1749) John Ray (CE 1627-1705), defines the concept of "species" in terms of
structural qualities.

?, England  
326 YBN
[1674 AD]
1825) John Mayow (mAO) (CE 1641-1679) identifies "spiritus nitroaereus"
(oxygen) as a distinct atmospheric entity, about 100 years before Joseph
Priestley and Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier will identify it.

Oxford, England  
326 YBN
[1674 AD]
2410) Claude Dechales (CE 1621-1678) notices that colors are produced by light
reflected from small scratches made in metal. This will lead to the diffraction

Lyons, France  
325 YBN
[1675 AD]
1732) Space between ring of Saturn seen.
Paris, France  
325 YBN
[1675 AD]
1836) Isaac Newton (CE 1642-1727) describes "Newton's rings", concentric
colored rings in the thin film of air between a lens and a flat sheet of glass,
the distance between these concentric rings (Newton's rings) depends on the
increasing thickness of the film of air between the lens and glass.

Cambridge, England  
325 YBN
[1675 AD]
1859) The Royal Greenwich observatory is founded.
Greenwich, England  
324 YBN
[10/09/1676 AD]
1782) Leeuwenhoek (lAVeNHvK) (CE 1632-1723) is the first to observe bacteria.
Delft, Netherlands  
324 YBN
[1676 AD]
1711) Edmé Mariotte (moRYuT) (CE 1620-1684) independently of Boyle identifies
that the volume of a gas varies inversely with its pressure, and goes further
than Boyle by saying that this is true only if there is no change in

Paris, France (presumably)  
324 YBN
[1676 AD]
1725) Thomas Sydenham (SiDnuM) (CE 1624-1689) writes "Observationes Medicae"
(1676), a standard textbook for two centuries.

London, England (presumably)  
324 YBN
[1676 AD]
1746) John Ray (CE 1627-1705), publishes "Ornithologia" (1676) which contains
230 species of birds.

?, England  
324 YBN
[1676 AD]
1747) John Ray (CE 1627-1705), publishes "Historia piscium" (1686) which
classifies species of fishes.

?, England  
324 YBN
[1676 AD]
1748) John Ray (CE 1627-1705), distinguishes between monocotyledons and
dicotyledons, plants whose seeds germinate with one leaf and those with two.

?, England  
324 YBN
[1676 AD]
1851) Humans measure the speed of light.

Ole (or Olaus) Rømer (ROEmR) (CE 1644-1710) calculates the speed of light from
the changing time of the entering and exiting of the moons of Jupiter into and
out of the shadow of Jupiter.[19

(Paris Observatory) Paris, France  
323 YBN
[1677 AD]
1784) Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (lAVeNHvK) (CE 1632-1723) is the first to describe

Delft, Netherlands  
322 YBN
[1678 AD]
1768) Christaan Huygens (HOEGeNZ) (CE 1629-1695) presents his "Traité de la
lumière" ("Treatise on Light") which puts forward a theory of light as a
longitudinal wave like sound.

Huygens is the first to describe polarization of light.

Paris, France (presumably)  
322 YBN
[1678 AD]
1802) Robert Hooke (CE 1635-1703) describes "Hooke's Law", that the force that
restores a spring (or any elastic system) to its equilibrium position is
proportional to the distance by which it is displaced from that equilibrium

London, England (presumably)  
322 YBN
[1678 AD]
1871) Edmond Halley (CE 1656-1742) publishes the first catalog of
telescopically located stars seen only from the southern hemisphere.

London, England (presumably)  
322 YBN
[1678 AD]
3379) Explosion (combustion) vacuum engine design.
Orléans, France  
322 YBN
[1678 AD]
3592) Direct neuron activation (neuron writing). Human contracts muscle with
Muscle is contracted using two different metals. This is the first published
account of direct neuron writing.

Amsterdam, Netherlands (presumably)  
321 YBN
[05/27/1679 AD]
1527) The Habeas Corpus Act 1679 is passed by the Parliament of England (31
Cha. 2 c. 2) during the reign of King Charles II to define and strengthen the
ancient writ of habeas corpus, whereby persons unlawfully detained can be
ordered to be prosecuted before a court of law.

(presumably) London, England  
321 YBN
[1679 AD]
1761) Malpighi (moLPEJE), (CE 1628-1694) publishes "Anatome plantarum" (part 1:
1675, part 2: 1679).

Bologna, Italy;(p 2: published London, England)  
321 YBN
[1679 AD]
1863) Denis Papin (PoPoN) (CE 1647-1712) builds the first pressure cooker which
reawakens work with steam.
Papin also suggests the first cylinder and piston steam

London, England  
320 YBN
[1680 AD]
1690) Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (BoreLE) (CE 1608-1679), correctly explains
muscular action and the movements of bones in terms of levers.

Rome, Italy (presumably)  
320 YBN
[1680 AD]
1740) In 1860 Robert Boyle (CE 1627-1691) discovers that phosphorus and sulfur
burst into flame instantly if rubbed together. This is the basis of the match.

London, England (presumably)  
320 YBN
[1680 AD]
3378) Cylinder and piston, explosion (combustion) vacuum engine.
Paris, France  
318 YBN
[03/03/1682 AD]
1788) Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (lAVeNHvK) (CE 1632-1723) describes the first cell

Delft, Netherlands  
318 YBN
[1682 AD]
1821) Nehemiah Grew (CE 1641-1712) identifies the sex organs of plants, the
pistils (female) and stamens (male) with a microscope.

Grew also understands how grains of pollen produced by the stamens are the
equivalent to sperm cells in the animal world.

presented: London, England  
317 YBN
[09/12/1683 AD]
1785) Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (lAVeNHvK) (CE 1632-1723) draws the first picture
of bacteria.

Delft, Netherlands  
317 YBN
[1683 AD]
1728) (Italian:) Giovanni Domenico Cassini (Ko SEnE) (French:) Jean Dominique
Cassini (KoSE nE) (CE 1625-1712) is the first to study "zodiacal light", a
faint illumination of the night sky stretching from the sun along the line of
the ecliptic (the orbit of the planets), which Swiss mathematician Nicolas
Fatio de Duillier (CE 1664-1753) will correctly explain as dust particles in
interplanetary space.

Paris, France  
316 YBN
[10/??/1684 AD]
1855) Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (LIPniTS) (CE 1646-1716) publishes a system of
differential and integral calculus. This form of calculus is the one used today
(as opposed to Newton's "fluxions") (uses integral symbol?).

(develops in) Paris, France; (publishes in) Hannover, Germany  
316 YBN
[1684 AD]
1733) Saturn moons Dione (DIOnE) (Greek Διώνη) and Tethys (TEtuS) (Greek
Τηθύς) identified.

(Paris Observatory) Paris, France  
313 YBN
[1687 AD]
1845) Law of gravitation. Isaac Newton (CE 1643-1727) describes the universal
law of gravitation, that all matter attracts other matter with a force that is
the product of their masses, and the inverse of their distance squared.

Cambridge, England (presumably)  
310 YBN
[1690 AD]
1200) Christopher Polhammar (better known as Polhem) (CE 1661-1751), a Swedish
scientist, inventor and industrialist invents a gear-cutting machine (a machine
for cutting gears out of cylinders of metal).

310 YBN
[1690 AD]
1696) Johannes Hevelius' (HeVAlEUS) (CE 1611-1687), star catalog with 1564
stars is published posthumously as "Prodromus Astronomiae" ("Guide to
Astronomy") (1690).

Gdansk, Poland  
310 YBN
[1690 AD]
1864) Steam engine reinvented.
Leipzig, Germany  
309 YBN
[1691 AD]
1744) John Ray (CE 1627-1705), publishes a book in which he describes fossils
as petrified remains of extinct creatures, but this will not be accepted by
biologists for 100 years. (is first to correctly identify fossils?)

Cambridge?, England  
307 YBN
[1693 AD]
1745) John Ray (CE 1627-1705), publishes a book that contains the first logical
classification of animals, based mainly of hoofs, toes, and teeth.

Cambridge?, England  
307 YBN
[1693 AD]
1750) John Ray (CE 1627-1705), publishes "Synopsis Methodica Animalium
Quadrupedum et Serpentini Generis" (1693; "Synopsis of Quadrupeds and

?, England  
306 YBN
[1694 AD]
1388) The University of Halle is founded by Lutherans in 1694. This
progressive-minded school is one of the first to renounce religious orthodoxy
of any kind in favour of rational and objective intellectual inquiry, and is
the first where teachers lecture in German (the venacular or common language)
instead of Latin. Halle's innovations will be adopted by the University of
Göttingen (founded 1737) a generation later and subsequently by most German
and many American universities.
The Encyclopedia Brittanica describes the
university in Halle the first modern university.
Until the end of the 1700s, the curriculum
of most universities is based on the seven liberal arts: grammar, logic,
rhetoric, geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, and music. Students then proceeded
to study under one of the professional faculties of medicine, law, and
theology. Final examinations are grueling, and many students fail.

Halle, Saxony-Anhalt  
305 YBN
[06/10/1695 AD]
1792) Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (lAVeNHvK) (CE 1632-1723) identifies
parthenogenesis in aphids.

Delft, Netherlands  
302 YBN
[07/02/1698 AD]
1868) Thomas Savery (CE 1650-1715) builds the first practical steam engine.
?, England  
302 YBN
[1698 AD]
1777) The size and distance of other stars is measured.
The Hague, Netherlands (presumably)  
301 YBN
[1699 AD]
2008) That color is based on frequency of light is suggested.
Paris, France  
300 YBN
[1700 AD]
6251) Piano. The pianoforte (piano) is invented by Bartolomeo Cristofori,
Keeper of Musical Instruments to Prince Ferdinand dei Medici at Florence.
According to the diary of Francesco Mannucci for February 1711, Cristofori was
already working on it in 1698. An inventory of the Prince's instruments in 1700
includes "an arpicembalo of Bartolomeo Cristofori, a new invention, which plays
piano and forte....with some dampers of red cloth touching the strings and some
hammers which make the piano and forte.". The "gravicembalo col piano e forte,
as it is also known, is virtually a harpsichord but with hammers instead of

Forte, (pronounced faw-ti) from Italian, is an instruction in music to play a
passage loudly or strongly.
The word "Piano" is used to mean a passage that is supposed
to be played softly or quietly.
This indicates that the volume of the notes can be
varied and controlled with this instrument.

Florence, Italy  
296 YBN
[1704 AD]
1743) John Ray (CE 1627-1705), publishes a three-volume encyclopedia of plant
life (1686-1704), in which he describes 18,600 different plant species, and
lays the groundwork for systematic classification which will be done by

Cambridge?, England  
296 YBN
[1704 AD]
1826) Newton suggests that light particles are affected by gravity.
(mint) London, England (presumably)  
295 YBN
[1705 AD]
1872) Edmond Halley (CE 1656-1742) is the first to understand that comets orbit
the Sun and to calculate the path of a comet.

London, England (presumably)  
295 YBN
[1705 AD]
1876) Edmond Halley (CE 1656-1742) proves that stars move over long periods of
time. Before this most people believed that stars unlike the planets never move
in relation to each other.

290 YBN
[1710 AD]
1752) John Ray's (CE 1627-1705), "Historia insectorum" (1710) is published
posthumously and records some 300 species of insects.

?, England  
288 YBN
[1712 AD]
1889) English engineer, Thomas Newcomen (CE 1663-1729) designs an improved
steam engine that does not use high-pressure steam.

Dudley Castle, Staffordshire, England  
286 YBN
[1714 AD]
1925) Gabriel Fahrenheit (ForeNHIT) (CE 1686-1736), invents a thermometer that
uses mercury and the Fahrenheit temperature scale (still in use today).

Fahrenheit notices that boiling point changes with change in pressure.

Amsterdam, Netherlands (presumably)  
282 YBN
[1718 AD]
1846) Theory that Universe is mostly made of empty space and that light moves
in a straight line.

Cambridge, England (presumably)  
275 YBN
[1725 AD]
1861) John Flamsteed's (CE 1646-1719) star catalog "Historia Coelestis
Britannica" ("British Celestial Record") is published posthumously.

London, England (presumably)  
275 YBN
[1725 AD]
3604) Machine uses perforated roll of paper to form patterns in textiles.
Lyon, France  
271 YBN
[01/??/1729 AD]
1931) Speed of light calculated from the apparent change in position of stars.
Kew, England  
271 YBN
[1729 AD]
1884) Chester Moore Hall (CE 1703-1771), a British lawyer, produces the first
achromatic lenses in 1729.

?, England  
270 YBN
[1730 AD]
1205) The sextant is invented by two men independently, John Hadley
(1682-1744), an English mathematician, and Thomas Godfrey (1704-1749), an
American inventor. Isaac Newton invented the principle of the doubly reflecting
navigation instrument, but never published it. The sextant, along with the
octant, replace the astrolabe as the main instruments for navigation.
The main advantage
ofthe sextant over the astrolabe is that celestial objects are measured
relative to the horizon, rather than to the instrument, which allows much
better precision.
The angle, and the time when a celestial object is measured, can be used
to calculate a position line on a nautical or aeronautical chart. A common use
of the sextant is to sight the sun at noon to find what latitude a person is
at. Held horizontally, the sextant can be used to measure the angle between any
two objects.
Traditional sextants have a half-horizon mirror. It divides the field of
view in two. On one side, there is a view of the horizon; on the other side, a
view of the celestial object. The advantage of this type is that both the
horizon and celestial object are bright, and as clear as possible.
Whole-horizon sextants use a half-silvered horizon mirror to provide a full
view of the horizon. This makes it easy to see when the bottom limb of a
celestial object touches the horizon.

270 YBN
[1730 AD]
1941) Georg Brandt (CE 1694-1768), Swedish chemist names a blue iron-like metal

Stockholm, Sweden  
267 YBN
[12/??/1733 AD]
1965) Charles Du Fay (CE 1698-1739) identifies two kinds of electricity:
"vitreous" (Franklin will name "positive") and "resinous" (Franklin will name

Paris, France  
267 YBN
[1733 AD]
1197) John Kay (June 17, 1704 - 1780) invents the "flying shuttle", which
increases the speed of weaving, and allows one person to weave greater widths
of cloth. The original shuttle is a piece of wood that contains a bobbin on to
which the weft yarn (the yarn that goes crossways) is wound. The shuttle is
pushed from one side of the warp (the series of yarns extended lengthways in a
loom) to the other side. Before the flying shuttle, large looms required two
people. The flying shuttle is thrown by a lever that can be operated by only
one weaver.

In 1753 Kay's house is attacked by textile workers who are angry that his
inventions might take work away from them. Kay fleas to France where he will
die in poverty.

266 YBN
[1734 AD]
1919) René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur (rAOmYOR) (CE 1683-1757) publishes
(in six volumes) "Memoires pour servir à l'histoire des insectes" (1734-42;
"Memoirs Serving as a Natural History of Insects"), the first serious and
comprehensive book on insects.

Paris, France (presumably)  
266 YBN
[1734 AD]
2073) Emanuel Swedenborg (CE 1688-1772), Swedish scientist, suggests an early
form of the nebular hypothesis, the theory that the star system formed from a
nebula (cloud of particles).

Sweden (presumably)  
265 YBN
[1735 AD]
1936) John Harrison (CE 1693-1776), English instrument maker, builds the first
clock that can keep accurate time at sea.

London, England  
265 YBN
[1735 AD]
1996) Carolus Linnaeus (lin Aus or lin EuS) (CE 1707-1778) creates a uniform
system for categorizing living objects of Earth, including the human species.

264 YBN
[1736 AD]
1966) Pierre de Maupertuis (moPARTUE) (CE 1698-1759) verifies that the Earth is
an oblate spheroid (a sphere flattened at the poles).

263 YBN
[1737 AD]
1808) Hermann Boerhaave publishes posthumously Jan Swammerdam's (Yon SVoMRDoM)
(CE 1637-1680) many manuscripts in two volumes called "Biblia naturae" ("Bible
of Nature").

Amsterdam, Netherlands (presumably)  
260 YBN
[1740 AD]
1201) Benjamin Huntsman (4 June 1704 - 20 June 1776), English inventor and
steel-manufacturer, creates the "crucible" method to make "crucible steel", in
an effort to make a better steel for clock springs. Huntsman's system used a
coke-fired furnace capable of reaching 1600 °C, into which ten or twelve clay
crucibles, each holding about 15 kg of iron, were placed. When the pots are at
a white heat they are charged with blister steel broken into lumps of about ½
kg, and a flux to help remove impurities. The pots are removed after about 3
hours in the furnace, impurities skimmed off, and the molten steel poured into

Crucible steels will remain the best steel on earth, although very expensive,
until the introduction of the Bessemer process will replace it. The Bessemer
process will be able to produce steel of similar (or better) quality for a
fraction of the time and cost. The Besemer process and more modern methods
instead remove carbon from the pig iron, stopping before all the carbon is

Sheffield, England  
258 YBN
[1742 AD]
1975) Anders Celsius (SeLSEuS) (CE 1701-1744) invents the Celsius temperature
scale (often called the centigrade scale).

Uppsala, Sweden (presumably)  
258 YBN
[1742 AD]
2068) Charles Bonnet (BOnA) (CE 1720-1793), Swiss naturalist, identifies that
insects breathe through pores he names "stigmata".

Geneva?, Switzerland (presumably)  
257 YBN
[1743 AD]
2037) Alexis Claude Clairaut (KlArO) (CE 1713-1765) confirms that the orbit of
the Moon follows the inverse distance law.

Paris, France (presumably)  
255 YBN
[11/04/1745 AD]
1972) Storage of electricity. The capacitor.

Ewald Georg von Kleist (KlIST) (CE 1700-1748), invents the (first) electric
storage or electric memory, the capacitor, the Leyden jar.

Pomerania?, Prussia (coast of Baltic Sea between Germany and Poland)  
255 YBN
[1745 AD]
2966) Electrostatic motor.
(University of Erfurt) Erfurt, Germany  
254 YBN
[04/20/1746 AD]
1930) Pieter van Musschenbroek (mOESeNBrvK v=oo in book) (CE 1692-1761), Dutch
physicist invents the first device that can store a large amounts of electric
charge. This device will come to be called a "Leiden jar".

This is an early form of the capacitor.

Leiden, Netherlands  
253 YBN
[07/11/1747 AD]
1981) Franklin describes electricity as a single fluid.
Philadelphia, PA (English colonies) USA (letter to London, England)  
253 YBN
[1747 AD]
2055) James Lind (CE 1716-1794), Scottish physician, performs one of the
earliest clinical experiments and shows that citrus fruits work well in curing

253 YBN
[1747 AD]
3452) Humans recognize that an expanded gas lowers temperature, the basis of

(Academy of Petersburg) Petersburg, Russia  
252 YBN
[02/14/1748 AD]
1932) James Bradley (CE 1693-1762), English Astronomer, announces his finding
of the "annual change of declination in some of the fixed stars" (which Bradley
calls "nutation"), that result because of the movement of the nodes of the
Moon's orbit around the earth.

Kew, England  
252 YBN
[1748 AD]
2954) Nollet describes osmosis.
Paris, France (presumably)  
251 YBN
[1749 AD]
2046) Denis Diderot (DEDrO) (CE 1713-1784), French writer , presents a theory
of survival by superior adaptation.

Paris, France (presumably)  
249 YBN
[1751 AD]
2047) Denis Diderot (DEDrO) (CE 1713-1784), French writer , begins publishing
"Encyclopédie" (1751-1772), a twenty-eight volume encyclopedia.

Paris, France  
249 YBN
[1751 AD]
2070) Axel Fredrik Cronstedt (KrUNSTeT), (CE 1722-1765), Swedish mineralogist
isolates the element Nickel.

248 YBN
[02/20/1752 AD]
2976) Spark passed through vacuum tube (producing X-Ray light).
London, England  
248 YBN
[1752 AD]
1922) René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur (rAOmYOR) (CE 1683-1757), proves that
digestion is chemical and not mechanical by putting food in small metal
cylinders which are then regurgitated by birds with partially digested food.

Réaumur also isolates gastric juice.

Paris, France (presumably)  
247 YBN
[02/17/1753 AD]
2658) Earliest telegraph.
Scotland, Great Britain (presumably)  
247 YBN
[1753 AD]
2013) Albrecht von Haller (HolR) (CE 1708-1777), Swiss physiologist, is the
first to demonstrate experimentally that sensibility (the ability to produce
sensation) exists only in organs supplied with nerves, while irritability (a
reaction to stimuli, known today as contractility) is a property of the organ
or tissue.

Göttingen, Germany (presumably)  
245 YBN
[01/25/1755 AD]
1370) M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian:
#1072;), the oldest university in mainland Russia is founded.

Moscow University is established on the instigation of Ivan Shuvalov and
Mikhail Lomonosov by a decree of Russian Empress Elizabeth. First lessons are
held on April 26. January 25 is still celebrated as Students' Day in Russia.

Moscow, Russia  
245 YBN
[11/??/1755 AD]
1528) The Corsican Republic is the first democratic republic (representative
democracy) and first Constitution (the design and laws of a government usually
recorded on a hand written document) of the Enlightenment. This Republic is
formed under the leadership of Pasquale Paoli against the rulers of Genoa.

245 YBN
[1755 AD]
2072) Immanuel Kant (CE 1724-1804), German philosopher puts forward a nebular
hypothesis, that the star system formed as a result of the gravitational
interaction of atoms, and that the Milky Way is a lens shaped collection of
stars and that other such "island universes" exist.

Königsberg, Germany  
245 YBN
[1755 AD]
2089) Joseph Black (CE 1728-1799), Scottish chemist rediscovers carbon dioxide
(which he calls "fixed air").

Edinburgh, Scotland  
243 YBN
[1757 AD]
2039) Alexis Claude Clairaut (KlArO) (CE 1713-1765) is the first to estimate
the mass of celestial objects based on the perturbations they have on the
earth's motion. Using this method, Clairaut estimates the mass of Venus to be
2/3 (.667) of earth (actual: around 4/5 {0.815} Earths) and the moon to be, and
the mass of moon to be 1/67 (.0149) of earth (actual: 1/81 {0.0123}), which are
the most accurate for the time.

Paris, France   
242 YBN
[1758 AD]
1203) Thomas Highs (1718-1803) invents the water frame, by adapting a water
wheel to a spinning frame (a device invented by Lewis Paul that uses draw
rollers to stretch, or attenuate, the yarn. A thick 'string' of cotton roving
is passed between three sets of rollers, each set rotating faster than the
previous one. In this way the cotton is reduced in thickness and increased in
length before a strengthening twist is added by a bobbin-and-flyer mechanism).
Highs (or possibly James Hargreaves) may also be the inventor of the "Spinning
Jenny", a multi-spool spinning wheel.

240 YBN
[1760 AD]
2122) Water separated into hydrogen and oxygen using electricity.

Giovanni Beccaria (CE 1716-1781), Italian physicist, passes electricity sparks
through water and observes bubbles (of Hydrogen and Oxygen gas) released from
the water but incorrectly supposes that the action of the electric matter
promotes the evaporation of water.

Beccaria does not recognize that the gases produced are the components of

Turin, Italy  
239 YBN
[1761 AD]
2028) Mikhail Vasilievich Lomonosov (lumunOSuF) (CE 1711-1765) Russian chemist
and writer, is the first to observe the atmophere of Venus which Lomonosov
does through the transit of Venus across the sun, concluding that Venus has an
atmosphere "similar to, or perhaps greater than that of the earth".

Saint Petersburg, Russia  
237 YBN
[1763 AD]
2043) Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (LoKoYu) (CE 1713-1762) prepares a catalog of
the positions of nearly 10,000 stars, including nearly two thousand stars seen
only from the Southern Hemisphere of earth. (This book also contains) a star
map which is much more extensive and accurate than Halley's.
Lacaille identifies Alpha
Centauri, the closest star to the sun, and names 14 new southern constellations
after astronomical instruments.

Paris, France (presumably)  
236 YBN
[1764 AD]
2091) Joseph Black (CE 1728-1799), Scottish chemist recognizes the difference
between intensity (temperature) and quantity of heat. Black discovers the idea
of "latent heat", which is the characteristic amount of heat absorbed or
released by a substance during a change in its physical state that occurs
without changing its temperature. Black identifies the principle of "specific
heat", which is the temperature change in a substance that results from a
specific quantity of heat.

Glasgow, Scotland  
235 YBN
[05/??/1765 AD]
2145) James Watt (CE 1736-1819) Scottish engineer improves Newcomen's steam
engine by inventing the "separate condenser", so that heat is not lost when
cooling and reheating the steam chamber.

Glasgow, Scotland (presumably)  
234 YBN
[05/29/1766 AD]
2113) Hydrogen gas isolated.

Henry Cavendish (CE 1731-1810), English chemist and physicist, produces
hydrogen by dissolving metals in acids and carbon dioxide by dissolving alkalis
in acids, and collects these and other gases in bottles inverted over water or

London, England  
232 YBN
[1768 AD]
2093) Johann Heinrich Lambert (LoMBRT) (CE 1728-1777) German mathematician,
introduces the hyperbolic trigonometric functions (sinh, cosh, etc., just as
the ordinary sine and cosine functions trace (or parameterize) a circle, so the
sinh and cosh parameterize a hyperbola). Also in this year, Lambert provides
the first rigorous proof that pi (the ratio of a circle's circumference to its
diameter) is an irrational quantity, meaning that it cannot be expressed as the
quotient (or ratio) of two integers.

Berlin, Germany  
232 YBN
[1768 AD]
2104) Lazzaro Spallanzani (SPoLoNTSonE) (CE 1729-1799), Italian biologist,
provides evidence against the theory of spontaneous generation by showing that
after 30-45 minutes of boiling, no microorganisms appear in sealed solutions of

Pavia, Italy (presumably)  
231 YBN
[1769 AD]
1206) The first self-propelled vehicle. A steam-engine powered automobile.

Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot (26 February 1725 - 2 October 1804), a French inventor,
builds what may be the first self-propelled vehicle built on earth using a
steam engine.

Cugnot may be the first to convert the back-and-forth motion of a steam piston
into rotary motion (James Watt does this too in 1781 in England).

231 YBN
[1769 AD]
2130) Richard Arkwright (CE 1732-1792), English inventor, patents a device that
will spin thread by mechanically reproducing the motions ordinarily made by the
human hand, that will come to be called the "water frame".

228 YBN
[1772 AD]
2049) Denis Diderot (DEDrO) (CE 1713-1784), French writer , completes his
"Encyclopédie" (1751-1772), in 28 volumes, 17 of text and 11 of illustrates

Paris, France  
228 YBN
[1772 AD]
2078) John Michell (MicL) (CE 1724-1793) attempts to detect the momentum of
light particles by allowing sunlight to reflect off of a square copper plate
balanced by a harpsichord wire attached to a counterweight. According to Joseph
Priestly, the copper plate does turn (in the direction the light is moving

In 1792 Abraham Bennet, using a vibration magnetometer, will claim to get a
null result.

Thornhill, Yorkshire, England (presumably)  
228 YBN
[1772 AD]
2138) Joseph Priestley (CE 1733-1804) describes how to dissolve carbon dioxide
("fixed air") in water which is the beginning of the soda-water industry.

Before this there are only 3 known gases: air, carbon dioxide and hydrogen.
Priestley identifies 10 new gases: nitric oxide ((which Priestley calls)
"nitrous air"), nitrogen dioxide (red nitrous vapour), nitrous oxide
(inflammable nitrous air, later called "laughing gas"), hydrogen chloride
(marine acid air), ammonia (alkaline air), sulfur dioxide (vitriolic acid air),
silicon tetrafluoride (fluor acid air), nitrogen (phlogisticated air), oxygen
(dephlogisticated air, independently codiscovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele), and
a gas later identified as carbon monoxide.

Leeds, England  
228 YBN
[1772 AD]
2199) Karl Scheele (sAlu) (CE 1742-1786) isolates oxygen (independently of
Joseph Priestley).

Uppsala, Sweden  
228 YBN
[1772 AD]
2285) Nitrogen gas isolated.

Daniel Rutherford (CE 1749-1819) Scottish chemist, (is credited with being) the
first to isolate nitrogen.

Edinburgh, Scotland  
226 YBN
[08/01/1774 AD]
2139) Joseph Priestley (CE 1733-1804) isolates oxygen (independently of Karl

Calne, England  
226 YBN
[1774 AD]
2200) Karl Wilhelm Scheele (sAlu) (CE 1742-1786) isolates chlorine gas.
Uppsala, Sweden  
226 YBN
[1774 AD]
2201) Karl Wilhelm Scheele (sAlu) (CE 1742-1786) studies or isolates for the
first time many organic acids including: tartaric, citric, benzoic, oxalic,
malic (which he calls "acid of apples"), and gallic from plant sources; lactic,
mucic and uric from animal sources; and molybdic and arsenious acid from
mineral sources.
In addition Scheele studies or isolates for the first time other
organic substances such as casein, aldehyde, and glycerol. (need dates for all

Scheele studies copper arsenite which is called Scheele's green, and a calcium
tungstate mineral that is now called scheelite.

Uppsala, Sweden  
226 YBN
[1774 AD]
2216) Combustion shown to be a reaction with a gas in the air (later named

Paris, France (presumably)  
226 YBN
[1774 AD]
2258) Johann Gottlieb Gahn (CE 1745-1818) isolates metallic manganese.
Uppsala, Sweden  
224 YBN
[07/04/1776 AD]
1532) The colonists in America create a "Declaration of Independence" from the
Kingdom of Great Britain.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, (modern: United States)  
222 YBN
[1778 AD]
1204) Samuel Crompton (December 3, 1753 - June 26, 1827), invents the "spinning
mule" by combining the Water Frame and Spinning Jenny.

222 YBN
[1778 AD]
2203) Karl Wilhelm Scheele (sAlu) (CE 1742-1786) identifies the element

Köping, Sweden (presumably)  
222 YBN
[1778 AD]
2218) Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (loVWoZYA) (CE 1743-1794) announces that air
consists of two gases, one that supports combustion and one which does not.

Paris, France (presumably)  
221 YBN
[1779 AD]
2112) Jan Ingenhousz (iNGeNHoUZ) (CE 1730-1799) describes photosynthesis, by
showing that plants take in carbon dioxide but only in the light, and in the
dark, plants, like animals give off carbon dioxide and absorb oxygen.

London, England  
221 YBN
[1779 AD]
2219) Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (loVWoZYA) (CE 1743-1794) names the gas that
can support combustion "oxygen" and the gas in the air that does not support
combustion "Azote" (in 1790 renamed Nitrogen by Chaptal)

Paris, France (presumably)  
220 YBN
[1780 AD]
1208) Aimé Argand, Swiss physicist and chemist, improves the oil lamp,
inventing the Argand lamp. The argand lamp greatly improves on the home
lighting oil lamp of the day, producing 5 to 10 times the light of a candle,
and significantly brighter than the traditional oil lamp. It has a circular
wick mounted between two cylindrical metal tubes so that air moves through the
center of the wick, as well as outside of it. A cylindrical glass chimney
around the wick is used to steady the flame and to improve the flow of air. The
argand lamp uses liquid oil. Argand finds that purified spermaceti (whale) oil
is optimal, though a good grade of olive oil can be used too. Aside from the
improvement in brightness, the more complete combustion of the wick and oil
requires much less frequent snuffing (trimming) of the wick.

The Argand lamp will quickly replace all other varieties of oil lamps until
about 1850 when kerosene lamps, which use a flat wick in a cup with a bellied
chimney, are introduced. Kerosene is considerably cheaper than whale oil, and
many Argand lamps will be converted to the new form.

In France, these lamps are known as "Quinquets" named after the man that copied
the design from Argand and popularized it in France.

219 YBN
[03/13/1781 AD]
2840) William Herschel (CE 1738-1822) identifies the planet Uranus.
Bath, England  
219 YBN
[1781 AD]
2147) William Murdoch (CE 1754-1839) is credited for inventing the
sun-and-planet gear, which converts the reciprocating (back and forth) motion
of a steam engine into a rotary motion.

Birmingham, England (presumably)  
219 YBN
[1781 AD]
2196) Anders Johan Lexell (CE 1740-1784), is the first to show that the orbit
of Hershel's object (Uranus) is that of a planet and not a comet as Hershel had

St. Petersburg, Russia (presumably)  
219 YBN
[1781 AD]
2263) Peter Hjelm (YeLM) (CE 1746-1813) isolates molybdenum.
Uppsala, Sweden (presumably)  
218 YBN
[1782 AD]
2148) James Watt (CE 1736-1819) Scottish engineer patents the double-acting
engine, in which the piston pushes as well as pulls.

Birmingham, England (presumably)  
218 YBN
[1782 AD]
2190) Franz Joseph Müller (mYylR) (CE 1740-1825) identifies the new element

Transylvania, Romania (was Hungary at time)  
217 YBN
[05/26/1783 AD]
2076) Velocity of light particles understood to change because of gravity.
Thornhill, Yorkshire, England  
217 YBN
[06/04/1783 AD]
2192) The Montgolfier brothers fly an empty hot air balloon.
Annonay, France  
217 YBN
[07/15/1783 AD]
2206) Steamboat.
Saône River, near Lyon, France  
217 YBN
[08/27/1783 AD]
2264) Jacques Charles (soRL) (CE 1746-1823) constructs the first hydrogen

Paris, France (presumably)  
217 YBN
[11/21/1783 AD]
2194) Human flight by balloon.
Paris, France  
217 YBN
[1783 AD]
1207) Henry Cort (1740 - 1800), an English iron-maker, invents the puddling
process of iron making. Cort makes a puddling furnace to create wrought iron
from the pig iron produced in a blast furnace. Pig iron contains high amounts
of carbon and other impurities, making it brittle. The puddling furnace burns
off these impurities to produce a malleable low-carbon steel or wrought iron.

The furnace is constructed to pull the hot air over the iron without it coming
into direct contact with the fuel, a system generally known as a reverberatory
furnace or open-hearth process. After lighting and being brought to a low
temperature, the furnace is prepared for use by "fettling"; painting the grate
and walls around it with iron oxides, typically hematite. Iron is then placed
on the grate, normally about 600 lbs, and allowed to melt on top, mixing with
the oxides. The mixture is then stirred vigorously with a "rabbling-bar", a
long iron rod with a hook formed into one end. This causes the oxygen from the
oxides to react with impurities in the pig iron, notably silicon, manganese (to
form slag) and to some degree sulfur and phosphorus, which form gases and are
removed out the chimney.

More fuel is then added and the temperature raised. The iron completely melts
and the carbon starts to burn off as well. The carbon dioxide formed in this
process causes the slag to "puff up" on top, giving the rabbler a visual
indication of the progress of the combustion. As the carbon burns off the
melting temperature of the mixture rises, so the furnace has to be continually
fed during this process. Eventually the carbon is mostly burned off and the
iron 'comes to nature', forming into a spongy plastic material, indicating that
the process is complete, and the material can be removed.

The hook on the end of the bar is then used to pull out large "puddle-balls" of
the material, about 40 kg each. These are then hammered ('shingled') using a
powered hammer, to expel slag and weld shut internal cracks, while breaking off
chunks of impurities. The iron is then re-heated and rolled out into flat bars
or round rods. For this, grooved rollers are used, the grooves being of
successively descreasing size so that the bar is progressively reduced to the
desired dimensions. The quality of this may be improved by faggoting (a process
in which rods or bars of iron and/or steel are gathered (like a bundle of
sticks or "faggot") and forge welded together. The faggot would then be drawn
out lengthwise. The bar might then be broken and the pieces made into a faggot
again or folded over, and forge welded again).

The puddling furnace will be replaced with the introduction of the Bessemer
Process, which produces mild steel or wrought iron for a fraction of the cost
and time. For comparison, an average size charge for a puddling furnace is 600
lb, for a Bessemer converter it will be 15 short tons. The puddling process can
not be scaled up, being limited by the amount that the puddler can handle. It
can only be expanded by building more furnaces.

217 YBN
[1783 AD]
2114) Henry Cavendish (CE 1731-1810), English chemist and physicist, is the
first to measure the weight of particular volumes of gas to determine their
density. (Show how Cavendish does this) He finds Hydrogen to be very light with
only 1/14 the density of air. The lightness and flammability of Hydrogen makes
Cavendish think he found Stahl's phlogiston a view which Scheele will adopt.

London, England  
217 YBN
[1783 AD]
2183) William Herschel (CE 1738-1822) understands that the Sun is moving
towards the constellation Hercules.

Slough, England  
217 YBN
[1783 AD]
2221) Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (loVWoZYA) (CE 1743-1794) names Cavendish's
inflammable gas "Hydrogen".

Paris, France (presumably)  
217 YBN
[1783 AD]
2320) Fausto D'elhuyar (DeLUYoR) (CE 1755-1833) with his brother Juan José
D'elhuyar, isolate tungsten (also known as wolfram).

Vergara, Spain  
216 YBN
[01/15/1784 AD]
2115) Water shown to be a compound, not an element. Larger molecule formed by
joining two smaller molecules with electricity. Water is synthesized by using
an electric spark in hydrogen and oxygen gases.
Henry Cavendish (CE 1731-1810)
is the first to show that water is created from burning hydrogen gas in oxygen

London, England  
215 YBN
[02/17/1785 AD]
3463) First "Diffraction" Grating (made with wires).
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA  
215 YBN
[04/??/1785 AD]
2184) William Herschel (CE 1738-1822) publishes a catalog with 1000 (previously
unknown) "nebulae" (galaxies) and star clusters.

This enlarges the map of the known universe.

Datchet, England  
215 YBN
[06/02/1785 AD]
2116) Air is shown to be a mixture of gases, and not a single element.

Henry Cavendish (CE 1731-1810) shows, by sparking air to make nitric acid, that
air is a mixture of gases, not a single element as was thought. Cavendish is
the first to recognize that air is composed of around 4 parts nitrogen (at the
time called "phlogisticated air") to 1 part oxygen (at the time called
"dephlogisticated air").

London, England  
215 YBN
[1785 AD]
1239) The power loom is built by Edmund Cartwright (April 24, 1743 - October
30, 1823). The power loom automates the cloth making process and allows large
amounts of cloth to be made in a shorter time than can be made by human labor.

215 YBN
[1785 AD]
1240) William Samuel Henson (1812-1888) and John Stringfellow (1799-1883)
invent a steam-engine powered airplane (Aerial Steam Carriage). This design can
not fly, but an improved design in 1848 will be able to fly for small distances
within a hanger. This is the first device built to use machine powered flight.

215 YBN
[1785 AD]
2083) James Hutton (CE 1726-1797) Scottish geologist puts forward the
"uniformitarian principle", the theory that slow changes change the earth's

Edinburgh, Scotland  
215 YBN
[1785 AD]
2167) Charles Augustin Coulomb (KUlOM) (CE 1736-1806) proves that electrical
and magnetic attraction and repulsion are both inversely related to distance

This will eventually lead to the famous equation now called Coulomb's law:
2 (state who is the first to formally state this equation)

Coulomb finds that the force between electrical and magnetic objects is
identical, a strong indication that a magnetic field is actually just an
electrical field. However Coulomb maintains that the electrical and magnetic
fluids are not identical. I think that this is strong evidence that a magnetic
field is simply an electrical field, which implies that in every permanent
magnet has a current of particles which creates an electric field running
through it.

Paris?, France (presumably)  
215 YBN
[1785 AD]
2168) Charles Coulomb (KUlOM) (CE 1736-1806) shows that electric and magnetic
attraction and repulsion are both proportional to amount of charge and
inversely proportional to distance squared.

Paris?, France (presumably)  
214 YBN
[1786 AD]
1209) The thrashing machine, or, in modern spelling, threshing machine, is
invented by Scottish mechanical engineer Andrew Meikle (1719 - November 27,
1811). The threshing machine is used to separate the seeds (or grains) of
cereal plants from their stalks and outer husks. For thousands of years, grain
was separated by hand with flails (two or more sticks attached by a short chain
or leather thong; one stick is held and swung, causing the other to strike a
pile of grain, loosening the husks), and was very laborious and time consuming.
Mechanization of this process will increase the speed and quantity of
production, in addition to lowering the cost.
Early threshing machines are hand
fed and horse powered. They are small by today's standards and are about the
size of an upright piano.
Although threshing removes the straw and the chaff (seed
casing and other inedible materials of a plant), it does not remove the bran
(Bran is the hard outer layer of cereal grains, and consists of combined
aleurone and pericarp. Along with germ (the embyro of the seed), it is an
integral part of whole grains, and is often produced as a by-product of milling
in the production of refined grains. When bran is removed from grains, they
lose a portion of their nutritional value. Bran is present in and may be milled
from any cereal grain, including rice, wheat, maize, oats, and millet.).

East Lothian, Scotland, United Kingdom  
213 YBN
[08/27/1787 AD]
2265) Jacques Alexandre César Charles (soRL) (CE 1746-1823) states that the
volume of a fixed quantity of gas at constant pressure is inversely
proportional to its temperature (Charles' law).

Paris, France (presumably)  
213 YBN
[1787 AD]
2178) William Herschel (CE 1738-1822) identifies two moons of Uranus, Titania
and Oberon.

Old Windsor, England (presumably)  
212 YBN
[06/21/1788 AD]
1529) The United States Constitution is ratified by 9 of 13 states and the
United States Government is formed, a representative democracy, won after an 8
year war against the Kingdom of Great Britain (a Parliamentary Monarchy). This
is the first major representative democracy not ruled by any hereditary king of
planet earth.

New Hampshire, USA  
211 YBN
[08/28/1789 AD]
2181) William Herschel completes the construction of the largest telescope on
earth and identifies two new satellites of Saturn, Enceladus and Mimas for a
total of 7 moons for Saturn.

Slough, England  
211 YBN
[1789 AD]
2230) Martin Heinrich Klaproth (KloPrOT) (CE 1743-1817) identifies the element

Berlin, (was Prussia) Germany (presumably)  
211 YBN
[1789 AD]
2231) Martin Heinrich Klaproth (KloPrOT) (CE 1743-1817) identifies the element

Berlin, (was Prussia) Germany (presumably)  
210 YBN
[1790 AD]
2077) John Michell (MicL) (CE 1724-1793) English geologist and astronomer,
constructs a torsion balance to measure gravitational attraction and therefore
the (mass) of the Earth.

Henry Cavendish (1731-1810), will use the device John Michell, in his famous
experiment to measure gravity between two test masses.
Michell invents a torsion
balance similar to and independently of the torsion balance that the French
physicist Charles-Augustin de Coulomb will invent.

Thornhill, Yorkshire, England (presumably)  
209 YBN
[05/03/1791 AD]
1530) The King of Poland approves the first modern constitution in Europe,
transforming the nation of Poland into a constitutional parliamentary monarchy.
In this Constitution, Dynasties must be elected, and discrimination on
religious grounds is abolished.

209 YBN
[12/15/1791 AD]
1531) The "Bill of Rights", the first 10 amendments to the United States
Constitution guarantees many human rights including freedom of religion,
speech, the press, the right of peaceful assembly and petition, and the
prohibition of "cruel and unusual punishments".

Virginia, USA  
209 YBN
[1791 AD]
2175) Remote neuron activation (remote neuron writing). Muscle contracted
remotely by using an electric spark and metal connected to a nerve.

Galvani makes an electric pendulum using a frog leg, brass hook and silver

Imagine Galvani's scalpel reduced in size to the size of a dust fiber, about 1
micrometer, and capable of photon communication can can be swallowed or even
breathed in, and then remotely communicated with, and moved around inside a
body, made to activate a neuron, or to attach to a bacterium, perhaps to enter
a cell and function as the first human-made cellular organelle.

Bologna, Italy  
209 YBN
[1791 AD]
2342) William Gregor (CE 1761-1817) identifies titanium.
Cornwall, England  
208 YBN
[09/21/1792 AD]
1534) A National Convention in France ends the monarchy and establishes a
republic in France.

Paris, France  
206 YBN
[1794 AD]
2336) Johan Gadolin identifies the first rare earth (Lanthanoid) element.
(was Åbo is now)Turku, Finland  
205 YBN
[1795 AD]
2085) James Hutton explains natural selection before Charles Darwin, writing
that species less adapted are more like to die while those better adapted will

Edinburgh, Scotland (presumably)  
204 YBN
[07/01/1796 AD]
2280) Immunity by vaccination proven.

Edward Jenner (CE 1749-1823), English physician, confirms that having cow pox
disease provide immunity from the more severe small pox disease.

Berkeley, England (presumably)  
203 YBN
[1797 AD]
2338) James Hall (CE 1761-1832) produces marble by heating limestone (calcium

203 YBN
[1797 AD]
2344) Louis Nicolas Vauquelin (VoKloN) (CE 1763-1829), identifies Chromium.
Paris, France  
202 YBN
[06/02/1798 AD]
1233) Napolean with 50,000 men invade Egypt.

202 YBN
[07/25/1798 AD]
1234) Napolean rules Egypt.

202 YBN
[1798 AD]
2117) The gravitational constant, and the mass, and density of the Earth is

London, England  
202 YBN
[1798 AD]
2345) Louis Nicolas Vauquelin (VoKloN) (CE 1763-1829), identifies beryllium.
Paris, France  
202 YBN
[1798 AD]
2353) Alois Senefelder (CE 1771-1834), invents lithography which a printing
process based on the inability of oil and water to mix.

Munich, {Bavaria, now} Germany  
201 YBN
[08/??/1799 AD]
1237) The "Rosetta Stone" is found in Egypt.
Rashid, Egypt  
201 YBN
[1799 AD]
2315) Joseph Louis Proust (PrUST) (CE 1754-1826) shows that elements combine in
definite proportions.

Segovia, Spain  
200 YBN
[03/20/1800 AD]
2250) Alessandro Volta (VOLTo) (CE 1745-1827) builds an electric battery.
Pavia, Italy  
200 YBN
[03/27/1800 AD]
2179) Invisible light recognized. William Herschel (CE 1738-1822) recognizes
that an invisible portion of the spectrum of light beyond the color red (later
named infrared) heats up a thermometer more than any other color.

Slough, England  
200 YBN
[05/02/1800 AD]
2307) Electrolysis. Molecule split using electricity. Water divided into
hydrogen and oxygen.

William Nicholson (CE 1753-1815) separates water into hydrogen and oxygen gas
using electric current.

London, England (presumably)  
200 YBN
[09/17/1800 AD]
2436) Johann Wilhelm Ritter (CE 1776-1810) collects the hydrogen and oxygen gas
from electrolysis of water separately.

Johann Wilhelm Ritter (CE 1776-1810), German
physicist, improves on the electrolysis of water by creating a device that
collects the hydrogen and oxygen gases separately over the electrodes in

Within months of Volta's first battery in 1800, Nicholson uses electric current
to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen. Later that year, Ritter is the
first to collect the hydrogen and oxygen gas over the electrodes when
electricity from a battery flowing through water separates the water into
hydrogen and oxygen gas (electrolysis). (I think this is one of the coolest
experiments of all time)

This raises the question: how can oxygen and hydrogen move through water and
appear on opposite electrodes?

(State publication)

Jena, Germany (presumably)  
200 YBN
[11/??/1800 AD]
2437) Johann Wilhelm Ritter (CE 1776-1810) discovers electroplating.
Jena, Germany (presumably)  
200 YBN
[1800 AD]
4541) Secret: Electric microphone invented.

200 YBN
[1800 AD]
4542) Secret: Invisible light particle communication (radio) invented but kept
secret. Radio transmitter and receiver invented.

199 YBN
[11/12/1801 AD]
2405) Thomas Young (CE 1773-1829) determines frequencies and wavelengths (or
particle intervals) of light, uses glass diffraction gratings, and puts forward
a theory of light interference.

Young puts forward the theory of light wave interference (to explain lines of
diffraction). This theory states that two (or more) light waves interfere with
each other, where light waves can add together and subtract or cancel each
other out, similar to the way two sound waves can add to or cancel each other
out to produce silence.

Young supports the theory of light as a wave in an aether medium (aether being
like air for sound), and refers to this theory as the "undulatory" theory.

London, England  
199 YBN
[1801 AD]
2349) Andrès Manuel Del Rio (DeLrEO) (CE 1764-1849) identifies vanadium.
Mexico City, Mexico (presumably)  
199 YBN
[1801 AD]
2350) Charles Hatchett (CE 1765-1847) identifies the new element Niobium.
199 YBN
[1801 AD]
2438) Johann Wilhelm Ritter (CE 1776-1810) identifies ultraviolet light.
Jena, Germany (presumably)  
199 YBN
[1801 AD]
4543) Secret: Electronic camera transmitter invented but kept secret. This
device uses light particles to transmit images to distant receivers. At first
this is a simple one sensor light dark device. But soon, arrays of sensors,
with more and more sensors, smaller and smaller in size are developed - all
secretly for a small group of wealthy people of each nation.

198 YBN
[03/??/1802 AD]
2332) Heinrich Olbers (oLBRS or OLBRZ) (CE 1758-1840), finds the second known
minor planet (asteroid) Pallas.

Bremen, Germany  
198 YBN
[08/03/1802 AD]
2845) Gian Domenico Romagnosi (CE 1761-1835) publishes a finding of an electric
effect deflecting a magnetic needle.

Trento, Italy  
198 YBN
[1802 AD]
2365) William Hyde Wollaston (WOLuSTuN) (CE 1766-1828) identifies spectral

London, England  
198 YBN
[1802 AD]
2377) Anders Gustaf Ekeberg (IKuBRG) (CE 1767-1813) identifies tantalum.
Uppsala, Sweden  
198 YBN
[1802 AD]
2439) Johann Wilhelm Ritter (CE 1776-1810) invents the first dry voltaic cell.
Gotha, Germany  
197 YBN
[10/21/1803 AD]
2375) John Dalton (CE 1766-1844) shows that atoms of different elements vary in
size and mass, and makes the first table of elements by atomic mass.

Manchester, England  
197 YBN
[1803 AD]
2235) Cerium is identified by Berzelius with Hisinger and independently by

Berlin, (was Prussia) Germany (presumably)  
197 YBN
[1803 AD]
2400) First railway train (Locomotive).
South Wales, England  
196 YBN
[01/01/1804 AD]
1533) Haiti, a nation on the island of Hispaniola, declares its independence
from France after the first and only successful slave rebellion. Haiti is the
second independent country in the Americas, establishing a free republic.

196 YBN
[1804 AD]
2362) William Hyde Wollaston (WOLuSTuN) (CE 1766-1828) isolates pure platinum

London, England  
196 YBN
[1804 AD]
2363) William Hyde Wollaston (WOLuSTuN) (CE 1766-1828) isolates palladium.
London, England  
195 YBN
[1805 AD]
2364) William Hyde Wollaston (WOLuSTuN) (CE 1766-1828) isolates rhodium.
London, England  
195 YBN
[1805 AD]
3223) First percussion ignition gun. Percussion ignition will replace ignition
by flint spark.

Belhelvie, Aberdeenshire, Scotland (presumably)  
193 YBN
[03/29/1807 AD]
2333) Heinrich Olbers (oLBRS or OLBRZ) (CE 1758-1840), finds the planetoid
(asteroid) Vesta.

Bremen, Germany  
193 YBN
[10/06/1807 AD]
2476) Humphry Davy (CE 1778-1829), identifies and isolates potassium.
London, England  
193 YBN
[10/13/1807 AD]
2477) Humphry Davy (CE 1778-1829), identifies and isolates sodium.
London, England  
193 YBN
[1807 AD]
2380) Joseph Fourier (FURYAY) (CE 1768-1830) explains "Fourier's theorem" (or
the "Fourier transform") that any periodic oscillation can be reduced to a sum
of simple trigonometric (sine,cosine, etc) wave motions.

Grenoble, France  
192 YBN
[06/21/1808 AD]
2465) Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (GAlYUSoK) (CE 1778-1850) and Thénard isolate

Paris, France (presumably)  
192 YBN
[1808 AD]
2478) Humphry Davy (CE 1778-1829), identifies, isolates and names barium,
strontium, calcium and magnesium.

London, England  
191 YBN
[1809 AD]
2240) Lamarck writes that the most simple forms of life were created from heat,
light and electricity acting on inorganic materials and that more complex
organisms evolved from simple organisms over a long time.

Paris, France (presumably)  
191 YBN
[1809 AD]
2466) Joseph Gay-Lussac (GAlYUSoK) (CE 1778-1850) identifies that gases combine
in small whole number ratios by volume.

Paris, France (presumably)  
191 YBN
[1809 AD]
2481) Humphry Davy (CE 1778-1829) builds the first electric light and arc lamp.
London, England  
190 YBN
[1810 AD]
2480) Humphry Davy (CE 1778-1829), names "chlorine" and identifies chlorine as
an element. Davy shows that hydrochloric acid contains no oxygen proving
Lavoisier incorrect that all acids contain oxygen.

Davy shows that chlorine can also support combustion as oxygen does.

Davy correctly suggests that the content of hydrogen is characteristic of
acids. (verify)

London, England  
189 YBN
[1811 AD]
658) Secret: Direct neuron reading of images the eye sees.
Secret: Images that the
brain sees are seen and recorded using the electricity they produce in the
human nerves. Possibly images of thought are also seen at this time.

The exact date, time, location, invention, and even inventor are not clear
because of the secrecy that still surrounds this technology.

London, England (presumably)  
189 YBN
[1811 AD]
2432) The concept of molecules.

Amedeo Avogadro (oVOGoDrO) (CE 1776-1856) creates the concept of a molecule and
distinguishes between atoms and molecules.

Vercelli, Italy  
189 YBN
[1811 AD]
2441) Bernard Courtois (KURTWo) (CE 1777-1838), French chemist, identifies and
isolates iodine.

Dijon, France  
187 YBN
[1813 AD]
2492) Jöns Jakob Berzelius (BRZElEuS) (CE 1779-1848), suggests elements be
represented with one or more letter.

Stokholm, Sweden (presumably)  
186 YBN
[1814 AD]
2433) Amedeo Avogadro (oVOGoDrO) (CE 1776-1856) describes the molecular
formulas for carbon dioxide, carbon disulfide, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen

Vercelli, Italy  
186 YBN
[1814 AD]
2571) Fraunhofer explains that each substance emits specific frequencies of
light and invents a spectroscope.

Benedictbeuern (near Munich), Germany  
185 YBN
[07/08/1815 AD]
2597) Louis XVIII returns to Paris after the defeat of Napoleon.

Paris, France  
185 YBN
[10/??/1815 AD]
2589) A paper on diffraction interpreted with a (longitudinal) wave theory for
light by Augustin Jean Fresnel (FrAneL) (CE 1788-1827) is published by the
Academy of Sciences and this is the first public acknowledgment and support of
Young's reintroduction of a wave theory for light in France.

Paris, France  
185 YBN
[1815 AD]
2544) William Prout (CE 1785-1850), proposes that the atomic weights of
elements are multiples of the atomic weight of hydrogen.

London, England (presumably)  
184 YBN
[1816 AD]
2351) Joseph Nicéphore Niepce (nYePS) (CE 1765-1833) creates the first

Chalon-sur-Saône, France  
183 YBN
[1817 AD]
2408) Thomas Young (CE 1773-1829) proposes that light waves are transverse
(oscillate at right angle to direction of travel) waves through an aether

London, England  
183 YBN
[1817 AD]
2431) Friedrich Strohmeyer (also Stromeyer) (sTrOmIR) (CE 1776-1835) identifies

Göttingen, Germany  
183 YBN
[1817 AD]
2493) Jöns Jakob Berzelius (BRZElEuS) (CE 1779-1848), identifies selenium.
This leads to the electric camera.

Stokholm, Sweden (presumably)  
183 YBN
[1817 AD]
2600) Theory that chemicals contain light.
Heidelberg, Germany  
181 YBN
[1819 AD]
2598) Augustin-Jean Fresnel (FrAneL) (CE 1788-1827) and François Arago (oroGO)
(CE 1786-1853) discover that two beams of light, polarized in perpendicular
directions, do not interfere with each other (using double-refracting crystal
and a metal cylinder to produce interference bands). In other words Arago and
Fresnel find no interference bands typical of unpolarized or one-plane
polarized light. (I have doubts about this, and a video should be made showing
this experiment. For example, the bands which I interpret as being from
reflection would be there, theoretically no matter how the beams are polarized.
Although I can see that a polarized surface might not reflect light polarized
to a different plane, absorbing that light instead since matter would not be
aligned to reflect such beams.)

Paris, France  
180 YBN
[04/21/1820 AD]
2454) Hans Christian Ørsted (RSTeD) (CE 1777-1851) finds that electricity
moves a magnetic compass needle.

Copenhagen, Denmark  
180 YBN
[09/18/1820 AD]
2423) André Marie Ampère (oMPAR) (CE 1775-1836) relates direction of current
in a wire to magnetic force.

Paris, France  
180 YBN
[09/25/1820 AD]
2424) Magnetism identified as electricity.

André Marie Ampère (oMPAR) (CE 1775-1836) understands that magnetism is
caused by an electric current; that magnetism is actually electricity.

Paris, France  
180 YBN
[10/30/1820 AD]
2418) Jean Baptiste Biot (BYO) (CE 1774-1862), and the physicist Félix Savart
find that the intensity of the magnetic field created by a current flowing
through a wire is inversely proportional to the distance from the wire. This
relationship is now known as the Biot-Savart law.

Paris, France (presumably)  
180 YBN
[1820 AD]
2486) Johann Salomo Christoph Schweigger (sViGGR) (CE 1779-1857), German
physicist invents the first galvonometer, finding that a deflecting needle can
be used to measure a current and that wrapping a wire several turns around a
compass needly increases the effect.

Halle, Germany  
180 YBN
[1820 AD]
3374) Hydrogen gas combustion vacuum engine.
(Magdalen College) Cambridge, England  
179 YBN
[06/??/1821 AD]
2595) (Like Thomas Young), Augustin Jean Fresnel (FrAneL) (CE 1788-1827)
describes light as a transverse wave vibration of an aether medium. Although
this theory will be proven incorrect by Michelson and Morley in the early
1900s, this belief of light as a transverse wave is still popular today, and
therefore stands, like deities, creationism, the big bang, and time-dilation,
as being an inaccurate theory that holds popular belief for many years.

Paris, France  
179 YBN
[07/05/1821 AD]
2883) Electrical current in air and in a vacuum moved by a magnet.
London, England  
179 YBN
[09/07/1821 AD]
1535) The Republic of Gran Colombia is established, with Simón Bolívar as the
founding President.

179 YBN
[09/11/1821 AD]
2701) Michael Faraday (CE 1791-1867) invents the first electric motor.
(Royal Institution in) London, England  
179 YBN
[1821 AD]
2434) Amedeo Avogadro (oVOGoDrO) (CE 1776-1856) describes the molecular
formulas for alcohol (C2H6O) and for ether (C4H10O).

Turin, Italy (presumably)  
177 YBN
[06/14/1823 AD]
3297) Fraunhofer creates the equation nλ=Dsinθ equating wavelength of light
to grating groove spacing, and is the first to calculate wavelength of light
using a diffraction grating.

Benedictbeuern (near Munich), Germany (presumably)  
177 YBN
[1823 AD]
3383) Samuel Brown builds (the earliest) gas combustion vacuum engine (known to
be put to work around a city).

The earliest known gas engine to be designed was by
John Barber in 1791.

In 1820 Farish and Cecil are claimed to have built the earliest known working
gas engine.

Brown's engines are the first to actually work in London and the

In 1823 Samuel Brown invents an important gas engine. It is an atmospheric
engine, with water-jacket to cool the cylinder. A gas jet is kept constantly
burning outside the cylinder, and ignites a mixture of inflammable gas and air
below the piston. Part of the expanded gases is allowed to escape through
valves in the piston; then by cooling with water, a vacuum is effected, and the
atmospheric pressure outside drives down the piston. In his patent, No 4874 of
1823, he describes three applications of this principle to different kinds of
machinery first to turn a water wheel; second, to raise water; and the third,
to drive pistons.
This engine is double acting, a piston being attached to each end of
the crossbeam or level by a rod and chain. The arrangement somewhat resembles
Newcomen's atmospheric engine.

20 engines are patented between 1826 and 1860 when Lenoir's engine is patented.

London, England  
176 YBN
[1824 AD]
2494) Jöns Jakob Berzelius (BRZElEuS) (CE 1779-1848) isolates silicon. (how?)
Stokholm, Sweden (presumably)  
175 YBN
[1825 AD]
2526) First practical electromagnet.

William Sturgeon (CE 1783-1850) builds the first practical electromagnet (also
known as an inductor).

Soft iron is iron that when exposed to a magnetic field become a magnet but
loses this magnetism when the magnetic field is removed. Hard iron is iron that
when exposed to a magnetic field becomes a magnet, but remains a magnet when
the magnetic field is removed (State chemical and/or molecular difference
between soft and hard iron). Only certain metals can be magnets and are called
"ferromagnetic". Besides iron are nickel, cobalt, and alnico, an
aluminum-nickel-cobalt alloy (list all others, so iron is not the only element
that can produce and retain a magnetic field. Presumably any metal and
electrical conductor that can carry current can produce an electric (and
magnetic) field.). At first a piece of lodestone was used as a compass needle,
then hard iron was used.(state when and add record)

Surrey, England (presumably)  
174 YBN
[03/??/1826 AD]
3454) Talbot understands that the spectrum of a flame can be used to detect the
presence of chemical compounds.

London, England  
174 YBN
[07/05/1826 AD]
3440) Electrical oscillation (the basis of alternating current and photon or
wireless communication).

(Bureau des Longitudes) Paris, France (presumably)  
174 YBN
[1826 AD]
2355) Joseph Niepce (nYePS) (CE 1765-1833) creates the first permanent photo.
Chalon-sur-Saône, France  
174 YBN
[1826 AD]
2915) The element Bromine is discovered.
(Montpellier École de Pharmacie) Montpellier, France  
174 YBN
[1826 AD]
3384) Samuel Brown builds (the earliest) gas combustion vacuum engine powered
car and boat.

London, England  
173 YBN
[04/07/1827 AD]
6242) Earliest friction match.
173 YBN
[05/01/1827 AD]
2606) Georg Simon Ohm (OM) (CE 1789-1854) defines the concept of electrical
resistance and describes "Ohm's law", I=V/R (or V=IR), where current (I, in
Amps) equals voltage (electric potential, or electromotive force) divided by
resistance (R in Ohms).

Berlin, Germany (written in Cologne?)  
173 YBN
[1827 AD]
2415) Robert Brown (CE 1773-1858) identifies the motion of fine powder in
water. This is now called "Brownian motion", and is evidence of atoms.

London, England (presumably)  
173 YBN
[1827 AD]
3591) Electronic printer.
New York City NY (presumably)  
172 YBN
[02/??/1828 AD]
2857) German chemist, Friedrich Wöhler (VOElR) produces the first "organic"
molecule (urea) from inorganic sources (ammonium cyanate).

(Berlin Gewerbeschule (trade school)) Berlin, Germany  
171 YBN
[03/27/1829 AD]
2844) Electricity produced by moving a wire near a magnet.

Phenomenon of dynamic electrical induction observed. Francesco Zantedeschi (CE
1797-1873) produces electric current by moving wire near a permanent magnet.

Zantedeschi explicitly makes the analogy between a North magnetic Pole and the
zinc pole of a voltaic battery.

Pavia, Italy  
171 YBN
[1829 AD]
2495) Jöns Jakob Berzelius (BRZElEuS) (CE 1779-1848) identifies thorium.

Stokholm, Sweden (presumably)  
170 YBN
[1830 AD]
1210) The Swing Riots in the UK. These are partly a result of the threshing
machine. Following years of war, high taxes and low wages, farm laborers
finally turn violent in 1830. These farm laborers had faced unemployment for a
number of years due to the widespread introduction of the threshing machine and
the policy of enclosing fields. No longer were thousands of men needed to tend
the crops, a few would suffice. With fewer jobs, lower wages and no prospects
of things improving for these workers the threshing machine was the final
straw, the machine was to place them on the brink of starvation. The Swing
Rioters smash the threshing machines and threatened farmers who have them.

The riots are dealt with very harshly. Nine of the rioters are hanged and a
further 450 are transported to Australia.

170 YBN
[1830 AD]
3271) Sewing machine.
170 YBN
[1830 AD]
4699) Secret: Electric motor millimeter in size. First hovering and flying
electric motor device.

London, England (guess)  
169 YBN
[02/17/1831 AD]
2702) Michael Faraday (CE 1791-1867) produces electrical current from an
electromagnet, inventing the first transformer.

(Royal Institution in) London, England  
169 YBN
[09/??/1831 AD]
2705) Michael Faraday (CE 1791-1867) invents the dynamic electric generator,
(or "dynamo") by mechanically moving a conductor near a magnet to produce a
constant electric current.

(Royal Institution in) London, England  
169 YBN
[1831 AD]
2414) Robert Brown (CE 1773-1858) identifies and names the cell "nucleus".
London, England (presumably)  
168 YBN
[01/03/1832 AD]
2808) Joseph Henry (CE 1797-1878), US physicist, identifies self induction, and
that a changing magnetic field also causes induced current to flow.

Albany, NY, USA  
168 YBN
[1832 AD]
2514) Plastic. (Nitrocellulose).
Nancy, France  
168 YBN
[1832 AD]
2704) Faraday's (CE 1791-1867) laws of electrolysis.
(Royal Institution in) London, England  
168 YBN
[1832 AD]
2717) Alternating electric current (AC) generator (dynamo).
Paris, France  
166 YBN
[01/01/1834 AD]
1247) Mechanical reaper.
Rockbridge County, Virginia, USA  
166 YBN
[1834 AD]
2853) Jean Baptiste André Dumas (DYUmo) (CE 1800-1884), French chemist
introduces the substitution theory (or "Law of Substitution") which states that
hydrogen atoms (electropositive) can be substituted by chlorine or oxygen atoms
(electronegative) in certain organic reactions without any drastic alteration
in the structure.

(Is this theory still supported? It seems unusual that a negatively charged
atom would replace a positively charged atom.)

(Ecole Polytechnique) Paris, France (presumably)  
166 YBN
[1834 AD]
2899) Speed of electricity in wire measured using a rotating mirror.
(King's College) London, England  
165 YBN
[02/06/1835 AD]
2810) Joseph Henry (CE 1797-1878), US physicist, invents the electrical relay
which allows a telegraph current to be carried over long distances.

Princeton, NJ, USA  
164 YBN
[1836 AD]
2813) Nicholas Joseph Callan (CE 1799-1864) builds an induction coil.
Maynooth, Ireland  
164 YBN
[1836 AD]
3070) Theodor Schwann (sVoN) (CE 1810-1882), German physiologist, isolates and
names pepsin, a substance responsible for digestion in the stomach. This is the
first enzyme prepared from animal tissue.

(University of Berlin) Berlin, Germany  
164 YBN
[1836 AD]
3071) Theodor Schwann (sVoN) (CE 1810-1882), German physiologist, observes the
formation of yeast spores and recognizes that fermentation of sugar and starch
is the result of a living organism.

(University of Louvain) Louvain, Belgium (verify)  
163 YBN
[1837 AD]
6257) Electric car.
162 YBN
[1838 AD]
2540) Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (CE 1784-1846), measures the parallax of a
different star.

Parallax is the difference in the direction of an object as seen by two widely
separated points; a measurement used to find the distance to an object.

61 Cygni is shown to be around 6 light years away.

Königsberg, (Prussia now:) Germany  
162 YBN
[1838 AD]
2934) Matthias Jakob Schleiden (slIDeN) (CE 1804-1881) creates cell theory. The
principle that all living objects are made of cells.

(University of Jena) Jena, Germany  
161 YBN
[01/09/1839 AD]
2617) Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (DoGAR) (CE 1789-1851), reduces the time to
make a photograph from 8 hours to 30 minutes.

Paris, France  
161 YBN
[07/29/1839 AD]
3308) Light converted to electricity (photoelectric or photovoltaic effect).
This is also the first photovoltaic cell (or "solar cell").

The development of solar cell technology stems from the work of the French
physicist Antoine-César Becquerel in 1839. Becquerel discovered the
photovoltaic effect while experimenting with a solid electrode in an
electrolyte solution; he observed that voltage developed when light contacts
the electrode. About 50 years later, Charles Fritts constructed the first true
solar cells using junctions formed by coating the semiconductor selenium with
an ultrathin, nearly transparent layer of gold. The silicon solar cell
developed by Russell Ohl in 1941 will lead to more efficient solar cells. Solar
cells will be improved by the development of orbiting vehicles because access
to light particles is continuous in orbit and unlike batteries, solar cells
never wear out. Solar cells are standard equipment on all modern satellites.

(University of Paris) Paris, France  
161 YBN
[1839 AD]
2800) Carl Gustav Mosander (mOSoUNDR) (CE 1797-1858), Swedish chemist,
discovers the element Lanthanum.

(Caroline Medical Institute) Stockholm, Sweden  
161 YBN
[1839 AD]
3072) Cell theory extended to all animals and plants.
(University of Louvain) Louvain, Belgium  
158 YBN
[03/30/1842 AD]
3171) First use of anesthesia (ether) for surgery.
Jefferson, Georgia  
158 YBN
[06/17/1842 AD]
2812) Basis of invisible particle communication (radio).
Princeton, NJ, USA  
157 YBN
[1843 AD]
2801) Carl Gustav Mosander (mOSoUNDR) (CE 1797-1858), Swedish chemist,
identifies the elements erbium, and terbium.

(Caroline Medical Institute) Stockholm, Sweden  
157 YBN
[1843 AD]
6240) Remote controlled explosive.
Paterson, New Jersey, USA (presumably)  
156 YBN
[1844 AD]
2795) Carl Ernst Claus (KloWZ) (also Karl Karlovich Klaus) (CE 1796-1864)
isolates and names "ruthenium".

St. Petersberg, Russia  
155 YBN
[04/??/1845 AD]
2839) William Parsons, (Third Earl of Rosse) (CE 1800-1867), Irish astronomer
recognizes the spiral shape of spiral galaxies (thought at the time to be

Parsons completes a 72 inch reflector telescope.

(Birr Castle) Parsonstown, Ireland  
155 YBN
[1845 AD]
2828) Smokeless explosive.
(University of Basel) Basel, Switzerland  
155 YBN
[1845 AD]
3227) Kolbe (KOLBu) synthesizes acetic acid (an organic molecule) from
inorganic molecules.

(University of Marburg) Marburg, Germany  
154 YBN
[09/23/1846 AD]
3073) Planet Neptune is observed.
Berlin, Germany (and Paris, France)  
154 YBN
[10/10/1846 AD]
2824) William Lassell (CE 1799-1880), English astronomer, is the first to see
Triton, the largest satellite of Neptune.

(Starfield Observatory) Liverpool, England  
154 YBN
[12/12/1846 AD]
3601) Alexander Bain (CE 1811-1877) patents a facsimile machine (fax), which
can transmit images drawn in perforated paper (Morse code and letters) and a
perforated paper automatic message feed system in which holes in a paper strip
complete a circuit switching electrical current on and off.

Edinburgh, Scotland  
154 YBN
[1846 AD]
3108) Nitroglycerine.
Torino, Italy (presumably)  
153 YBN
[1847 AD]
3606) Electronic sending and printing of handwritten messages.
London, England  
152 YBN
[1848 AD]
3477) William Thomson (CE 1824-1907) creates the absolute temperature scale,
determining -273°C to be absolute 0, where all molecules stop moving.

(University of Glasgow) Glasgow, Scotland  
151 YBN
[01/20/1849 AD]
3280) Jean Bernard Léon Foucault (FUKo) (CE 1819-1868), finds 1) that an
electric arc emits the same two spectral (D) lines that are missing in
sunlight, and 2) that an electric arc between two charcoal electrodes absorbs
the light with the frequency of the two D lines which darken the lines from a
light source.

Paris, France (presumably)  
151 YBN
[05/27/1849 AD]
3299) Fizeau and Foucault measure no change in the speed of light due to the
movement of Earth through an aether.

Paris, France  
151 YBN
[07/23/1849 AD]
3290) Fizeau measures the speed of light to be 315,300 kilometers per second,
using a non-astronomical method.

Paris, France  
150 YBN
[05/06/1850 AD]
3281) Jean Foucault (FUKo) (CE 1819-1868) shows that light moves more slowly in
water than in air.

Paris, France (presumably)  
150 YBN
[1850 AD]
3332) Helmholtz measures the speed of electricity in nerves as 27 m/s (90

(University of Königsberg) Königsberg, Germany  
150 YBN
[1850 AD]
4544) Secret: walking robot using electromagnetic motors but kept secret.
150 YBN
[1850 AD]
4700) Secret: Electric motor micrometer in size.
London, England (guess)  
149 YBN
[02/03/1851 AD]
3282) Foucault proves experimentally that the Earth rotates around its axis
using a pendulum.

Paris, France (presumably)  
149 YBN
[1851 AD]
2825) William Lassell (CE 1799-1880), English astronomer, identifies two
satellites of Uranus (increasing the number of moons of Uranus known at the
time to 4). Lassell names these Ariel and Umbriel.

149 YBN
[1851 AD]
2952) Hugo von Mohl (mOL) (CE 1805-1872), German botanist states that new cells
arise from cell division.

(University of Tübingen) Tübingen, Germany  
148 YBN
[01/07/1852 AD]
2880) Constant high voltage applied to gas-filled evacuated tubes.
London, England (presumably)  
148 YBN
[05/10/1852 AD]
3489) (Sir) Edward Frankland (CE 1825-1899), English chemist, creates the
"theory of valence", the theory that each type of atom has a fixed capacity for
combining with other atoms.

(Queenwood school) Hampshire, England  
148 YBN
[1852 AD]
3104) Practical passenger elevator.
Yonkers, NY, USA  
145 YBN
[1855 AD]
3131) Alexander Parkes (CE 1813-1890) creates parkesine plastic and sells
plastic objects.

(Elkington and Mason copper smelting plant) Pembrey, South Wales, England  
143 YBN
[03/24/1857 AD]
3999) Sound recorded mechanically by the sound vibrating a stylus that draws
onto paper.

Paris, France  
143 YBN
[12/27/1857 AD]
2873) Julius Plücker (PlYUKR) (CE 1801-1868), German mathematician and
physicist uses a magnet to move an electric arc in a evacuated tube.

(University of Bonn) Bonn, Germany  
142 YBN
[07/01/1858 AD]
3033) Charles Robert Darwin (CE 1809-1882) and Alfred Russel Wallace (CE
1823-1913) first publicly describe the theory of evolution by natural selection
(in the "Journal of the Linnaean Society").

(Linnean Society), London, England  
141 YBN
[09/23/1859 AD]
3074) Leverrier (luVerYA) (CE 1811-1877) finds that the perihelion (the point
of the orbit nearest the Sun) of Mercury advances 38 seconds of arc per

Paris, France  
141 YBN
[10/20/1859 AD]
3087) Kirchhoff understands that the spectra of light can be used to determine
the atomic composition of a substance.

(University of Heidelberg), Heidelberg, Germany  
141 YBN
[11/22/1859 AD]
3035) Charles Robert Darwin (CE 1809-1882), English naturalist, publishes "On
the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of
Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life".

There are two major parts to the theory of evolution by natural selection. The
first is natural selection, in which those bodies that survive are more well
adapted to their environment, and the second is the descent from a common
ancestor. This theory of descent from a common ancestor, Darwin calls
"descent", will only be called "evolution" by Darwin in the last 1872 edition
of the "Origin of Species".

London, England (presumably)  
141 YBN
[1859 AD]
3373) Lenoir (lunWoR) (CE 1822-1900) invents the first successful
(direct-acting) gas combustion engine.

?, France  
140 YBN
[04/16/1860 AD]
3088) Robert Bunsen (CE 1811-1899) identifies cesium, the first element to be
discovered spectroscopically.

(University of Heidelberg), Heidelberg, Germany  
140 YBN
[1860 AD]
4545) Secret: artificial muscles - molecule mimics muscles in contracting under
electric potential.

140 YBN
[1860 AD]
4546) Secret: Microphone less than 1 micrometer in size. This microphone
transmitter uses light particles to transmit sounds to distant receivers.

139 YBN
[02/25/1861 AD]
3089) Robert Bunsen (CE 1811-1899) identifies rubidium from its spectrum.
(University of Heidelberg), Heidelberg, Germany  
139 YBN
[10/26/1861 AD]
3997) Microphone, speaker, and telephone. Sound converted to electricity and
back to sound again.
Sound can be sent farther as electric current in a wire than
mechanically in air and travels silently.

(built in workshop behind Reis's house and cabinet in Garnier's Institute,
Friedrichsdorf, demonstrated before Physical Society) Frankfort, Germany  
139 YBN
[1861 AD]
3320) Johann Joseph Loschmidt (lOsmiT) (CE 1821-1895) understands and draws
double and triple chemical bonds.

(Vienna RealSchul) Vienna, (now:) Germany  
139 YBN
[1861 AD]
3324) Loschmidt (lOsmiT) (CE 1821-1895) estimates the size of a molecule to be
1 nm.

(Vienna RealSchul) Vienna, (now:) Germany  
139 YBN
[1861 AD]
3645) First Color image projected.
(King's College, exhibit at the Royal Institution) London, England  
139 YBN
[1861 AD]
3672) Thallium identified from emission lines.
(private lab) London, England (presumably)  
139 YBN
[1861 AD]
4547) Secret: Two leg robots walk using artificial muscles.

138 YBN
[11/04/1862 AD]
3219) The machine gun.
Indianapolis, Indiana (presumably)  
138 YBN
[1862 AD]
3375) (Jean-Joseph-) Étienne Lenoir builds the first gas (direct-acting)
combustion powered carriage (car).

Paris, France (presumably)  
137 YBN
[02/18/1863 AD]
3427) Humans match spectral lines from elements to those from stars (other than
the Sun).

(Tulse Hill)London, England  
137 YBN
[1863 AD]
3487) Indium is discovered using spectroscopic analysis.
(Freiberg University) Freiberg, Saxony, Germany  
136 YBN
[09/08/1864 AD]
3428) Nebulae (of exploded stars) (exo-nebulae) examined, and shown to be
composed of gas from spectral analysis.

(Tulse Hill)London, England  
135 YBN
[01/11/1865 AD]
3429) Nebulae (of newly formed stars) (endo-nebulae) examined and shown to be
composed of gas from spectral analysis.

(Tulse Hill)London, England  
135 YBN
[1865 AD]
3403) Law of genetic inheritance (1:2:1 ratio of inheritance of a trait).
(Natural Science Society) Brünn, Austria (now: Brno, the Czech Republic)  
135 YBN
[1865 AD]
4548) Secret: Laser invented. Perhaps this is a CO2 laser. These devices are
instantly recognized as dangerous and useful weapons, being much faster than a
metal projectile gun, and can be developed to be much smaller than a projectile
gun. In addition, the location of the weapon is difficult to determine. The
laser probably quickly is strong enough to cut through flesh, and as is public
now, can cut through even metal. Like microphones, cameras, neuron readers and
writers, these laser devices will be reduced to micrometer size, and then
nanometer size, and secretly distributed by the millions throughout the planet

134 YBN
[1866 AD]
3695) Dynamite.
Paris, France (guess)  
132 YBN
[04/23/1868 AD]
3435) (Sir) William Huggins (CE 1824-1910) calculates the (radial) velocity of
a nebula and the star Sirius relative to the Earth using the Doppler shift of
spectral lines.

Huggins measures that Sirius is moving away from the Sun with a velocity of
29.4 miles per second.

(Tulse Hill)London, England  
132 YBN
[11/23/1868 AD]
3648) First permanent color photograph.
?, France  
131 YBN
[03/06/1869 AD]
3703) Periodic table of elements.
(University of St. Petersburg) St. Petersburg, Russia  
130 YBN
[1870 AD]
4701) Secret: Electric motor nanometer in size.
London, England (guess)  
129 YBN
[09/08/1871 AD]
3113) Gelatin dry plate photography.
Woolston, Southhampton, England  
128 YBN
[01/01/1872 AD]
1249) The reaper-binder, or binder is invented by Charles Withington. The
binder is a farm implement that improves upon the reaper. In addition to
cutting the small-grain crop, the binder also ties the stems into small
bundles, or sheaves. These sheaves are then 'shocked' into conical stooks,
resembling small tipis, to allow the grain to dry for several days before being

127 YBN
[02/12/1873 AD]
3336) Selenium found to convert light into electricity (photoelectric effect).
Valentia, Ireland  
126 YBN
[1874 AD]
3780) Gallium identified by spectroscopy.
(home lab) Cognac, France (presumably)  
125 YBN
[08/28/1875 AD]
5575) Earliest known "direct neuron reading" (the electricity in nerve cells
measured)(verify) and the earliest published recording of sensory evoked
electric potentials measured on the brain.

Liverpool, England  
124 YBN
[1876 AD]
3819) First practical refrigerator.
(Technische Hochschule) Munich, Germany  
123 YBN
[12/24/1877 AD]
4002) Sound recording played back out loud (made audible).
(private lab) Menlo Park, New Jersey, USA  
122 YBN
[1878 AD]
3188) Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac (morEnYoK) (CE 1817-1894), Swiss
chemist, identifies the rare earth element yterrbium.

(University of Geneva) Geneva, Switzerland  
122 YBN
[1878 AD]
3189) Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac (morEnYoK) (CE 1817-1894), Swiss
chemist, and P.-É. Lecoq de Boisbaudran identify the element gadolinium.

(University of Geneva) Geneva, Switzerland  
122 YBN
[1878 AD]
3576) Practical electric light bulb.
Newcastle, England (presumably)  
122 YBN
[1878 AD]
3790) Synthetic fabric. The first synthetic fabric to come into common use,
synthetic silk (rayon).

121 YBN
[03/24/1879 AD]
3797) Element scandium identified spectroscopically.
(University of Uppsala) Uppsala, Sweden.  
121 YBN
[1879 AD]
3782) Samarium identified by spectroscopy.
(home lab) Cognac, France (presumably)  
121 YBN
[1879 AD]
3796) Elements thulium and holmium identified using spectroscopy.
(University of Uppsala) Uppsala, Sweden.  
120 YBN
[06/03/1880 AD]
4038) Sound sent and received using photons.
(top of Franklin School) Washington, D. C., USA  
120 YBN
[1880 AD]
4348) Piezoelectricity.
(Sorbonne) Paris, France  
120 YBN
[1880 AD]
4549) Secret: Camera trasmitter 1 micrometer in size. "Microcamera" transmitter
developed but kept secret. This device uses light particles to transmit images
to distant receivers.

120 YBN
[1880 AD]
4550) Secret: Neuron reading transmitter is less than 1 micrometer in size.
"Micro-neuronreader" or perhaps "micro-thought-camera" transmitter developed
but kept secret. This device uses light particles to transmit thought-images
and thought-sounds to distant receivers.

120 YBN
[1880 AD]
4551) Secret: Neuron writer micrometer in size. "Micro-neuron-writer" or
perhaps "Micro-thought-writer" devices developed but kept secret. This device
uses x particles (xray) to remotely write to neurons (make neurons fire) using
very precise directional movement.

120 YBN
[1880 AD]
4552) Secret: Laser is micrometer in size.

120 YBN
[1880 AD]
5839) Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen (ruNTGeN) (rNTGeN) (CE 1845-1923), German
physicist measures the physical contraction of rubber under electric potential.
This is an early form of artificial muscle.

Artificial muscles that are the equivalent to the muscles of living objects are
currently still unknown publicly and wait for the future.

(University of Giessen) Giessen, Germany  
119 YBN
[01/05/1881 AD]
3608) Photographic images sent electronically and printed.
London, England (presumably)  
119 YBN
[1881 AD]
4157) Albert Abraham Michelson (mIKuLSuN) or (mIKLSuN) (CE 1852-1931),
German-US physicist designs an interferometer ("interferential refractometer")
and uses it to find that a beam of light, split into 2 directions in a 90
degree angle, and reflected back onto each other do not interfere with each
other as would be expected if light is a wave in an ether medium, therefore
casting doubt on the theory of an aether and the wave-theory of light and
opening the way for a re-examination of the light as a particle theory.

(University of Berlin) Berlin, Germany  
117 YBN
[1883 AD]
3578) Plastic thread.
Newcastle, England (presumably)  
117 YBN
[1883 AD]
4245) Alternating current motor (Induction motor).
Strasbourg, France  
115 YBN
[05/23/1885 AD]
4017) First invisible particle communication. First radio communication.
Sending and receiving of a message using light particles (by wireless, radio,
electro-static induction).

(private lab) Menlo Park, New Jersey, USA  
115 YBN
[1885 AD]
4329) Elements Praseodymium (PrAZEODiMEuM) and Neodymium (nEODiMEuM)

(University of Vienna) Vienna  
114 YBN
[06/26/1886 AD]
4139) Fluorine (gas) isolated.
(École Supérieure de Pharmacie) Paris, France  
114 YBN
[1886 AD]
3783) Dysprosium identified by spectroscopy.
(home lab) Cognac, France (presumably)  
114 YBN
[1886 AD]
3786) Germanium identified and isolated.
(Freiberg School of Mining) Freiberg, Germany  
113 YBN
[03/04/1887 AD]
3713) Four wheel automobile propelled by a gasoline combustion engine.
(factory) Stuttgart, Germany  
113 YBN
[03/??/1887 AD]
4285) Electrical resonance (allows specific ranges of frequencies of light
particle beams to be filtered).

(University of Karlsruhe) Karlsruhe, Germany  
113 YBN
[1887 AD]
4369) Electricity of heart beat measured and recorded.

Augustus Desire Waller (CE 1856-1922) measures the electric potentials of the
heart muscle, finds them to coincide with each heart muscle contraction, and
publishes the first electrocardiograph images.

(St. Mary's Hospital) London, England  
112 YBN
[12/13/1888 AD]
4291) Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (CE 1857-1894), German physicist, shows that
electric waves (also known as "electric radiation" and "radio") can be cast a
shadow (have rectilinear direction), can be polarized (using a large frame with
copper wires stretched across), and refracted (using a 1.5 meter tall prism
made of hard pitch). Hertz focuses the electric waves using 2 metal parabolic
mirrors (radio telescope). Hertz describes the electrically produced rays as
"light of very great wave-length".

(Is this the first radio telescope?)

(University of Karlsruhe) Karlsruhe, Germany  
111 YBN
[02/16/1889 AD]
211) Electricity used to restart a heart beating.
(University of Aberdeen) Aberdeen, Scotland  
111 YBN
[03/12/1889 AD]
6255) Automatic telephone exchange.
Kansas City, Missouri, USA  
111 YBN
[06/21/1889 AD]
4021) Motion picture camera and projector. Moving images captured and stored on
plastic film and projected onto a screen.

(Piccadilly) London, England  
108 YBN
[1892 AD]
3823) Double-wall vacuum container.
(Royal Institution) London, England (presumably)  
105 YBN
[01/31/1895 AD]
3842) Element Argon and the series of inert gases is identified.
(Own Laboratory) Terling, England  
105 YBN
[03/26/1895 AD]
4141) Helium identified on earth.
(University College) London, England  
105 YBN
[11/05/1895 AD]
3936) Effects of high frequency (xray) photon beams observed.
(University of Würzburg) Würzburg, Germany  
104 YBN
[03/02/1896 AD]
4151) Invisible rays (radioactivity) detected from a uranium salt.
(École Polytechnique) Paris, France  
104 YBN
[05/06/1896 AD]
3717) Motorized, heavier-than-air plane achieves sustained flight.
Potomac River, Washington DC, USA  
103 YBN
[04/30/1897 AD]
4260) Humans determine that electricity is made of particles (the electron).
This is the first particle known to be smaller than an atom.

(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England  
103 YBN
[1897 AD]
4088) Electric display.
(Physikal Institute) Strassburg, France  
103 YBN
[1897 AD]
4093) Radio frequency light shown to exhibit the phenomena of interference,
reflection, refraction and double refraction, diffraction, polarization and
absorption. However, with the view that light is a particle, all these
phenomena can all be reduced to reflection and absorption. These experiments
using 26mm interval light particles refracted to the focus of a lens are strong
evidence that light beams have no amplitude but move in a straight line.

(Institute of Physics, University of Bologna) Bologna, Italy  
102 YBN
[05/10/1898 AD]
3824) Hydrogen liquefied.
(Royal Institution) London, England (presumably)  
102 YBN
[06/03/1898 AD]
4142) The inert gas Krypton identified and isolated.
(University College) London, England  
102 YBN
[06/13/1898 AD]
4143) The inert gas Neon identified and isolated.
(University College) London, England  
102 YBN
[07/18/1898 AD]
4353) Polonium.
(École de Physique et Chimie Sorbonne) Paris, France  
102 YBN
[07/18/1898 AD]
4354) Radium.
(École de Physique et Chimie Sorbonne) Paris, France  
102 YBN
[09/08/1898 AD]
4144) The inert gas Xenon identified and isolated.
(University College) London, England  
102 YBN
[1898 AD]
4698) Magnetic writing and reading of data. Sound recorded and played back

(Copenhagen Telephone Company) Copenhagen, Denmark  
101 YBN
[1899 AD]
3825) Hydrogen solidified.
(Royal Institution) London, England (presumably)  
101 YBN
[1899 AD]
4836) Actinium identified.
(Sorbonne) Paris, France  
99 YBN
[02/14/1901 AD]
6342) Guinea pigs killed using x-rays.
Boston, Massachusetts, USA  
99 YBN
[1901 AD]
4124) Europium identified and isolated.
(personal lab) Paris, France  
98 YBN
[1902 AD]
3609) Electronic sending and printing (copying) of a photograph to another

München, Germany  
97 YBN
[03/23/1903 AD]
4493) Airplane. US inventors and brothers, Wilbur Wright (CE 1867-1912) and
Orville Wright (CE 1871-1948) build and fly the first successful powered,
sustained, and controlled airplane.

Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina, USA  
96 YBN
[1904 AD]
5099) Radar: Radio light used to determine location of distant objects.
Düsselsorf, Germany (presumably)  
94 YBN
[12/21/1906 AD]
4788) Electric switch and vacuum tube amplifier.
(De Forest Radio Telephone Company) New York City, New York, USA  
93 YBN
[11/13/1907 AD]
354) Helicopter. Helicopter achieves free flight while carrying a passenger.
93 YBN
[1907 AD]
4764) Element Lutetium.
(Sorbonne) Paris, France  
92 YBN
[06/06/1908 AD]
3616) Electronic half-tone (photographic) image transmitted and received using
an invisible frequency of light particles (wireless radio).

London, England  
92 YBN
[06/27/1908 AD]
4190) Helium liquefied.
(Leiden University) Leiden, Netherlands  
91 YBN
[09/??/1909 AD]
4729) Earliest evidence that remote neuron reading and writing devices are
microscopic in size. French physicist Jean Perrin uses the word "dust" in the
same paragraph that the word "thought" is used three times.

(École Normale, University of Paris) Paris, France  
91 YBN
[1909 AD]
4899) Wireless telephone. (Although clearly this invention must date back to at
least the 1800s and probably long before, but like neuron reading and writing
was kept from the public for a shockingly long time.)

(Marconi Company) London, England (verify)  
89 YBN
[06/??/1911 AD]
3944) Earliest known explicit public description of a machine that records the
sounds of thought from a brain, and of a machine that writes sounds back to the
brain which are heard in thought.

New York City, NY   
89 YBN
[1911 AD]
4908) Isotopes defined (an element with different atomic mass, but the same
position on the periodic table).

(University of Glasgow) Glasgow, Scotland  
88 YBN
[05/04/1912 AD]
4939) X-ray refection ("diffraction") reveals crystal atomic structure.
(University of Munich) Munich, Germany  
88 YBN
[11/11/1912 AD]
4404) Diffraction explained as particle reflection. The dispersion of light by
a grating or prism into a spectrum of increasing frequencies is explained as
particles of the same spacing as the grating groove at some angle of incidence,
all reflecting in the same direction.

(Cavindish Laboratory, Cambridge University) Cambridge, England  
87 YBN
[10/20/1913 AD]
4863) Spiral nebulae (galaxies) thought to have very high velocity relative to

(Percival Lowell's observatory) Flagstaff, Arizona, USA  
86 YBN
[07/28/1914 AD]
4792) Sound recorded and played back with images on plastic film.
Berlin, Germany (verify)  
86 YBN
[1914 AD]
4977) Spiral "nebulae" recognized to be other galaxies.
(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England   
83 YBN
[1917 AD]
4761) Ultrasound produced by piezoelectricity and used to determine location of
objects (sonar).

(Collège de France) Paris, France (presumably)  
82 YBN
[04/??/1918 AD]
5008) The Sun is determined to be in the outer part of our galaxy.
(Mount Wilson Solar Observatory) Mount Wilson, California, USA  
82 YBN
[06/21/1918 AD]
6199) Electronic read and write memory.
(City and Guilds Technical College) London, UK  
81 YBN
[04/??/1919 AD]
4750) Atomic transmutation. Humans change atoms of nitrogen into atoms of
oxygen (transmutation) by colliding accelerated alpha particles with nitrogen

(University of Manchester) Manchester, England  
80 YBN
[1920 AD]
4553) Secret: Microphone transmitter is nanometer in size. "Nanophone"
transmitter developed but kept secret. This device uses light particles to
transmit sounds to distant receivers.

80 YBN
[1920 AD]
4554) Secret: Camera transmitter is nanometer in size. "Nanocamera" developed
but kept secret. This device uses light particle to transmit images to distant

80 YBN
[1920 AD]
4555) Secret: Neuron reader is nanometer in size. "Nano-thought-cam"
("nano-thought-reader", "Nano-neuron-reader") transmitter developed but kept
secret. This device uses light particles to transmit thought-images and
thought-sounds to distant receivers. It may be that sound, image and neuron
reading and writing may all be consolodated into a single device. These device
may have tiny light particle powered engines, and so may float around into a
room, and be precisely positioned using tiny nanometer size engines.

80 YBN
[1920 AD]
4556) Secret: Nanometer sized neuron writing devices developed but kept secret.
This device uses x particles (xray) to remotely write to neurons (make neurons
fire) using very precise directional movement.

80 YBN
[1920 AD]
4557) Secret: Laser is nanometer in size.

77 YBN
[01/02/1923 AD]
5003) Element Hafnium.
(University of Copenhagen) Copenhagen, Denmark  
77 YBN
[06/14/1923 AD]
3613) Electronic (photographic) moving (silhouette) images transmitted and
received using photons (wireless radio).

Washington, D.C., USA.   
77 YBN
[12/29/1923 AD]
5058) Electric camera and image display.
(for Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Pittsberg, PA, USA) Haddenfield, New
Jersey, USA  
75 YBN
[01/01/1925 AD]
5060) Spiral nebulae proven to be other galaxies containing stars and to be
very far away.

(Mount Wilson) Mount Wilson, California, USA  
75 YBN
[07/13/1925 AD]
5059) Color image electronic scanning camera.
(Westinghouse Electric Corporation)   
75 YBN
[10/22/1925 AD]
5292) Non-vacuum tube electric switch and amplifier (transistor). First public
millimeter size electric switch.

Brooklyn, New York City, New York, USA  
74 YBN
[06/26/1926 AD]
5131) Element Rhenium isolated.
(University of Berlin) Berlin, Germany  
70 YBN
[02/??/1930 AD]
5009) Milky Way Galaxy recognized as one of many galaxies.
(Harvard College Observatory) Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA  
69 YBN
[09/10/1931 AD]
5446) Electron microscope.
(Technischen Hochschule/Technical University) Berlin, Germany  
68 YBN
[02/17/1932 AD]
5086) Neutron identified.
(Cavendish Lab University of Cambridge) Cambridge, England  
66 YBN
[03/17/1934 AD]
4755) Atomic fusion. Helium atom made from two hydrogen atoms.
(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England   
66 YBN
[05/??/1934 AD]
5275) Enrico Fermi (FARmE) (CE 1901-1954), Italian-US physicist bombards
uranium with neutrons producing what will be shown to be atomic fission, and
probably creating Neptunium and Plutnium.

(University of Rome) Rome, Italy  
66 YBN
[06/28/1934 AD]
5205) Sustained neutron driven atomic chain reaction understood.
(Claremont Haynes & Co) London, England  
64 YBN
[01/??/1936 AD]
6319) First published photos of shifted calcium absorption lines.
(Mount Wilson) Mount Wilson, California, USA  
63 YBN
[05/14/1937 AD]
5548) Elements 93, 94, 95, and 96 identified from neutron uranium collision.
(Kaiser-Wilhelm-Instute fur Chemie in Berlin-Dahlem) Berlin, Germany  
63 YBN
[05/22/1937 AD]
5515) Image of individual atoms. Atoms confirmed to be about 0.1 nm in size.
(Siemens and Halske) Berlin, Germany  
63 YBN
[06/30/1937 AD]
5364) Element technetium.
(Royal University) Polermo, Italy  
62 YBN
[06/22/1938 AD]
5448) The first image of a virus (150nm).
(Berliner Medizinischen Gesellschaft/Berlin Medical Society) Berlin,
61 YBN
[01/16/1939 AD]
4925) Atomic fission recognized.
(Academy of Sciences) Stockholm, Sweden (Meitner), (University of Copenhagen),
Copenhagen, Denmark (Frisch)  
61 YBN
[04/30/1939 AD]
5835) Bipedal robot.
(Westinghouse Electric Corporation) Mansfield, Ohio, USA  
60 YBN
[07/16/1940 AD]
5365) Element astatine.
(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
58 YBN
[11/04/1942 AD]
5289) Planet of a different star detected.
(Sproul Observatory, Swartmore University), Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, USA  
58 YBN
[12/02/1942 AD]
5277) Self-sustained uranium fission reaction.
(University of Chicago) Chicago, Illinois, USA  
57 YBN
[11/01/1943 AD]
4916) DNA molecule recognized as molecule responsible for physical structural
changes and the inheritance of those structural changes for some bacteria.

(Rockefeller Institute, now called Rockefeller University) New York City, New
York, USA  
55 YBN
[07/16/1945 AD]
5311) First atomic fission bomb exploded.
(Alamogordo Test Range) Jornada del Muerto (Journey of Death) desert, New
Mexico, USA  
55 YBN
[10/08/1945 AD]
6272) Microwave oven.
(Raytheon Manufacturing Company) Newton, Massachusetts, USA  
54 YBN
[09/17/1946 AD]
5742) Sexual reproduction (conjugation) found in a bacteria (E. Coli).
(Yale University) New Haven, Connecticut, USA  
53 YBN
[06/26/1947 AD]
5550) Elements 73 (tantalum) through 83 (bismuth) fissioned with deuterons,
helium ions or neutrons.

(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
50 YBN
[01/23/1950 AD]
5551) Element 97 (berkelium) identified.
(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
50 YBN
[03/15/1950 AD]
5552) Element 98 (californium) identified.
(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
50 YBN
[03/15/1950 AD]
5553) Fission of medium weight elements (copper, bromine, silver, and tin).
(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
50 YBN
[09/11/1950 AD]
5555) Atomic fusion of large atoms.
(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
48 YBN
[04/02/1952 AD]
5743) Gender found in a bacteria (E. Coli).
(University of Wisconsin) Madison, Wisconsin, USA and (Istituto Sicroterapico
Milanese) Milan, Italy  
47 YBN
[04/02/1953 AD]
5660) Double helix structure of DNA understood.
(Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge) Cambridge, England  
46 YBN
[04/28/1954 AD]
5265) Protein synthesized.
(Cornell University Medical College) New York City, New York, USA  
46 YBN
[05/05/1954 AD]
5649) The maser.
(Columbia University) New York City, New York, USA  
45 YBN
[04/18/1955 AD]
5558) Element 101 Mendelevium identified.
(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
45 YBN
[06/20/1955 AD]
5557) Elements 99 "einsteinium" and 100 "fermium" identified.
(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
45 YBN
[10/24/1955 AD]
5366) Antiproton identified.
(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
43 YBN
[10/04/1957 AD]
5486) The first human-made satellite, Sputnik 1.
(Baikonur Cosmodrome at Tyuratam, 370 km southwest of the small town of
Baikonur) Kazakhstan (, Soviet Union)  
42 YBN
[06/06/1958 AD]
5559) Element 102 (Nobelium) identified.
(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
42 YBN
[06/06/1958 AD]
5561) Element 106 (Seaborgium) identified.
(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
42 YBN
[10/08/1958 AD]
195) First fully internal pacemaker.
(Elema-Schnander) Sweden  
41 YBN
[09/14/1959 AD]
5597) A ship from Earth, the Soviet "Luna 2", impacts the moon of Earth.
(Baikonur Cosmodrome) Tyuratam, Kazakhstan (was Soviet Union)  
41 YBN
[11/05/1959 AD]
191) A device inside the body controlled remotely. An artificial heart
pacemaker is remotely controlled with radio.

(Yale University School of Medicine) New Haven, New Jersey, USA  
40 YBN
[04/22/1960 AD]
5768) The laser.
(Hughes Research Laboratories) Malibu, California  
40 YBN
[12/28/1960 AD]
5705) Messenger RNA and the system that regulates protein synthesis in the cell
(regulatory genes, operons).

(Pasteur Institute) Paris, France  
39 YBN
[04/12/1961 AD]
5601) The first human to orbit the Earth.
Saratovskaya oblast, Russia (was U.S.S.R.)  
39 YBN
[04/13/1961 AD]
5560) Element 103, Lawrencium identified.
(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
39 YBN
[12/30/1961 AD]
5663) That DNA nucleotides code for amino acids in proteins is understood.
(Cavendish Lab University of Cambridge) Cambridge, England  
38 YBN
[10/26/1962 AD]
6201) Laser writing and reading of data.
(Winston Research Corporation) Los Angeles, California, USA  
36 YBN
[10/08/1964 AD]
5569) Element 104 identified ("Rutherfordium").
(Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions) Moscow,
(U.S.S.R. now) Russia  
36 YBN
[1964 AD]
3980) Liquid Crystal Display.
RCA Labs, Princeton, New Jersey, USA  
35 YBN
[07/14/1965 AD]
5615) The first ship from Earth to reach planet Mars, and to return images of
the surface, Mariner 4.

Planet Mars  
34 YBN
[03/01/1966 AD]
5613) A ship from Earth impacts Venus, the Soviet "Venera 3".
Planet Venus  
34 YBN
[04/04/1966 AD]
5599) First ship of earth to orbit a body beyond the earth, Luna 10 orbits the

(Baikonur Cosmodrome) Tyuratam, Kazakhstan (was Soviet Union)  
33 YBN
[04/03/1967 AD]
6202) Laser writing to a disk.

(verify laser reading)

(Gauss Electrophysics, Inc), Santa Monica, California, USA  
32 YBN
[02/09/1968 AD]
5739) Pulsars identified.
(Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge) Cambridge, England  
31 YBN
[07/21/1969 AD]
655) Humans land and walk on the surface of the moon of Earth, "Apollo 11".
Moon of Earth  
31 YBN
[1969 AD]
5851) The Internet (people use computers to communicate over the telephone wire

(University of California at Los Angeles) Los Angeles, California, USA and
(Stanford Research Institute) Stanford, California, USA and (University of
California Santa Barbara) Santa Barbara, California, USA, and (University of
Utah) Salt Lake City, Utah, USA  
30 YBN
[01/29/1970 AD]
5836) Digital electric camera.
(Bell Telephone Laboratories) Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA  
30 YBN
[06/16/1970 AD]
5716) Artificial gene synthesized.
(University of Wisconsin) Madison, Wisconsin, USA  
29 YBN
[11/14/1971 AD]
5618) Ship from Earth orbits another planet (Mars).
Planet Mars  
29 YBN
[11/27/1971 AD]
5619) Ship impacts Mars (Soviet "Mars 2").
Planet Mars  
29 YBN
[12/02/1971 AD]
5620) The first ship from Earth to soft land on planet Mars and return data:
the Soviet "Mars 3".

Planet Mars  
28 YBN
[07/31/1972 AD]
5751) Proteins are synthesized by adding DNA to bacteria.
(Stanford University Medical Center) Stanford, California, USA  
27 YBN
[07/18/1973 AD]
5752) Humans can transfer recombined segments of DNA into bacteria DNA.
(Stanford University School of Medicine) Stanford, California, USA and
(University of California) San Francisco, California, USA  
27 YBN
[12/03/1973 AD]
5622) Ship from earth (U.S. "Pioneer 10") passes and sends the first close-up
images of planet Jupiter.

Planet Jupiter  
26 YBN
[1974 AD]
5846) Personal computer.
(Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems) Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
25 YBN
[10/20/1975 AD]
5623) Ship orbits, lands on, and transmits images from the surface of Venus
(Soviet "Venera 9").

Planet Venus  
25 YBN
[1975 AD]
6371) External object moved by thought.
24 YBN
[07/20/1976 AD]
5624) First photos and soil samples from the surface of Mars (Viking 1 lander).
Planet Mars  
24 YBN
[11/30/1976 AD]
5695) Complete DNA sequence of virus determined.
(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England  
23 YBN
[1977 AD]
6312) Self-driving car.
(Tsukuba Mechanical Engineering Lab) Japan  
21 YBN
[01/15/1979 AD]
6203) Laser writing and reading of data using reflected laser light and holes
burned into metal layer of plastic disk (the process used to make CDs, DVDs,
Blu-ray disks, etc).

Eindhoven, Netherlands  
21 YBN
[09/01/1979 AD]
388) Ship from Earth, the U.S. "Pioneer 11", passes and sends close images of
planet Saturn.

Planet Saturn  
18 YBN
[04/30/1982 AD]
6188) Individual atoms and molecules of many kinds imagable.
(IBM Zurich Research Laboratory) Ruschlikon, Zurich, Switzerland  
16 YBN
[03/10/1984 AD]
5814) Multicellular organism "cloned"; an embryo is split into separate cells,
each nucleus is then put into ova with nucleus removed from a different animal
and reimplanted to produce genetically identical animals (sheep).

(AFRC Institute of Animal Physiology) Cambridge, UK  
16 YBN
[08/31/1984 AD]
6190) DNA molecule imaged at atomic scale using Scanning Tunneling Microscope.
(IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, Switzerland, presented in) Prague,
14 YBN
[01/24/1986 AD]
5628) Ship (U.S. "Voyager 2") reaches Uranus, sends images of Uranus, its
moons, and rings.

Voyager 2 transmits the first close images of planet Uranus, its moons and

Planet Uranus  
12 YBN
[12/14/1988 AD]
6194) Microscopic motor. This is an electromagnetic motor.
(University of California at Berkeley), Berkeley, California, USA  
11 YBN
[01/18/1989 AD]
6205) RNA image at atomic scale.
(University of Minnesota) Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA  
11 YBN
[08/25/1989 AD]
5629) Ship reaches Neptune (U.S. "Voyager 2"), and transmits the first close
images of Neptune, its moons and rings.

Planet Neptune  
10 YBN
[01/17/1990 AD]
6191) The Scanning Tunneling Microscope was patented by Binnig and Rohrer in
1980. In 1982 Binnig and team publish the first images of individual atoms. In
this report Eigler and Schweizer use an STM at low temperatures to move
individual atoms. The letters "IBM" are formed. Eigler and Schweizer publish
this in a 1990 letter in "Nature" titled "Positioning single atoms with a
scanning tunnelling microscope". As an abstract they write:
"SINCE its invention in
the early 1980s by Binnig and Rohrer1,2, the scanning tunnelling microscope
(STM) has provided images of surfaces and adsorbed atoms and molecules with
unprecedented resolution. The STM has also been used to modify surfaces, for
example by locally pinning molecules to a surface3 and by transfer of an atom
from the STM tip to the surface4. Here we report the use of the STM at low
temperatures (4 K) to position individual xenon atoms on a single-crystal
nickel surface with atomic pre-cision. This capacity has allowed us to
fabricate rudimentary structures of our own design, atom by atom. The processes
we describe are in principle applicable to molecules also. In view of the
device-like characteristics reported for single atoms on surfaces5,6, the
possibilities for perhaps the ultimate in device miniaturization are evident.".

(IBM Research Division, Almaden Research Center) San Jose, California,
10 YBN
[12/20/1990 AD]
6346) Transistor measures neuron signals.
( Abteilung Biophysik der Universitat Ulm) Ulm, Germany  
[10/29/1991 AD]
5636) Ship (Galileo) flies by an asteroid (Gaspra), and captures image of a
moon of an asteroid (Ida).

Asteroid Gaspra (Ida encounter must occur later)  
[12/07/1995 AD]
396) Ship (Galileo) orbits Jupiter.
[11/25/1996 AD]
186) Animal cloned from adult somatic cell. The nucleus of a sheep ovum is
replaced with a mammary cell from an adult sheep and reimplanted to develop
into an identical sheep as the mammary cell donor.

[06/28/2001 AD]
6192) Microscopic radio chip (RFID). Measuring 400x400 µm, these are the
smallest known radio frequency identification tags on Earth.

In 2003, Hitachi reduces the size to 50µm by 50µm (0.002x0.002in), which to
the naked eye look like dots of powder.

(Hitachi) Japan  
[02/16/2002 AD]
6332) Remote control device emits drugs inside a human body.
(CCBR-SYNARC) Denmark  
[04/04/2003 AD]
6195) Nanometer scale motor.
(University of California at Berkeley), Berkeley, California, USA  
[06/17/2004 AD]
6204) Camera made of fabric (optoelectronic fibres).
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA  
[07/01/2004 AD]
5641) The U.S. "Cassini" is the first ship to orbit the planet Saturn.
Planet Saturn  
[11/29/2004 AD]
5832) Stem cells are used to repair damaged nerves, allowing a paralyzed human
to walk.

(Chosun University) Kwangju, South Korea  
[01/14/2005 AD]
5642) Ship lands on a moon of Saturn (Titan) (European Space Agency (E.S.A.)
"Huygens" Titan probe).

Planet Saturn, moon Titan  
[12/10/2008 AD]
3886) Remote neuron reading using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Image of what
eyes are seeing is captured remotely and different syllables of thought-audio
distinguished from each other remotely.

Presuming remote neuron reading was actually achieved in the year 1310, this
may be 698 years after humans first saw eyes.

Because an MRI machine is very large, the idea of casually walking around
seeing an image of what a brain is looking at is not yet practical. To vastly
reduce the scale of this remote neuron reading process may require nanometer
sized transmitters and receivers that enter the body and function as human-made
cellular organelles sending the state of a neuron and remotely receiving an
instruction to make the neuron fire.

(Determine if there was an earlier remote neuron reading. State the first
direct neuron reading.)

(Collaboration between researchers at two Japanese Universities, two research
Institutes, and ATR Computational Neuroscience Laboratories) Kyoto, Japan  
[10/12/2009 AD]
6207) Laser is microscopic in two dimensions.
(Institute for Quantum Electronics) Zurich, Switzerland  
11 YAN
[05/02/2011 AD]
6196) Camera is microscopic in two-dimensions.
(Medigus Ltd. and Tower Semiconductor Ltd) Omer, Israel  
11 YAN
[05/08/2011 AD]
6286) Some effects of aging delayed in mice by destroying senescent cells,
cells that no longer grow or divide. The animals did not live longer, but they
gained more healthy months.

Baker and team use of a biomarker for senescence to design a novel transgene
for inducible elimination of the biomarker-positive senescent cells upon
administration of a drug.

(Mayo Clinic College of Medicine) Rochester, Minnesota, USA  
15 YAN
[2015 AD]
276) Sound a brain hears is recorded directly from the electricity of the nerve
cells caused by the sound (direct neuron reading, "hearing ears").

15 YAN
[2015 AD]
332) Sound a brain hears is recorded remotely from the light emitted by nerve
cells caused by the sound (remote neuron reading, "hearing ears"). These
recorded sounds are also played out loud for all to hear.

15 YAN
[2015 AD]
6193) Microscopic wireless camera and microphone. This camera uses particle
communication to reduce its size.

18 YAN
[2018 AD]
6208) Radio device functions as cell organelle.
20 YAN
[2020 AD]
337) Remote neuron writing using microscopic devices in neurons. Microscopic
devices enter the human body by the lung, enter the blood circulation which
connects directly to all cells, and position themselves as organelles inside
cells. External devices communicate with the intracellular devices to make the
neuron cell fire.

20 YAN
[2020 AD]
4559) Walking robots produced in mass quantity, and available for public to

20 YAN
[2020 AD]
6197) Remote controlled microscopic flying device.
25 YAN
[2025 AD]
365) Thought-images are recorded remotely using remote neuron reading and shown

25 YAN
[2025 AD]
680) Thought-audio recorded (Remote neuron reading) and played out loud
publicly. Humans start to communicate by thought-image and thought-sound only.
For this to work best tiny particle transmit and receive devices must integrate
into neurons as human-made organelles.
Presuming direct neuron reading was actually
achieved in the year 1310, this may be 800 years after humans first hear

25 YAN
[2025 AD]
6198) Remote controlled microscopic flying camera.
25 YAN
[2025 AD]
6375) Microscopic wireless laser.
30 YAN
[2030 AD]
791) Bipedal robots start replacing humans in most low-skill jobs (walking
security cameras, fast-food, fruit picking).

40 YAN
[2040 AD]
366) Artificial muscle bipedal robot, lighter and more electrically efficient,
than motor robots.

40 YAN
[2040 AD]
4562) Kissing, hugging, sleeping together, and other non-sexual forms of
pleasure for money decriminalized for humans over the age of 18.

40 YAN
[2040 AD]
4563) Marijuana decriminalized for humans over the age of 18. No humans are
arrested for owning or selling marijuana.

40 YAN
[2040 AD]
6206) Microscopic wing-flapping flying device (ornithopter).
50 YAN
[2050 AD]
790) Humans walk around with robot servants. These robots clean and cook for
their owners.

50 YAN
[2050 AD]
4564) Two leg robot with artificial muscles robot can fly like a bird by
flapping wings.

50 YAN
[2050 AD]
4566) First air highway, for flying cars established.
50 YAN
[2050 AD]
6300) Bacteria identified and destroyed by micro or nanometer scale particle
device inside an animal body. By 2100 all bacteria and even viral diseases can
be stopped by nanometer scale devices.

55 YAN
[2055 AD]
6302) Cancer cell growth stopped by microscopic devices inside an animal body.
58 YAN
[2058 AD]
6303) Cancer caused by microscopic particle device inside an animal body.
60 YAN
[2060 AD]
4567) Masturbation, genital, breast, buttock fondling for money decriminalized
for humans over the age of 18. Humans over 18 are no longer arrested for
trading manual masturbation, genital, breast or buttock fondling for money.

60 YAN
[2060 AD]
6301) Virus identified and destroyed by microscopic devices inside an animal

80 YAN
[2080 AD]
4568) Oral sex decriminalized for humans over the age of 18. No humans are
arrested for receiving or providing oral sex for money with no regard to gender
or either participant.

100 YAN
[2100 AD]
367) Most humans communicate only by images and sounds of thought.
100 YAN
[2100 AD]
793) Helicopter-cars form a second line of traffic above the streets.
100 YAN
[2100 AD]
794) 100 ships with humans orbit Earth.
100 YAN
[2100 AD]
4569) Walking robots can safely drive cars. Most consumer land vehicles are now
driven by walking robots.

100 YAN
[2100 AD]
4570) Cocaine decriminalized for humans over the age of 18. No humans are
arrested for buying or selling cocaine.

100 YAN
[2100 AD]
4575) Robots walk on moon of Earth and build buildings.
100 YAN
[2100 AD]
4613) All bacteria and viruses conquered. Microscopic devices can identify and
destroy all known bacteria and viruses anywhere inside or outside of the body.
End of
disease caused by bacteria and viruses when caught early enough.

120 YAN
[2120 AD]
4571) Walking robots can safely fly flying cars (helicopters). Most flying cars
are now controlled by walking robots.

120 YAN
[2120 AD]
4584) Robots walk and build buildings on Mars.
130 YAN
[2130 AD]
4572) Ship lands on an asteroid.
140 YAN
[2140 AD]
687) Large scale transmutation: Humans can convert most common atoms (Silicon,
Aluminum, Iron, and Calcium) into the much more useful atoms (Hydrogen, Oxygen,
Nitrogen). This allows many humans to live independently of Earth, on planets
and moons without water, because they can produce all the fuel, water and food
they need from the common atoms of the planet or moon.

140 YAN
[2140 AD]
4573) Humans synthesize artificial milk and cheese.

150 YAN
[2150 AD]
659) First major nation to be fully democratic, where the people vote directly
on the laws. From this will evolve a planetary and ultimately an interstellar
electronic voting system where votes are placed by thought or hand writing.

150 YAN
[2150 AD]
4574) Excess carbon removed from the air on Earth.

150 YAN
[2150 AD]
4576) Alcohol more popular than gasoline for gas engines.
150 YAN
[2150 AD]
4592) Humans land on Mars.
150 YAN
[2150 AD]
6304) Nucleic Acid changed by remote control microscopic devices.
170 YAN
[2170 AD]
4577) Humans live permanently on the moon of Earth.

180 YAN
[2180 AD]
4594) Humans live on Mars.
200 YAN
[2200 AD]
792) Robots and other machines have replaced humans in most manual labor tasks
(driving, cleaning, food planting, harvesting, preparing and serving).

In addition, robots dominate the most dangerous parts of law enforcement and
personal security.

200 YAN
[2200 AD]
795) 1000 human-filled ships orbit earth.
200 YAN
[2200 AD]
4581) Nudity in public decriminalized.
200 YAN
[2200 AD]
6305) Microscopic devices repair, regrow and reshape damaged cells.
210 YAN
[2210 AD]
4582) Representative democracy in China. All major nations representative or
fully democratic.

220 YAN
[2220 AD]
4583) Walking robots land and walk around on surface of asteroid.

240 YAN
[2240 AD]
4585) Humans land and walk on the surface of an asteroid.

250 YAN
[2250 AD]
4586) Humans live permanently on an asteroid.

250 YAN
[2250 AD]
4587) Total freedom of all information for the most developed nations on earth.
This ends arrests of humans for owning, buying or selling images that violate
national secrecy, copyright, patent, trademark, privacy, or are graphically
violent, are pornographic. This greatly helps to lower the quantity of violence
and spread of disease on earth.

250 YAN
[2250 AD]
4588) Prostitution completely decriminalized in most major nations. This
includes all forms of trading money for physical pleasure.

250 YAN
[2250 AD]
4589) Recreational drug possession decriminalized in most major nations.

250 YAN
[2250 AD]
4590) Walking robots land and walk around on the surface of planet Mercury.

250 YAN
[2250 AD]
4591) Walking robots land and walk around on the surface of a moon of Jupiter.

260 YAN
[2260 AD]
4593) Walking robots land and walk around on the surface of a moon of Saturn.

275 YAN
[2275 AD]
661) Most humans are not religious.
280 YAN
[2280 AD]
4595) All money used in the star system is electronic.

280 YAN
[2280 AD]
4596) Walking robots land and walk around on the surface of a moon of Uranus.

280 YAN
[2280 AD]
4597) Most humans simply think to each other and do not talk out loud. The
majority of humans communicate through thought images and sound. The images and
sounds are beamed directly to their brains. People view other people in windows
which appear before their eyes, squares which show the image a person is
thinking of, and other videos from the person's life appear around the image of
the person. (Show image)

280 YAN
[2280 AD]
4598) First human populated ship that orbits the Sun.
290 YAN
[2290 AD]
4599) First ships that regularly transport humans from Earth to the moon of

300 YAN
[2300 AD]
4600) First multistory building built on planet Mars.

300 YAN
[2300 AD]
4601) Walking robots land and walk around on the surface of Triton, the moon of

300 YAN
[2300 AD]
4602) Post pubescent children get the right to vote, to work, to pose nude, and
to have consensual sex.

300 YAN
[2300 AD]
4603) Sex in public decriminalized.

310 YAN
[2310 AD]
4604) Humans live in orbit of Venus.

320 YAN
[2320 AD]
4605) Walking robots land on the surface of Venus.

340 YAN
[2340 AD]
4606) Humans land on the surface of Mercury.
350 YAN
[2350 AD]
4607) Humans live permanently on Mercury.
350 YAN
[2350 AD]
4608) Humans live in orbit of Jupiter.
350 YAN
[2350 AD]
4609) Humans switch to a single time system for all places in the universe.
350 YAN
[2350 AD]
4610) The majority of humans, use a one letter equals one sound alphabet for
all human language.

400 YAN
[2400 AD]
4611) Humans land on the surface of a moon of Jupiter.
400 YAN
[2400 AD]
4612) Humans send ships with walking robots to the stars of Alpha Centauri.
420 YAN
[2420 AD]
779) The majority of humans in developed nations do not believe in any gods.

500 YAN
[2500 AD]
683) The removal and conversion of the Venus atmosphere is started.

This is the first major "removal of gas atmosphere" engineering work of humans.
Eventually the gas surrounding all planets will be removed and consumed.

After most of the gas is removed, and the surface of the planet cools down,
Oxygen and nitrogen gas will be released to create a new atmosphere.

This project removes the Carbon from the atmosphere and converts it to H2, O2.
This process may be done by thousands of surface (and/or low orbit) machines
working in parallel. There is so much gas on Venus, that this process may take
1000 years or more.

500 YAN
[2500 AD]
686) End of death by aging.
Using genetic editing, humans grow and develop to age 20,
and then hold that body shape indefinitely, dying only from physical
destruction. Humans now live for thousands of years. This causes the human
population to grow at an extremely rapid pace.

500 YAN
[2500 AD]
774) All humans in developed nations are not religious.

550 YAN
[2550 AD]
4615) Humans live under and on the surface of Venus (in supercooled

570 YAN
[2570 AD]
4616) The first asteroid purposely moved by life. Multiple ships are used to
create a mass large enough to change the motion of an asteroid using gravity.

600 YAN
[2600 AD]
4617) First asteroid moved using propulsion engine (either built into the
asteroid, or on a ship or ships connected to the asteroid by cables to pull the

650 YAN
[2650 AD]
4618) First asteroid, that has its velocity and direction completely under
human control.

650 YAN
[2650 AD]
4619) Humans create atoms from light particles. Photon fusion. The reverse of
separating atoms into light particles.

This process may involve focusing light particles to form larger particles,
like electrons, and protons, which can then be collided together to form larger

700 YAN
[2700 AD]
4620) Humans orbit Saturn.
701 YAN
[2701 AD]
4560) Humans land on a moon of Saturn.
750 YAN
[2750 AD]
4622) Ship reaches other star (Alpha Centauri). First close up pictures of
planets of a different star.

Smaller ships land on all the planets and moons of Centauri.

Robots start mining and building to prepare for the many millions of humans
that will eventually arrive.

765 YAN
[2765 AD]
6209) Living objects on planets of another star identified (bacteria made of

Alpha Centauri  
800 YAN
[2800 AD]
24) Humans consume an asteroid.
800 YAN
[2800 AD]
780) All humans in developed nations do not believe in any gods.
800 YAN
[2800 AD]
782) All humans in developed nations do not believe in any heaven or hell.

800 YAN
[2800 AD]
4623) Humans have total control over the molecular content of the air on Earth.
The quantity of O2, N2, CO2, etc is under complete control by humans.

(to do: determine when if ever the weather of Earth will be under complete

800 YAN
[2800 AD]
4624) A ship containing humans leaves for the stars of Alpha Centauri and will
arrive successfully, perhaps 400 years later. This begins the process of many
humans leaving the home star system, like so many humans before them, with the
dream of a new land of plenty, which is probably somewhat true for the other
stars. And like so many other early human settlers, the initial conditions may
be not as developed as the home they are leaving.

800 YAN
[2800 AD]
4625) Ships containing walking robots leave for Barnard's star, 6 light years
away and will arrive successfully, perhaps 350 years later.

800 YAN
[2800 AD]
4626) Asteroid held in position relative to the star and other planets. The
asteroid orbit is stopped, and the asteroid is held stationary in a fixed
position relative to the star.

800 YAN
[2800 AD]
4627) Humans orbit Uranus and land on a moon of Uranus.
800 YAN
[2800 AD]
4628) Humans change the motion of a moon. Perhaps this will be a small moon of
Jupiter, or maybe Mars. Perhaps the moon orbit will be slightly changed.
Ultimately the moons of Jupiter may be moved into orbit around the star.

850 YAN
[2850 AD]
4580) Humans change the motion of a planet. (Planet Earth). Earth may be the
first planet whose motion is purposely changed by humans. The motion of Earth
and the moon of earth are purposely changed by orbiting ships. The large
quantity of ships in orbit causes the motion of earth to be carefully monitored
and periodically changed using mass organized ship movements. By this time the
planet Earth and Moon are visibly surrounded by millions of orbiting ships.

900 YAN
[2900 AD]
29) Ship impacts the surface of Jupiter. First image of the surface of Jupiter.
Surface found to be molten liquid, and six times the diameter of Earth, making
Jupiter the second largest solid body of this star system after the Sun.

900 YAN
[2900 AD]
775) Ship from Centauri leaves for Earth carrying matter from Centauri. This
begins a long term project of selling surplus matter around Centauri to the
humans of the Earth star where consumable atoms are in great demand.

900 YAN
[2900 AD]
4629) Human anatomical changes start to become apparent as a result of living
many generations in low gravity. For humans who live their lives in low
gravity, they may start to look more like ocean organisms - most of which do
not walk on a surface but instead move themselves around in by water propulsion
- for humans this being air propulsion. Humans may also develop more genitals
and sex-related organs, and more accentuated sex organs, larger breasts,
penises and scrotums, rounder buttocks, etc. Humans may start to have both sets
of genitals, and converge to a single gender, which both gametes, like many
plants. (perhaps should push to later time.)

900 YAN
[2900 AD]
4630) Humans orbit Neptune and land on a moon of Neptune (Triton).
900 YAN
[2900 AD]
4632) Ships containing walking robots leave for the stars of Sirius, 8 light
years away and will arrive successfully, perhaps 450 years later.

950 YAN
[2950 AD]
4633) Ship impacts surface of Saturn.
1,000 YAN
[3000 AD]
4631) Jupiter atmosphere removal starts.

There may be such great fear of the unknown consequences of changing the mass
of the planets by removing their gases and cooling their surfaces that these
project may have to wait and be done first around planets of other stars first
before being done around the home star. However, this removal of the atmosphere
may be a natural result of ships "feeding" on the matter of Jupiter. Atoms of
the atmosphere are constantly used by ships orbiting Jupiter for fuel, food,
building materials, etc. This reduces the total mass of Jupiter, and will
ultimately reveal the surface features, and cool the surface of planet Jupiter.
Many humans fear unpredictable unknown physical occurances, like Jupiter
somehow exploding because of the sudden change in mass and temperature.
However, it seems unlikely that reducing the mass and temperature of Jupiter by
consuming the clouds will cause destruction of the planet. This mass is
replaced by the added orbiting ships in which humans live. The massive Venus
atmopshere processing project has already served as proof that changing the
atmosphere of a planet has little effect on the overall mass and motion of a
planet. Fears of unknown effects of the solidifying of Jupiter, for example,
causing internal instability, may not be justified because it seems unlikely
that Jupiter would fall apart if gradually cooled, but doubts will probably
always exist long into the future. Like removing the gases around Venus, this
project may take 1000 years to complete. Possibly this will not be done for a
much longer time. This is a balance between the reality of more and more mass
in the form of humans and their ships changing the motion of Jupiter, and the
feeling of security of having life safely growing around other stars. It may be
safe to presume that humans will strongly reject any absolutely unnecessary
changes to any planets or moons. I don't know for sure, but I think, it seems
inevitable that humans will start to chip away at the clouds of Jupiter, and it
will probably be difficult to stop. This slow process will become routine, and
accepted. From here, it is just a matter of this chipping away going all the
way down to the surface (and then of course, beyond into the surface). Probably
by this time there will be numerous, very detailed models. But probably they
will not be precise enough to know for sure what may happen to Jupiter as its
mass rapidly decreases. Clearly, humans will examine worst case scenarios, like
Jupiter completely exploding. In such an event, first it seems very unlikely
that life of other planets of this star would go extinct or even serious suffer
any loses. It seems clear that most of the exploded mass of Jupiter would not
collide with the other planets and moons. Clearly most of those humans around
Jupiter would be destroyed by the massive release of the compressed particles
inside Jupiter. But Jupiter might only split into a few large pieces and so
damage might be somewhat small compared to complete separation.

1,000 YAN
[3000 AD]
4634) Planet Mercury is purposely moved by life.
1,000 YAN
[3000 AD]
4635) Ship impacts surface of Uranus.
1,000 YAN
[3000 AD]
4636) Ship impacts surface of Neptune.
1,150 YAN
[3150 AD]
4638) Ship reach the second closest star, Barnard's star.
1,200 YAN
[3200 AD]
4614) Ship from Centauri reaches Earth and returns the first objects from a
different star. A regular export of matter from Centauri to Earth will continue
after this. Humans around Centauri build ships to explore other stars. Perhaps
there will be no reason to trade with humans of Earth, since humans of Earth
may not have anything to offer in trade.

1,200 YAN
[3200 AD]
4637) Humans reach a different star (Alpha Centauri), and orbit each of the
three stars of Alpha Centauri (Proxima Centauri and Alpha Centauri A and B).
Humans can now claim to be a two star system civilization. This doubles the
chances of the human species surviving and not going extinct. This brings the
humans of earth one step closer to forming a globular cluster which would
greatly increase their chance of survival long into the future. Humans will
reproduce at a regular rate around Centauri, and in addition more humans will
arrive from the star of Earth.

(Track population of humans around Proxima Cetauri.)

1,200 YAN
[3200 AD]
4639) The motion of Mercury is under complete control by orbiting ships that
move and thrust to change the motion of Mercury.

1,350 YAN
[3350 AD]
4640) Ship reaches Sirius.
1,400 YAN
[3400 AD]
4643) Motion of Mars controlled by orbiting ships.
1,500 YAN
[3500 AD]
684) Atmosphere of Venus completely removed. The unlit surface of Venus becomes
much colder. This begins the releasing of nitrogen and oxygen gases to form an
earth-like atmosphere on Venus. Ultimately the humans will completely consume
the planets, their matter being used in ships, fuel, air, food, etc.

1,600 YAN
[3600 AD]
4641) Motion of Venus controlled by orbiting ships.
1,800 YAN
[3800 AD]
681) Earth Moon population reaches maximum possible (250 trillion).
1,800 YAN
[3800 AD]
4645) Motion of Jupiter controlled by orbiting ships.
1,800 YAN
[3800 AD]
4655) Humans live on the surface of Jupiter. By consuming the gases of Jupiter,
the temperature at the surface decreases enough for some supercooled stations
to contain humans. Technology from those early settlers of the surface of Venus
will probably be adapted for living on the surface of Jupiter and the other
Jovian giant planets.

(requires supercooled station?)

[t State current theoretical surface temperature of Jupiter)

1,900 YAN
[3900 AD]
682) The population of humans on planet Mars reaches a physical maximum of 500
trillion (500e12) humans.

1,900 YAN
[3900 AD]
4647) Motion of Saturn controlled by orbiting ships.

2,000 YAN
[4000 AD]
4644) The atmosphere of Jupiter is completely removed. This project may have
taken 1000 years to pull in and compress and/or consume all the gases
surrounding Jupiter. This will greatly reduce the surface temperature of
Jupiter which will solidify and be more easily mined. This begins the release
of oxygen and nitrogen at the surface of Jupiter to create an open-air
breathing environment for those living on the surface of Jupiter. Ultimately
all of Jupiter and the other planets will be completely consumed by the
descendents of humans.

2,000 YAN
[4000 AD]
4646) Humans have ships at 10 star systems.
2,000 YAN
[4000 AD]
4648) Motion of Uranus controlled by orbiting ships.

2,100 YAN
[4100 AD]
4649) Motion of Neptune controlled by orbiting ships.

2,100 YAN
[4100 AD]
4650) Consuming and converting atmosphere of Saturn project initiated. This
project will be completed 500 years later. The atmosphere of Saturn will be
replaced with a nitrogen and oxygen atmosphere.

2,200 YAN
[4200 AD]
4651) Rings of Saturn completely consumed by humans living there.
2,200 YAN
[4200 AD]
4652) First planet held in stationary position relative to the star. The motion
of planet Mercury is stopped, and the planet is held in a fixed position
relative to the Sun.

2,200 YAN
[4200 AD]
4653) Project to consume atmosphere of Uranus started. Atmosphere of Uranus
will be completely converted to a nitrogen and oxygen atmosphere. This will
take 400 years to complete.

2,300 YAN
[4300 AD]
4657) Project to consume atmosphere of Neptune started.

2,500 YAN
[4500 AD]
4579) Venus atmosphere like Earth.
2,500 YAN
[4500 AD]
4654) Humans now have ships orbiting 20 different stars. One ship is from
humans of Centauri who extend the exploration to stars too distant for earth.

2,500 YAN
[4500 AD]
4659) Humans land on Saturn.
2,500 YAN
[4500 AD]
4660) Humans land on Uranus.
2,500 YAN
[4500 AD]
4661) Planet Mars held in stationary position.

2,500 YAN
[4500 AD]
4662) The motions of all planets of the Earth star are under complete control
of humans.

2,500 YAN
[4500 AD]
6171) Humans reach the center of the Earth.
2,600 YAN
[4600 AD]
4663) Atmosphere of Saturn consumed.
2,600 YAN
[4600 AD]
4665) Humans land on Neptune.
2,600 YAN
[4600 AD]
5605) Atmosphere of Uranus consumed.
2,700 YAN
[4700 AD]
4666) More humans live on ships than live in and on the surface of planets,
moons or asteroids.

2,700 YAN
[4700 AD]
4667) Atmosphere of Neptune consumed.
2,800 YAN
[4800 AD]
685) Population of planet Venus reaches physical maximum of 1 quadrillion
humans (1e15).

2,800 YAN
[4800 AD]
4669) Jupiter is the most populated planet of the Earth star system, overtaking
earth in number of humans living on and around it.

3,000 YAN
[5000 AD]
679) Population of humans on and in earth reaches a theoretical physical
maximum of 333 quadrillion (333e15) humans.

3,000 YAN
[5000 AD]
4656) Filling the atmosphere of Jupiter with Nitrogen and Oxygen is complete.
This may take 1000 years from the time of completely removal of all the
original gases of Jupiter. The colder temperatures of Jupiter and the 3 other
largest planets cause oxygen and nitrogen to be condense to liquid and solid,
however, the surface of Jupiter produces some heat, and human-made
heat-producing machines can be distributed throughout the planet surface where
humans settle to keep the gases warm enough to stay in gas form. Perhaps the
gases in the atmosphere will be adjusted to retain enough heat to maintain a
certain temperature.

3,000 YAN
[5000 AD]
4668) Humans now have ships orbiting 50 different stars.
3,000 YAN
[5000 AD]
4670) Humans completely control the translational (but not rotational) movement
of the earth star.

(Might humans stop the rotation of the Sun? It seems clear that it would be
possible, by using gravitation to present a countering force.)

3,000 YAN
[5000 AD]
6177) Venus is completely filled with living objects and functions as a ship.
3,100 YAN
[5100 AD]
4664) The air of Uranus is completely converted into an atmosphere of nitrogen
and oxygen.

3,100 YAN
[5100 AD]
4671) Humans capture and decode an image created by advanced living objects
that evolved around a different star. This is the first time humans see images
of advanced living objects that evolved around a different star (presuming the
images contain images of light reflected off the species that transmitted the
image in light particles). It seems unlikely to me that a stream of particles
that either form an image, or encode and image, could be sent very far without
intending to send the particles to be received at very far distances, for
example around other stars. For example, the light we see of the nearest stars,
represents only a tiny fraction of the light emitted from the star. This shows
that a transmitter of particles, would have to be very large to be received
from living objects orbiting a distant star. Because of the value of the
potential information gained, clearly trying to intercept every particle
entering this star system will be and already is an important activity. This
searching for intelligently coded particle beams from living objects of other
stars, is all part of an information gathering process that all advanced life
must participate in. This also involves sending probe ships to all nearby
stars, not only to prospect for potential future homes, but also to see if any
life has evolved around the star, life which may be a potential friend or
enemy. Life of other stars may be looked at with some amount of curiosity and
interest in learning what natural chemical and other scientific secrets have
been unlocked, but also life of other stars will be looked at as an obvious
expense to the finite resources available, even at a galactic scale.

Humans will eventually send probe ships to other stars that capture and send
back closeup images of advanced living objects that evolved around other stars.

3,200 YAN
[5200 AD]
4673) Humans occupy 10 stars in total. The human population is now: x. Humans
now have ships orbiting around 100 different stars.

3,200 YAN
[5200 AD]
6173) Surrounding Neptune with a breathable atmosphere is complete.

3,500 YAN
[5500 AD]
6176) Motion of star controlled. Star of Earth moved in direction of Centauri.
There are enough ships orbiting the star, and popular support to change the
course of the star and move it closer to the stars of Centauri in order to make
moving between the two stars faster and more efficient. Initially humans of the
other stars will not control enough matter to change the motion of their star.
But perhaps after a few thousand years there will be enough ships to
significantly change the motion of their planets and stars.

This begins the forming of the globular cluster humans may build if they are

4,000 YAN
[6000 AD]
4674) Humans of Centauri control the motion of enough matter to change the
direction of the stars of Centauri towards the star of Earth.

The humans of earth have been moving their star closer to Centauri for 500
years. This will make travel, communication and trading of matter between the
two stars faster. The initial goal may be to have all 4 stars under 1 light
year apart from each other.

4,000 YAN
[6000 AD]
4675) Humans touch advanced living objects that evolved around a different
star. Certainly, this will cause a large amount of excitement for the many
billions of organisms of both star systems.

4,500 YAN
[6500 AD]
4676) Humans now control a globular cluster of 4 stars, the star of Earth, and
the 3 stars of Centauri, all within 1 light year apart from each other. Humans
occupy around 50 stars. In addition humans have ships orbiting 500 different

9,000 YAN
[11000 AD]
4680) Genetic engineering may produce humans that do not need to eat but get
starch from photosynthesis like plants.

10,000 YAN
[12000 AD]
4681) Genetic engineering may remove the requirement of humans to urinate and

11,000 YAN
[13000 AD]
4682) Genetic engineering may produce humans that may not need oxygen. Perhaps
particles from stars produce the necessary chemicals and reactions, like
oxygen, hydrogen, etc.

12,000 YAN
[14000 AD]
4683) By this time our descendants may look extremely different from humans on
earth now. For example, our descendants may be intelligent spherical blobs with
various extensions (like arms and hands sex/pleasure organs), or perhaps they
will retain a rigid, muscular form, but vastly different in shape and size.
(Note: it seems likely that this change might not happen this quickly - clearly
primates have evolved over millions of years - and those features are very
similar - but it could be this fast because the change in surroundings is so

15,000 YAN
[17000 AD]
678) Earth population reaches 1 trillion.
25,000 YAN
[27000 AD]
4677) Life of earth occupies and controls a globular cluster of 10 stars, and
inhabits around 100 other stars. Humans have ships orbiting 1000 different
stars. Human population is now: x.

45,000 YAN
[47000 AD]
4679) Life of earth occupies and controls a globular cluster of 100 stars,
inhabits around 1000 other stars, and has ships orbiting about 5000 other
stars. Human population is now: x.

50,000 YAN
[52000 AD]
4658) All asteroids are consumed.
55,000 YAN
[57000 AD]
4672) Planet Mercury completely filled with living objects.
60,000 YAN
[62000 AD]
6175) Mars is filled with living objects.
65,000 YAN
[67000 AD]
6174) Earth is completely filled with living objects.

There is no more molten material inside the Earth. All the molten compressed
matter was extracted, cooled and consumed as building materials, fuel, food,
etc. Earth is completely filled with tunnels, rooms, and living objects.

Alternatively, life may live in orbiting ships, and the Earth is either
evacuated and the molten surface cooled and consumed, or broken into pieces and

70,000 YAN
[72000 AD]
4684) Life of earth occupies and controls a globular cluster of 1,000 stars,
inhabits 10,000 other stars, and has ships orbiting around 100,000 stars. The
human population is now: x.

90,000 YAN
[92000 AD]
6210) The human-made globular cluster of 10,000 stars leaves the plane of the
Milky Way Galaxy.

Human population is now: x.

100,000 YAN
4678) All planets of the Star of Earth have been used to make more living
objects, fuel and food, all that remains are ships that orbit the Sun and
capture the particles the Sun emits to use for fuel, food, building material,
etc. The inside matter of planets has been completely utilized while humans
still lived on the surface, because otherwise, it is precious matter that would
have gone unused. Most of this extracting of matter occurs on the earth
surface. Massive holes are dug into the Earth that extend deep into the inner
Earth. Two-leg robots (and perhaps some humans) populate and worked deep inside
the earth and the other planets moving inner material to the surface.

This is a long steady-state of living objects around stars - to be in ships,
the planets and original matter completely consumed. in this state they get
light from the Sun, but mostly they must bring back matter from other stars.
Probably ships and living objects are recycled and improved, sot here is
probably some matter that is available from waste, etc.

130,000 YAN
100) The star of Earth is consumed.
185,000 YAN
6178) All planets of Sirius consumed.
205,000 YAN
6317) Sirius consumed.
630,000 YAN
106) Ten to the power 100 humans.
100,000,000 YAN
4685) All stars in the Milky Way Galaxy belong to a globular cluster.
20,000,000,000 YAN
4686) The Milky Way Galaxy is now a globular galaxy. No blue dust clouds
remain, and all stars are inhabited yellow stars. It may be that the life of
the Milky Way, then will position itself around each star to harvest every last
light particle. If true, the external appearance of the Milky way would then
appear to be a large radio source, blocking all light behind it. It seems very
unlikely to me that all light particles could be held in some volume of space.
Globular clusters start to pull in to center of galaxy. (show evidence for this
in images of galaxies). So there is a strong argument that, even though it
seems too fast, the entire Milky Way galaxy may be a globular galaxy in less 1
billion years from now, because it simply does not take long to get to other
stars (under 1000 years), and the parallel growth of exploration that must
occur for living objects that can reach other stars.

Humans may chose to feed the Earth star and other stars under they ownership,
or simply use the mass of the stars completely for food, fuel, building
materials, etc. The globular clusters may feed their stars, or may consume
stars completely. Perhaps they use the matter of large blue stars to reduce
their size to yellow stars, and then consistently feed a yellow star to keep
it's mass constant. It seems more likely that it would take much less effort to
simply consume stars completely. New stars would then need to be acquired. But
yet, the fact remains that there are very few red stars in globular clusters
(verify), so this implies that stars are fed and kept at a constant mass. But
to feed a star, mass needs to be acquired, and probably more mass than is
emitted from surrounding stars, although light particles from all the stars in
a globular cluster must slow the loss of mass of the stars of the cluster.
Perhaps the red stars are simply too dim to see. By examining stars of globular
clusters over long periods of time, humans will be able to see clearly if their
mass does decrease.

Estimating the time to colonize all the stars of the Milky Way Galaxy is
difficult. If we presume that the number of stars colonized grows at 1% every
billion years, for 500 billion stars, using the equation
NumberOfStarsColonized=RateOfColonization^Years with 500e9=1.000000001^20e9.
Twenty billion years would pass before 500 billion stars are colonized. But if
you imagine that it only takes living objects 1000 years to reach another star,
which seems to be too long a time, and presuming a group of living objects goes
to one star, and from there two stars, doubling each time, to colonize 500
billion stars would only take (doubling every 1000 years) 500e9=2^(years/1000)
= 39 thousand years. Even if you take the velocity of the Voyager ship which
will take 70,000 years to go 4 light years to another star, for us to reach 500
billion stars, would only take 500e9=2^(years/70000) under 3 million years. If
humans take 1000 years to go to one star at a time,colonizing 500 billion stars
would simply take 500e9 x 1000 years, 500 trillion years, but because the
exploration occurs in parallel, humans colonize other stars, which then branch
out to colonize other more distant stars in parallel, it is this parallel and
exponential exploration that greatly speeds the colonization of stars.

30,000,000,000 YAN
4687) The Milky Way Globular Galaxy integrates the matter of the Magellanic
Cloud Galaxies becoming about twice as large as the original size of the Milky
Way globular galaxy.

40,000,000,000 YAN
4688) The Milky Way and Andromeda Globular Galaxies join.

The Andromeda Galaxy and Milky Way collide and start the process of joining
together to form a single galaxy which is twice the size of the original Milky
Way globular galaxy. The Milky Way will then continue its exploration, picking
other galaxies to move to, moving to those other galaxies, integrating the
matter of those galaxies into the Milky Way and continuing on to the next
galaxy. Interestingly, this process may be a kind of massively large scale,
"chase and be chased" or "hunt and be hunted" kind of occurrence, as the Milky
Way will seek galaxies that are weaker, while trying to out run galaxies that
are stronger than itself. It may be that a galaxy may initially think that they
can control the living objects of another galaxy, only to find that they are
evenly or even out matched, and lose resources to the other galaxy. Either way,
there is probably always a certain amount of equality because of the similar
nature of evolution of life in any galaxy. All organisms would probably all be
somewhat evenly matched - the major differences perhaps being one only of size
and quantity of organisms.

"Universe, Life, Science, Future" is published under the GNU license, except where otherwise indicated or determined to be fair use, copyrighted, public domain, CC, GDFL or other license.
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